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^ ESP A k i 

1 ^ EficaJa d£? iííH 

-"^ r Til 

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/ HaRVARü ' 




The method of Gaspey-Otto-Sauer is my own private property, 
having been acquired by parchase from the authors. The text-books made 
after this method are incessantly improved. All rights, especially the 
right of making new editions, and the right of translation for all languages, 
are reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impressions will be prosecuted 
according to law. I am thankful for any communications relating to these 


«Trillus Oro OS* 

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Preface to the First Edition. 

The so-called Conversation method, uniting at once 
theory and practice, has met with the greatest success 
in Germany as well as in England, America, and France. 
Hitherto, more than twelve grammars, based on this 
method, have been published, and some of them, m>. — 
the ^^Englische Conversations-GrammatiJc" by Dr. Gaspey, 
the ^'Franeosische Conversations-GrammatiJc," and the 
^^German Conversation-Grammar" by Dr. Emil Otto — 
have passed through 14 double editions, a result which 
plainly shows the value of the new method. My Italian 
Grammars, for English, French, and German pupils, 
have likewise been successful, and my new Spanish 
Grammar for Germans was so well received both by 
the critic and the public, that I have ventured to 
produce a Spanish Grammar for the use of English 

Without entering into particulars as to the method, 
which is sufficiently known in England and America, 
I beg leave to state, that this book is no translation of 
my Spanish Grammar for Germans, but a work adapted 
to the genius of the English language. The gramma- 
tical part is based on the best German works hitherto 
published on the ^^Grammaire espagnole" by Gildo, the 
"Gramática castellana" by D. Giró y Boma, Valencia 
1852, and on the 12th edition of the excellent Grammar 
by D. Andres Bello, Madrid 1878. Besides these works. 

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IV Preface. 

Salva has been carefully consulted. The Reading Exer- 
cises of the Second Part were selected from specimens 
of' the best Spanish authors given in the collection of 
FigueraSy Barcelona 1857. 

The arrangement of the grammatical materials is 
the same as in the other Conversation-Grammars. The 
alphabetical register of the irregular verbs has been 
placed at the end of the Second Part, as the pupil might 
easily be misled were it to follow the First Part, which 
is succeeded by an alphabetical hst of the verbs with 
double participles. 

Finally, I have to return my best thanks to 
Dr. Gaspey, who kindly revised the English text, and 
to Dr. von Frantzius, who attended to the Spanish. 


C. M. Sauer. 

Preface to the Present Edition. 

The publication of the present volume is due to 
the wish of the well-known firm Jalins Groos to pro- 
vide a Spanish Grammar which should satisfy the 
growing requirements of the student of modern lan- 

It is a revised Edition of the excellent Spanish 
Oonyersation-Grammar by Charles Marquard Sauer, 
into which many alterations and modifications have 
been introduced. The principal changes which may be 
noted are as follows: 

In Part I: Lesson 6th. Classification and Tabu- 
lation of the Augmentatives and Diminutives. 

Lesson 15th. Distinction between Possessive Ad- 
jectives and Possessive Pronouns. 

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Preface. V 

Lessons 19 th. Fuller treatment of the theory go- 
verning the Position of the Adjective. 

Lesson 22 nd. Detailed explanation of the Euphonic 
basis of the apparent irregularities in certain verbs. 

Lesson 27 th. Discussion of the proper application 
of the Spanish Passive Voice, and of the restrictions 
to be observed in employing it. 

Lessons 35 th to 40 th. Recasting of the classification 
of the Irregular Verbs. 

Lesson 41st. A new section upon the Present 

In Part II: Introductory chapter. Insertion of 
the grammatical rules on accentuation laid down by 
the Spanish Academy. 

Lesson 3rd. Treatment of ^^o'' and of the Article 
in idiomatic phrases. 

Lesson 5 th. The use of the degrees of comparison 
in association with Verbs and Adverbs. 

These are the most important innovations, but it 
should be pointed out that the entire scheme of the 
explanatory exposition has been co-ordinated and revised, 
and that the Exercises and Translations have been 
correspondingly altered and enlarged. 

Further, a large amount of new material has been 
introduced into the Reading Exercises in order to give 
the student a glimpse into the geography, the history, 
and the manners and customs of Spain and South 

Some characteristic specimens of poetry and prose 
illustrative of the literature of the country, especially 
in its modern phases, are given both in the body of 
the work and in the two special chapters with which 
it concludes. 

It has seemed unnecessary in the present Edition 
to add a Vocabulary to the second as well as to the 

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VI Preface. 

first Part. The student who has mastered the contents 
of the Grammar ought to be in a position to reap the 
advantages which may be obtained by consulting a 
complete dictionary. With regard to the use of the 
Vocabularies of Part I., inserted at the end of the 
volume, it should be observed that each irregular verb 
is accompanied by a reference to the page on which it 
is conjugated, and that the interpretation assigned to 
each word has been necessarily limited to the meaning 
or meanings in which it is found in the Beading 
Exercises or Traducciones. 

Taylor Institution, Oxford, Sept. 30th, 1903. 

Fernando de Arteaga y Pereira. 

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First Part. 


Phonology. — The Alphabet 1 

The Alphabet 1 

Pronunciation 2 

General Remarks on the Accent 5 

Capital Letters 5 

Separation of Words 6 

On the Signs of Punctuation 7 

1. Lesson. Lección primera. The Article 8 

2. » Lección segunda. The Plural of Substantives . 11 

3. » Lección tercera. The Substantives in connection 

with the Prepositions 14 

4. » Lección cuarta. Prepositions 19 

5. » Lección quinta. The Substantive without the 

Article 23 

6. » Lección sexta. Augmentatives and Diminutives 26 

7. » Lección séptima. Proper Names 28 

8. » Lección octava. The Auxiliary Verb Jffaber, 

to have • 32 

9. » Lección novena. Tener^ to have^ to hold . . 35 

10. » Lección diez. Exercises 37 

11. » Lección once. The Auxiliary Verb Ser, to be 40 

12. » Lección doce. Estar ^ to be 43 

13. » Lección trece. Exercises 45 

14. » Lección catorce. Determinative Adjectives . . 48 

1. Demonstrative Adjectives 48 

2. Interrogative Adjectives 49 

15. » Lección quince. Possessives 51 

1. Possessive Adjectives 52 

2. Possessive Pronouns 55 

16. » Lección dieciséis. Numerals 56 

1. Cardinal Numbers 56 

17. » Lección diecisiete. Numerals 62 

2. Ordinal Numbers. — Fractionals. — Mul- 

tiplicatives 62 

18. » Lección dieciocho. Numerals 67 

3. Indefinite Numerals 67 

19. » Lección diecinueve. The Adjective 71 

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VIII Contents. 


20. Lesson* Lección veinte. Degrees of Comparison ... 77 

21. » Lección veintiuna. The Regular Verb .... 82 

Reading Exercise: — Geografia de España . 90 

22. » Lección veintidós. Euphonic Changes in Certain 

Verbs 91 

Reading Exercise:— Cantares 94 

23. » Lección veintitrés. Personal Pronouns .... 94 

Reading Exercise : — (rco^ra/ta de España 

(Continuación) 97 

24. » Lección veinticuatro. Conjunctive Personal 

Pronouns 98 

Reading Exercise:— Cantare» 104 

25. » Lección veinticinco. Demonstrative and Inter- 

rogative Pronouns 104 

Reading Exercise: — Geografia de España 

(Continuación) 107 

26. » Lección veintiséis. Possessive and Relative Pro- 

nouns 108 

Reading Exercise : — Cantares 112 

27. » Lección veintisiete. The Passive Voice .... 112 

Neuter Verbs 116 

Reading Exercise:— (reo^ra/ía de España 

(Continuación) 119 

28. » Lección veintiocho. Pronominal or Reflective 

Verbs 119 

Reading Exercise:— ios Padres y los Hijos 124 

29. » Lección veintinueve. Impersonal Verbs .... 125 

Reading Exercise: — G^eo^rra/ta de España 

(Conclusión) 128 

30. » Lección treinta. Adverbs 129 

Reading Exercise:— Xos Hijos y los Padres 133 

31. » Lección treinta y una. The Adverbs continued 133 

Reading Exercise: — La Opinion 139 

32. » Lección treinta y dos. Prepositions 139 

Reading Exercise: — El traidor despreciado . 142 

33. » Lección treinta y tres. Conjunctions 142 

Reading Exercise:- Canción de la Primavera 145 

34. » Lección treinta y cuatro. Interjections .... 146 

Reading Exercise:— í^sjoa^a. — Diversidad 

de lenguas 146 

35. » Lección treinta y cinco, The Irregular Verbs . 147 

First Class. Models: alentar, encender , 

adquirir 148 

Reading Exercise: — España. — Diversidad 

de costumbres 153 

36. » Lección treinta y seis. The Irregular Verbs 

continued 1^3 

Second Class. Models: acordar, morder, 

Jugar 1-53 

Reading Exercise: — Al caer de la tarde . . 158 

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Contents. IX 


37. Lesson. Lección treinta y siete. The Irregular Verbs 

continued 159 

Third Class. Models: nacer ^ crecer, co- 
nocer, lucir 159 

conducir 160 

Fourth Class. Model: pedir 163 

Heading Exercise: — Diversidad de las Pro- 
vincias de España 166 

38. » Lección treinta y ocho. The Irregular Verbs 

continued 166 

Fifth Class. Model: sentir 167 

Sixth Class. Models: huir, argüir , . . 168 
Reading Exercise: — Diversidad de las Pro- 
vincias de España (Continuación) ... 171 

39. » Ljccción treinta y nueve. Verbs entirely irregu- 

lar or with irregularities otherwise not 

classified 172 

Models: andar j asir, caber 172 

caer, oir, dar, decir 173 

Reading Exercise: — Diversidad de las Pro- 
vincias de España (Continuación) . . . 176 

40. » Lección cuarenta. The entirely irregular Verbs 

continued 176 

Models: dormir 176 

hacer, ir, morir, poder .... 177 

poner, podrir, querer . . . . 178 

saber, salir, valer, traer ... 179 

venir, ver 180 

Reading Exercise: — Diversidad de las Pro- 
vincias de España (Continuación) ... 182 

41. » Lección cuarenta y una. The Participle ... 183 

Present Participle 183 

Past Participle 187 

Alphabetical List of the Verbs with Double 

Participles 188 

Alphabetical List of the Defective Verbs . 192 
Reading Exercise:— Diversidad de las Pro- 
vincias de Es paña XConclusión) 193 

Second Part. 

Orthography, Accentuation, Punctuation 195 

Orthography 195 

Accentuation 199 

The Signs of Punctuation 202 

1. Lesson* The Gender of Substantives 204 

Reading Exercise: — Descubrimiento de América 214 

2. » The Plural of Substantives 215 

Reading Exercise:— Descripción del Pais wie- 

jicano . . . • 219 

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X Contents. 


3. Lesson* Use of the Article 220 

Reading Exercise:— Descripción de la Ciudad 
de Méjico 232 

4. » Possessives 232 

Heading Exercise:— Descripción de la Plaza 
del Mercado de Méjico 236 

5. » Degrees of Comparison with Verbs and Adverbs 237 

Heading Exercise : — De las Biquezas del Perú 243 

6. » Numerals 243 

Indefinite Numerals 245 

Heading Exercise: — De algunas Costumbres 
de los Incas 251 

7. » Pronouns. — Personal Pronouns * 252 

Heading Exercise: — De algunas Costumbres 
de los Incas (Continuación) 255 

8. » Demonstratives. — Interrogative Pronouns . . 256 

Demonstratives 256 

Interrogative Pronouns 259 

Heading Exercise :—^ranííe;?a y Decadencia 

de España 261 

9. » Possessive and Helative Pronouns 262 

Heading Exercise: — Grandeza y Decadencia 
de España (Continuación) 268 

10. » Adverbs. — Their Position. — Affirmations 

and Negations 269 

Peculiarities of certain adverbs 269 

Position of the Adverbs 271 

Affirmations and Negations 271 

Heading Exercise: — Grandeza y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 274 

11. » Prepositions. — Proper Prepositions (á, de, 

en, con) 275 

Heading Exercise:— C?raw(íc;2:a y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 282 

12. » The Prepositions continued (por, para) . . 282 

Heading EyLetcise:— Grandeza y Decadencia 
de España (Continuación) 288 

13. » Prepositions. — Conclusion (ante, contra^ 

desde, entre, Jiácia, hasta, según, 

sin, só, sobre, tra^) 289 

Improper Prepositions 291 

Heading Exercise:— Grandeza y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 294 

14. » Use of Conjunctions 295 

Connective Conjunctions 295 

Disjunctive Coni unctions 296 

Adversative Conjunctions 296 

Conditional Conjunctions 298 

Causal and Final Conjunctions 300 

Subordinative Conjunctions 302 

Heading Exercise:— 6r ran cierra y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 304 

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15. Lesson. The Object of the Verb. — The Direct Object 305 

Readmg Exerciae :— Grandeza y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 310 

16. » Remarks on the Spanish Passive Voice and 

on some Spanish and English Verbs . . 311 
Reading Exerci&Q:— Grandeza y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 317 

17. » Peculiarities of some Spanish Verbs 317 

Reading Exercise:— GVande^ra y Decadencia 

de España (Continuación) 324 

18. » The Moods 325 

The Indicative Mood 325 

The Subjunctive Mood 325 

The Imperative Mood 828 

Reading Exercise:— G'rand^áf a y Decadencia 

de España (Conclusión) 329 

19. » The Use of the Tenses. — Sequence of Tenses 330 

Use of the Tenses of the Indicative . . . 330 

Reading Exercise: La Farsa de Avila . . . 336 

20. » The Use of the Tenses. — Sequence of Tenses 337 

The Tenses of the Indicative 337 

The Tenses of the Subjunctive 338 

Sequence of Tenses ^ 338 

Reading Exercise: — A Don Pedro Fernandez 

de Castro 344 

21. » The Infinitive Mood 345 

The Absolute Infinitive 345 

The Dependent Infinitive 346 

Reading Exercise : —Lope Félix de Vega Carpió 350 

22. » The Infinitive (Conclusión) 351 

The Infinitive taking the place of an accessory 

sentence 351 

Reading Exercise:— Bcíraí o del Duque de 

Wellington. ... • 353 

23. » The Gerund 354 

Reading Exercise: — Facia 359 

24. » The Past Participle . . . . ' 360 

Reading Exercise:— (Jarías de mi Sobrino . 367 

JPúes€€í8. Oda Moral (Fray Luis de León) 368 

Epístola Moral (Francisco de Bioja) 370 

El Silencio (Ventura Buiz Aguilera) 375 

La Duda (Gaspar Nuñez de Arce) 878 

Consuelo Celestial (Argensola) 384 

^osa* Armas y Letras (Miguel de Cervantes) .... 385 

El Castellano Viejo (Mariano José de Jjarra) . 389 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs 398 

Spanish-English Vocabulary 408 

English-Spanish Vocabulary 417 

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Phonology. — The Alphabet. 
(Fonología. — El alfabeto.) 

§ 1. The Alphabet. 

The Spanish Alphabet consists of 28 letters (rr 
not included), which are as follows: 


Name. Pronunciation. 

A, a, 

áh as 




B, b, 




C, c, 

theh » 



Ch, ch, 

tcheh » 



D, d, 

déh » 



E, e, 




F, f, 

éffeh > 



G, g, 

héh (guttural > 
sound, see § 2) 



H, h, 

áhtchéh (is si- 

I, i, 

ee » 



J, j, 

hohtah (gut- » 
tural sound). 



K, k, 




L, 1, 




LI, 11, 

ellieh » 



M, m, 

emmeh » 



N, n, 

énneh » 



% ñ. 

ennieh » 



Spanish Cony.-Qrammar. 



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Phonology. — The Alphabet. 

oh as 








ee greeébgab 
[Greek ee] 

Z, z, tbébta » tb > thanks. 

N.B, — Of these letters a, e, i (y), o, u, are vowels, the 
others are consonants. K as well as W (doble v) occur only 
in a few foreign words, as Franklin , kilogramo, kilogram, 
Mámetro, kilometre, Westminster. 

§ 2. Pronunciation, — Pronunciación. 

The pronunciation of the Spanish letters, as given 
above, is the nearest possible to the true Castilian one» 
but should be acquired viva voce from a native. 

The following are some remarks in connection 
with the special pronunciation of certain letters — i.e. : 

Towels. — Vocales, 
a is silent in the combinations gt^e, gui, que, qui; 

g in such cases losing its harsh, guttural sound: 
guerra^ war. queso, cheese. 

guitarra, guitar. química, chemistry. 
a after g, if not silent, requires a diaeresis: 
zaragüelles (Valentian) breeches. 
argüir, to argue. 
y by itself sounds like Spanish i (EngUsh e) ; before a 
vowel it is pronounced as y in year, año, you, 
usted; and at the end of a syllable forms a 
diphthong and sounds as y in hay, heno; boy, 

y, and. ya, already. hay, there is. 
^y^^j yesterday, hoy, to- day. 
.^. J?.— Though in no case is any diflFerence implied in 
regard to the quality of the vowel, Spanish vowels are short 

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Phonology. — The Alphabet. 3 

and passed over slightly, when not receiving any special 
stress or accent, such as o in hablo, I speak; long and pro- 
nounced with a pause and a depression of the voice when 
receiving — anywhere but at the end of a word — either 
the tonic or the written accent, as ó in hahldleSy he spoke 
to them; and acute and pronounced with a long pause and 
a raising of the voice when receiving either the tonic or the 
written accent at the end of a word, as ó in habló, he 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs. — Diptongos y 

* Diphthongs are formed by the juxtaposition of two 
vowels {ae, ao, oa excepted). They are sounded as 
one syllable, and are indivisible in writing. Strong 
diphthongs (a) begin by a, e, o; weak diphthongs 
(b) with i, u; final i becomes y: 

(a) aire, air. seis, six. oigo, I hear. 
hay, there is. ley^ law. doy, I give. 
causa, cause. Ceuta, Ceuta. 

(b) gloria, glory. yegua, mare. 
cielo, sky. fuerm, strength. 
accionar, to act. muy, very. 

^.jB.— Weak diphthongs may have their last vowel 
accented, which strong diphthongs may not: 

dio, he gave. cai fno diphthong), I fell. 

pié, foot. rei ^ » I laughed. 

fui, I went. oí > » I heard. 

Triphthongs are formed by the juxtaposition of 
three vowels i,e,, i, u of the weak diphthongs pre- 
ceding strong diphthongs ai, ei, which may then be 

despreciáis, you despised. averigüéis, you may ascertain. 

agraviéis, you may ofFend. buey, ox. 

averiguáis, you ascertain. 

General Remark. The above combinations of 
vowels, however, do not always form a diphthong or 
triphthong, as may be seen by the following examples: 

pais, country. lei, I read. 

aunar, to unity. oí, I heard. 

tia, aunt. hiiir, to fly away. 

tio, uncle. acentúe, that I accentuate. 

fié, I confided. 


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4 Phonology. — The Alphabet. 

averiguaríais, that you would ascertain. 
confiéis, that you may confide. 
continuéis, that you may continue. 

Consonants. — Consonantes. 

c acquires the hard sound of h before a, o, w, or 
a consonant, or at the end of a word: 
casa, house. actor, actor. 

cosa, thing. criado, servant. 

cuerda, rope. frac, evening-dress coat. 

N,B.—c is only doubled in such words as acción, action, 
lección, lesson (i.e., in the Latin combinations -dio), 

d is omitted in conversation in endings ado: 

un soldao (i.e., soldado), a soldier. 

están casaos (i.e., casados), they are married. 

g acquires the English sound of g in gall, gulf, 
guide before Oj o, u, ue, uij He, Hi, or a consonant, 
or at the end of a word: 

gato, cat. zaragüelles, breeches. 

digo, I say. argüir, to argue. 

gusano, worm. grano, grain. 

guerra, war. digno, worthy. 

águila, eagle. tagalog, Tagalog. 

q is only found in the combinations que, qui: 
buque, ship. quilla, keel. 

r is pronounced smoothly between two vowels, 
stronger in the combinations br, pr, cr, gr, dr, tr^ 
and at the end of words. At the beginning of words, 
as well as before consonants and after I9 n, 8, it has 
a trilling sound: 

héroe, hero. brazo, arm. retó, watch. 

hora, hour. prisa, hurry. razón, reason. 

crisis, crisis. hierba, grass. 

grano, grain. carta, letter. 

cuadro, picture. Ulrico, Ulric. 

otra, other. honradez, honesty. 

leer, to read. Israel, Israel. 

N.JB.—r is only doubled (rr) between two vowels when- 
ever not the smooth, but the trilling sound is to be produced: 
perro, dog. guerra, war. 

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Phonology. — The Alphabet. 5 

§ 3. General Remarks on the Accent. — Obser- 
vaciones generales sobre el acento. 

(See Second Part, § 3.) 

Preliminary Remark. — The accentuation of Spanish 
words is always a pronotmced one; whilst, e.g. y in French 
the various syllables of the same word have almost a 
uniform accentuation, Spanish has (like English and 
German) one syllable which is the principal bearer of 
the accent. 

EuJe 1. Words terminating in vowels, also in w, 5, 
have the stress on the penultimate syllable, as: alguno^ 
accented: alguno; Granada, accented: Granada; continuo, 
accented: continuo. 

Bule 2. Words ending in consmants — n and $ 
excepted — or in j/ have the stress on the last syllable, 
as: reloj, accented: reloj; señor, accented: señor; ley, 
accented: ley. 

Bule S. Diphthongs ia, ie, to, also endings gua, 
güe, guo; cua, cue, cuo are always supposed to form one 
syllable; the stress, therefore, is \^A on \he penultimate^ 
thus: India, accented: india; nadie, accented: nadie; 
imperio, accented: imperio. 

An exception to Rule 3 is presented when the 
diphthong disappears, as in the verlal terminations in 
ia, as: tenia, tendría, and in other cases — i.e,: 
alegría, joy. frio, cold. 

continúo, I continue. 

Bule 4. Any deviation from the above general rules 
is indicated by the wHtten accent. Thus: Sócrates, 
Jesús, según, amé, etc. This accent is a sure guide to 
pronunciation. See further Part II., The Accent. 

§ 4. Capital Letters. — Letras mayúsculas. 

In general these are used as in EngUsh; but the 
names of the months and days of the weeks, substan- 
tives and adjectives denoting nationality, etc., and the 
personal pronoun 1, yo, are written in small letters: 

el domingo, Sunday. tm inglés, an Englishman. 

julio, July. él y yo, he and I. 

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6 Phonology. — The Alphabet. 

§ 5. The Separation of Words. — División de 

1. A simple consonant between two vowels always 
begins a syllable. Thus: 

a-legre; a-nU-go, etc. 

Note, — Ch, II, ñ are considered to be simple consonants, 
and are thus subject to the preceding rule. Thus: 
pU'Chero; mti-ñeca; o-Ua; ca-Uar, 

2. If two consonants (rr excepted) come between 
two vowels, the first of these consonants closes the 
preceding syllable, and the second begins the following. 

pe^rro ; en^nohlecer ; ac-cidente ; aletar-gar ; adrhcrir, etc.* 

On the contrary, I and r, if preceded by another 

consonant (i.e., combinations like hi, br, cl, cr, pi, pr), 

are always given to the following syllable. Hence the 

separations are as follows: 

a-prieto; Jia-blar; a-clamación; enno-blecer, etc. 
N,B, —Exceptions : 

(a) Those combinations where 8 precedes Z or r, as: 
Í9~la; Is^aelj etc. 

(b) The combination tl in words beginning with at, as: 

at-leta; at-lante, etc. 

3. Compound substantives do not follow the above 
rules. They should always be separated conformably to 
their components. Thus, desacordar is not separated desa- 
cordar but des-acordar, because acordar is the main 
component, whereas des is only a prefix, like the Eng- 
lish mis in misconception or dis in distrust. Further 
examples: ab-rogar (from rogar); a-delante (from delante); 
sub-arriendo (fr. arrendar). 

As, however, no word nor syllable may begin with 
s followed by another consonant, we are obliged to 
separate, in spite of etymology: ins-pirar; cos-tar; 

* H, though mute, is in such a case considered as a con- 

** The Spanish language avoids so carefully at the beginning 
<of a word or a syllable combinations of s followed by another 
•consonant, that an e is invariably prefixed to st, sp, etc., in order 
to render the pronunciation feasible. Thus: espíritu (from the 
Latin spiritus), especie (from species), esfera (from sphara), etc. 

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Phonology. — The Alphabet. 7 

NoU, — With a great many words, that were originally 
compounds, this fact has in course of time been lost sight 
of. These words now follow the general rules. Thus, sHát 
is not separated etymologically sfiHy-ir, but SfUrbir\ peregrino 
is separated pe-^egrino; inicml = i-nicial; abtmdar = «- 
hundar, etc. 

4. If three consonants meet, the last of them, I and 
r excepted, belongs to the following syllable. Thus: 
inspirar; pers-^icaz; cons-tar. 

§ 6. On the Signs of Punctuation. — De los 
signos de puntuación. 

1. The accent ('). The Spanish language has only 
the acute accent, which is used if the stress is laid on 
any other syllable than the general rules of prosody 
would lead one to expect; thus: búscamelo, últimamente, 
óptimo, pésimo, etc. ; or to distinguish words having the 
same sound, as el (the) and él (he), tu (thy) and tú 
(thou), etc. 

2. The so-called tilde (~). This sign, peculiar to 
the Spanish language, is placed over the n in order to 
indicate that its pronunciation is not enne, but ennyey. 
(See the pronunciation of n and ñ) 

3. The crema () denotes that the vowel u above 
which it is placed is not mute, according to the rule 
stated in § 2, but must be sounded; thus: averigüéis, 
pron. avéree-goo ey-is; argüir, pron. ar-goo-ir; vergüenza, 
pron. ver-gooen-tha. 

4. The signs of punctuation (los signos de puntua- 
ción) are: the comma (,) (la cofna), semi-colon (;) (punto 
y coma), colon (:) (dos puntos), period (.) (d punto final), 
hyphen (-) (él guión), sign of interrogation (él interro- 
gante, signo de interrogación) (¿) which is placed first 
and (?) which is placed last; sign of exclamation (la ad- 
miración, el signo de admiración) written (i) at the be^ 
ginning and (!) at the end. 

The apostrophe is unknown in Spanish. 

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First Lesson. — Lección primera. 

The Article. — El artículo. 

The Article indicates the gender of substantives. 
The Spanish language has two genders— i;e>., the mas- 
online and the feminine. 

There are two articles in Spanish as in English: 
the definite and the indefinite. 

The definite article for masculine substantives is elj 
for feminine substantives la. 

Examples: el padre, the father; la madre, the 
mother; el hijo, the son; la hija, the daughter; el sol- 
etado, the soldier; la abeja, the bee. 

Note,— A neuter gender, as, in German or Latin, does not 
exist in Spanish. If, however, an adjective, pronoun, or 
numeral is used as a substantive in a general sense, as: the 
good, the evil, (the) mine and thine, etc., where neither a per- 
son nor a thing, but the abstract idea is meant, the neuter 
article lo is used. This article has, of course, no plural. 

Examples: lo malo, the evil; lo hermoso, the beautiful j 
lo mio, mine (i.e., my property); lo tuyo, thine, etc. 

But: el mio, mine (i.e., brother, friend, etc.); el tuyo, 
thine {i.e., dog, etc.). 

Yet we must observe that whenever the meaning is not 
quite abstract, the article el should be used. Thus, el mal 
means a bad thing, while lo malo means the evil, in the ab- 
stract sense ; el bien is a good thing, something good, whereas 
lo bueno means the good in general. 

The indefinite article for masculine substantives is 
nn^ for feminine una. Their plurals unos^ unas^ mean 
several, any, some, a few, etc. 

Examples: \m padre, a father; una, madre, a mother; 
unos animales, some animals; anas iglesias, some 

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The Article. 9 

Note,— Ab we stated in § 6, there is no apostrophe in 
Spanish. Therefore the final vowel of the article is never 
apostrophised as in French or Italian. The only change which 
the article undergoes for the sake of euphony is the following: 

JÍMÍe.— Before feminine substantives in the singular, 
beginning with a or ha, accented on the first syllable, 
la is replaced by el, and una by un. Thus; el are, 
the bird (for la ave); el agua, the water (for la agua); 
el alma^ the soul (for la alma); un águila, an eagle; 
un harpa, a harp. This rule holds good only in the 
singular, or when the word is not preceded by an ad- 
jective. Thus, las águilas, the eagles; una Mmida ave, 
a timid bird. 

If, however, the stress is laid on any other syllable 
than the first, the feminine article is used, as: la abeja, 
the bee; una amiga, a friend (f.). 

j In the following list of words the genders are indicated 
by I», (mase.) and /*. (fem.). 


Padre, father. ave f., \ b" d 

madre, mother. pájaro m., / ^^ ' 

niño m., child. amigo m., friend. 

libro m., book. hermano, brother. 

balcón m., balcony. tía, aunt. 

caballo m., horse. puerta f., door. 

espejo m., looking-glass. pan m., bread. 

sombrero m., hat. pluma f., pen. 

árbol m., tree. portero m., porter. 

cetro m., sceptre. rey, king. 

perro m., dog. mwa, queen. 

rejilla f., \ ^ ^¿^^ ¿qué? what? 

ventanillo m., / ^ °* ¿quien? who? 

vestido m., dress. no, no. 

huerto m., orchard. si, yes. 

jardín m., garden. mi, my. 

casa {., house. en, in. 

flor f., flower. y, and. 

fusil m., gun. en España, in Spain. 

8. yo tengo, I have.* P. noso/ros(^-as>¿cwei»os, we have. 

tú tienes, thou hast. vosotros (-as) tenéis, you have. 

él tiene, he has. ellos tienen, they have (m.). 

ella tiene, she has. eZZas tienen, they have (f.). 

* If the verb **to have" is not an auxiliary— i.e., used with 
a past part., as : I have loved, we shall have found— but a prin- 

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10 Lesson 1. 

Beadlngr Exercise. 1. 

La casa tiene un balcón, y la puerta tiene un ven- 
tanillo. La casa tiene portero, pero no tiene jardín. Tiene* 
una casa. En España una casa tiene portero. — ¿Quién 
tiene el libro? Yo tengo el libro. Tú tienes un libro. ¿Tienes 
tú un libro**? Él tiene un espejo. Mi padre tiene una casa. 
Mi madre tiene el pan. El nifio tiene el espejo. El nifto 
tiene un espejo. Mi tía tiene una casa. Mi hermano tiene 
un perro. El rey tiene un cetro. Nosotros tenemos una flor 
en el jardín. ¿ Tenéis vosotros huerto ? Si, tenemos un huerto 
y un árbol en el huerto. ¿Tenéis vosotros una flor? Yo 
tengo el vestido. ¿ Tiene ella un vestido ? Ella tiene un perro. 
El nifio tiene un hermano y una tía. El rey tiene un águila. 
Traducción, 2. 
I have the book. I have a book. Thou*** hast the 
dress. Hast thou a dog? Hast thou a looking-glass? He has 
the hat. My father has the bird. Has she a house? Has he 
the bread ? We have a hat. Have we a gun ? You have the 
book. They (m,) have a garden. Have they (f.) a horse? 
Have they (m.) a gun? The child has a book. The queen 
has a brother. My aunt has a bird. My brother has a dog. 
My mother has a pen. 

¿Qué tiene la casa? La casa tiene balcón y portero. 

¿Qué tiene la puerta? La puerta tiene un ventanillp. 

¿Tenéis (vosotros) un libro? Sí, (nosotros) tenemos un libro. 
¿Quién tiene el libro? El niño tiene el libro. 

¿Tiene el hermano un fusil? Sí, el hermano tiene un fusil. 
¿Tenéis (vosotros) el vestido? No, (nosotros) tenemos el som- 
¿Tiene V. una casa? Sí, tengo una casa; tiene jar- 

¿Tiene (él) el pan? Sí, (él) tiene el pan. 

¿Tiene ella jardín ó huerto? Tiene huerto, y en el huerto 

un árbol. 
¿Tiene el hermano un amigo? Sí, el hermano tiene un amigo. 

cipal verb, as: I have (i.e., possess) a book; he had {i.e., he 
possessed) a friend, the Spaniards do not use haber, which is 
only an auxiliary, but tener; properly "to hold." Thus: "I have 
a book" should not be translated ^'he un libro," but: tengo un 
libro—i.e., I "hold" a book (in my possession). 

* The personal pronouns are usually omitted before the verb. 
We give them here in order to acquaint the pupil with these forms. 
** See § 6, 1. 

*** Although the 2nd pers. sing, is rarely used in English, 
we give it here in order that the pupil may become accustomed 
to its use in Spanish. ^^^^ 

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The Plural of Substantives. 11 

Second Lesson. — Lección segunda. 

The Plural of Sabstantires. — Plural de los 

The following are the general rules for the for- 
mation of the plural in Spanish: 

1. All nouns ending in a single unaccented vowel 
add s; thus: 

El padre (father) Fl, los padres, 

la madre (mother) las madres, 

la carta (letter) las cartas, 

el libro (book) los libros, 

la mano (hand) las manos, 

la metrópoli (capital) las metrópolis. 

JYbfe.— Nouns ending in é follow the same rule, as: el 
pié, the foot, los pies; el café, coffee; los cafés, coffee-houses. 

2. Nouns ending in a consonant, in a*, i, or in 
«^j ^1 oy, form the plural by adding es: 

La flor (flower) PL las flores. 

el pan (bread) los panes. 

el mar (sea) los mares. 

el mes (month) Iqs meses, 

la civdad (town) las ciudades, 

el amor (love) los amores, 

el bote (boat) los botes, 

el bajá (pasha) los bajaes. 

el aleli (gillyflower) los álelies. 

él ay (only used as an los ayes, wailings. 


el rey (king) los reyes, 

la ley (law) las leyes, 

el buey (ox) los bueyes, 

el convoy (convoy) los convoyes. 

N.B,—Los padres, the parents. 

Los reyes, the king and queen. 

§ 1. With nouns ending in z the a is changed into c 
in the plural, as: 

La voz (voice) PI. las voces. 

la paz (peace) las paces. 

* Except: el papá, la mamá, el sofá', pi. los papás^ las ma' 
más, los sofas. 

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12 Lesson 2. 

§ 2. A great many words have no singular. We give 
those most in use: 

Las afueras, the outskirts. ¡os modales, the manners. 
los alrededores, the surround- las nupcias, the wedding, 
ings. las patillas, the whiskers. 

las andas, the];bier. los pertrechos, implements of 

los caleonciUos, the pants. war. 

las cercanías, the neighbour- las sobras, the refuse, 
hood. las tenazas, the tongs. 

las cosquillas, tickling. las tijeras, the scissors. 

las entrañas, the entrails. las tinieblas, darkness. 

las exequias, the funeral. los víveres, the victuals. 

§ 3. Some words have a meaning in the singular, and 
an additional peculiar meaning in the plural: 
el agtui, the water PL las aguas, floods, medicinal 

d anteojo, the telescope los anteojos, the spectacles. 

él bien, goodness los bienes, the property. 

la cadena, the chain las cadenas, the oppression. 

el celo, the zeal los celos, jealousy. 

el dia, the day los dias, the Saint's day. 

la expresión, the expression las expresiones, "kind re- 

la gracia, the grace, favour las gracias, the thanks. 

la memoria, the memory ia^ wemonas, "kind regards." 

el valor, the valour, value los valores, the securities, 

§ 4. Some others, masculine in the singular, may include 
the feminine in the plural, as: 

El hijo (son) PL los hijos, children (but also sons). 

el hermano (brother) los hermanos, brother and sister 

(but also brothers). 
el padre (father) los padres, the parents (but also 

el rey (king) los reyes, kings (but also king 

and queen). 
(See Second Part: On the PlnraL) 
Note,—ThQ expressions: Good morning, good afternoon, good 
evening, good night, are always plural in Spanish; thus: 
Buenos dias, good morning 1 
Buenos tardes, good afternoon I, good evening 1 
Buenas noches, good night! 


El cuchillo, the knife. la pluma, the pen. 

el médico, the physician. la ventana, the window. 

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The Plural of Substantives. 13 

el azúcar, the sugar. la tinta, the ink. 

d barquero, the boatman. el tintero, the inkstand. 

el castillo, the castle. el palacio, the palace. 

ei cuadro, the picture. rico, rich. 

caballero, gentleman, Mr., Sir. oiro,-rt, another (see 18th Less.). 

Señora, lady, Mrs., Madam. mucho, -a, mviah; sus, his, her. 

Señorita, Miss. its, their. 

la vela, the sail. dos, two; ¿re^, three; cuatro, 

el lápiz, the pencil. four; cinco, five. 

eZ reloj, the watch. 


To tenia, I had. g Tenia (yo) ? had I? 

<i* tenias, thou hadst. g ¿ewias (tú) ? hadst thou ? 

él tenia, he had. ¿ tenia (él) ? had he ? 

nosotros teníamos, we had. ¿teníamos (nosotros) ?h2iáyre^ 

vosotros teníais, you had. ¿teníais (vosotros)? had you? 

eZ?05 tenían, they had. ¿tenían (ellos)? had they? 

Beading Exercise. 8. 

Nosotros teníamos un cuchillo. Vosotras* teníais dos 
cuchillos. Mi hermano tiene las tenazas. El rey tenía cuatro 
caballos. ¿ Tenia (yo) los anteojos ? Él tenía los valores. Te- 
nían víveres? Nosotros tenemos las cartas. Sus (f,) padres 
tenían muchas casas. Los jardines tenían muchos alelíes y 
otras flores. El nifio tenía un lápiz. Las niñas tenían los 
lápices. El barquero tenía tres botes. El bote tiene una vela. 
Mi hermano tiene un reloj. Los hermanos tenían muchos re- 
lojes. ¿Tiene ella un cuadro? Ella tenía cinco cuadros en 
la casa. El hombre rico tiene muchas casas. La hermana 
tiene las tijeras. 

( Traducción. 4. 

Houses in Spain have a porter. The house had many 
balconies. Houses in Spain have balconies, and the doors have 
gratings. The sister had the scissors. Had you the spectacles? 
Had we the victuals? The kings had many castles. The aunts 
had the letters. Had the physician a pencil? The boatman 
had a sail. Had you (f. pi.) the pictures? We (f, pi.) had 
the pictures. Had the king many castles? The queen had 
many horses. Hadst thou the pencils and the flowers? The 
children had the bread. The sisters had the bread (i.e., loaves). 
Had they (f.) the scissors ? Had the kings the castles and the 
palaces ? Hadst thou my watch ? I had three watches. Good 
evening, sir! Good night, Miss(N.)** Good morning, Mrs.!** 

* In Spanish, ive (mase.) is nosotros; we (fern.) nosotras; you 
(mase) is vosotros; you (fern.) vosotras. 

** In English, Mr., Mrs., Miss are invariably followed by a 

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14 Lesson 8. 


¿Tienen portero las casas? Si, tienen portero. 
¿Tienen ventanas ó balcones Tienen muchos balcones. 

las casas? 
¿Qaión tenia los lápices? Las niñas tenian los lápices. 

¿ Tiene el hermano un caballo? Si, el hermano tiene un caballo. 
¿Tiene la hermana las tijeras? No, la hermana no tiene las 

¿Tenia él su (his) sombrero? Si, tenia su sombrero. 
¿Tenian flores los jardines? Tenian alelíes y otras ñores. 
¿ Tienen los bajaes castillos ? No tienen castillos, pero tienen 

¿ Tenia el rey muchos caballos ? El rey tenia cien (100) caballos, 
¿Tuvisteis (vosotras) las car- Nosotras tuvimos (had) las car- 
tas? tas y los libros. 
¿Tiene el médico una pluma? El médico tiene un lápiz, un 

tintero y una pluma. 
¿Tuvo el barquero un bote? El barquero tuvo tres botes. 
¿ Tiene mi hermano un libro ? Tiene muchos libros. 
! Buenos dias, señorita! ¡Buenos dias, caballero! 

! Buenas tardes, señora! i Buenas noches, señorita! 

Third Lesson. — Lección tercera. 

The Substantives in Connection with the Pre- 
positions. — Los sustantivos en relación con las 

Spanish substantives have no cases, though they 
may in a way replace them by means of prepositions. 
These prepositions, however, are not always simply 
placed before the article, as in English, but sometimes 
undergo a contraction with the article so as to form 
one word, as will be seen hereafter. 

1. The Nominative and Accttsative are always alike, 
as in English. 

2. The Genitive, answering the question whose? 
or of which? is formed by putting de (of) before the 
article. Thus: la reina, the queen; Gen. de la reina, of 
the queen; la pluma, the pen; Gen. de la pluma, of 
the pen. 

person's name; in Spanish, however, cahallerOj señora, señorita 
may stand by themselves. 

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The Substantives in Connection with the Prepositions. 15 

Only the masculine article el is, for euphony, con- 
tracted with de into one word. Thus instead of de el rey, 
of the king: del rey; of the son, del hijo, for de el hijo. 

In the plural no contraction takes place. Thus : 
de los médicos, of the physicians; de las cartas, of the 
letters; de las plumas, of the pens. 

3. The Dative is formed by putting á (to) before the 
article. Thus: á la reina j to the queen; á la carta, to 
the letter; á la hermana, to the sister. 

The masculine article el is likewise contracted into 
one word with the preposition á (of course, without the 
accent). Thus: al hijo, to the son; al hermano, to the 
brother (for á el hijo; á el hermano). 

Observation.— (^mi^ peculiar to the Spanish language is 
the use of the preposition á with the Accusative, in certain 
cases when referring to living beings. That is to say, if the 
direct object is a person or a personified thing, it should be 
introduced as in the Dative case, and not in the Accusative. 
Thus the sentence, "The mother loves the daughter," is not 
translated : La madre ama la hija, but : La madre ama á la 
hija, — "I see the man" is not: Yo veo él hombre, but: Yo 
veo al hombre. "The sons love the mother" is not: Los hijos 
aman la madre, but: Los hijos aman á la madre. 

On the other hand, Mi hermano ha visto el palacio, las 
casas, "My brother has seen the palace, the houses," and not 
al palacio, á las casas, because here the Accusative denotes 
things, and not persods. 

The Declensions. — Las declinaciones. 

(a) With the Definite Article. 
Norn, el amigo, the friend. 
Gen. del amigo, of the friend. 
Dat. al amigo, to the friend (the friend). 
Ac. el amigo, al amigo, the friend. 


Norn. lo8 amigos, the friends. 

Gen. de los amigos, of the friends. 

Dat. á los amigos, to the friends. 

Ac. lo8 amigos^ á loa amigos, the friends. 

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16 Lesson 3. 

Nom. la madre, the mother. 
Gen. de la madre, of the mother. 
Dat. á la madre, to the mother (t?ie mother). 
Ac. la madre, á la madre, the mother. 


Norn, las madres, the mothers. 

Gen. de las madres, of the mothers. 

Dat. á las madres, to the mothers (t)ie mothers). 

Ac. l€is madres, á Uis madres, the mothers. 

Feminine with the Masculine Article. 


Nom. el ave, the bird (for la ave). 

Gen. del ave, of the bird. 

Dat. al ave, to the bird. 

Ac. el ave, al ave, the bird. 

Nom. las aves, the birds. 
Gen. de las aves, of the birds. 
Dat. á las aves, to the birds. 
Ac. las aves, á las aves, the birds. 

Abstract Notions. 

Nom. lo malo, the evil. 

Gen. de lo malo, of the evil. 

Dat. á lo malo, to the evil. 

Ac. lo malo, á lo malo, the evil. 

(b) With the Indefinite Article. 


Nom. un hombre, a man. 

Gen. de un hombre, of a man. 

Dat. á un hombre, to a man. 

Ac. tin hombre, á un hombre, a man. 


Nom. una mujer, a woman. 

Gen. de una mujer, of a woman. 

Dat. á una mujer, to a woman. 

Ac. una mujer, á una mujer, a woman. 

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The Substantives in Connection with the Prepositions. 17 

(c) With a Demonstrative Adjective. 
Nona, este hombre, this man. 
Gen. de este hombre^ of this man. 
Dat. á este hombrCy to this man. 
Ac. este hombre, á este hombre, this man. 

Nom. estos hombres, these men. 
Gen. de estos hombres, of these men. 
Dat. á estos hombres, to these men. 
Ac. estos hombres, á estos hombres, these men. 


Nom. esta mujer, this woman. 
Gen. de esta mujer, oí this woman. 
Dat. á esta mujer, to this woman. 
Ac. esta mujer, á esta mujer, this woman. 

Nom. estas mujeres, these women. 
Gen. de estas mujeres, of these women. 
Dat. á estas mujeres, to these women. 
Ac. estas mujeres, á estas mujeres, these women. 

Nom. aquél hombre, that man. 
Gen. de aquel hombre, of that man. 
Dat. á aquél hombre, to that man. 
Ac. aquel hombre, á aquel hombre, that man. 

Nom. a^queUos hombres, those men. 
Gen. de aquellos hombres, oí those men. 
Dat. á aquéllos hombres, to those men. 
Ac. aquéllos hombres, á aquéllos hombres, those men. 


Nom. a^quélla mujer, that woman. 
Gen. de a^ueUa mujer, oí that woman. 
Dat. á aquella mujer, to that woman. 
Ac. aquella mujer, á acuella mujer, that woman. 

Spanish Ck>ny.-Grammar. 8 

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18 Lesson 3. 

Nom. €íquélUi8 mujeres, those women. 
Gen. de aquéllas mujeres^ of those women« 
Dat. á aqueUas mujeres, to those women. 
Ac. arguellas mujeres, á arguellas mujeres, those 


Bios, God. el pais, the country, land. 

Ü Criador, the Creator. la criatura, the creature. 

Ü mundo, the world. el criado, the footman, servant. 

el primo, the cousin (m.). el caballero, the gentleman. 

la prima, the cousin (f.). grande, great. 

él amigo, the friend (m.). pequeño, little, small, short. 

la ciudad, the town. hermoso, beautiful. 

él vecino, the neighbour. viejo, old. 

él niño, the child, boy. ama, (he, she) loves. 

él sueño, the sleep, dream. aman, (they) love. 

la muerte, (the) death. llama, calls. 

d árbol, the tree. ve, sees. 

e2 cwario, the room. pero, but. 

7a chimenea, the fireplace. ¿cómo? how? 

Za reina, the queen. 5(m, are. 

quiere, he (she) likes. no, no, not. 

quieren, (they) like. e^, II . son, \ 

doce, twelve. está, f ' están, f ^^' 

Beading Exercise. 5. 

El Criador ama á las criaturas. El sueño es el hermano 
de la muerte. La prima es la amiga del primo. El vecino 
llama al criado. El rey es el padre del país. La reina ama 
al rey. Dios es el Criador del mundo. La casa tiene doce 
ventanas. [Yo] no veo (see) á los hombres. ¿Tenias tú los 
relojes? Inglaterra es pequefía, pero las ciudades del país 
son grandes. España es grande, pero las ciudades del país son 
pequeñas. En España los cuartos de las casas son pequeños 
y no tienen chimeneas. El caballero llama á los criados. Las 
mujeres aman á los niños. Estas casas pequeñas son her- 
mosas. El amigo del primo llama al miado del caballero. 
Los árboles del castillo son viejos. Las casas de la ciudad 
no son viejas. 

Traducción. 6. 

Those men love the friends of the cousin. The death of 
the king. The houses of the towns are large and old. The 
small country has large towns. The cousin (f.) loves the cousin 
(m.), but the cousin (m,) does not love (no — ) the cousin (f,). 
The gentleman calls the footman. The king loves the knights. 


by Google 



and the knights love the king. The child of the neighbour 
is snaall. The windows of the house are large. The king is 
the founder of the small town. The knight had two cousins 
(f,) and three cousins (m,), Man is small, and the world is 
large. The woman loves the child. The children love the 
woman. The kings are the fathers of the countries. The foot- 
man calls the neighbours of the knight. The castles of the 
queen are old. The house of the footman is small. That 
man does not see* the child of this woman. Does he see** 
those women? The neighbour loves these men and those men. 


¿Es pequeño el pais? 

¿Cómo son los cuartos? 

¿Ve el primo á la prima? 
¿Tuvieron los reyes el país? 

¿Llama el vecino al niño? 
¿ J. quién (whom) llama el ca- 
¿Es pequeña la ciudad? 
¿Tiene la reina dos castillos ? 

¿Cuántas (how many) ven- 
tanas tiene la casa? 

¿Tiene el vecino una casa? 

¿Ve el caballero á este hom- 

¿Es grande el palacio? 

¿No son hermosas estas flo- 

¿Á quién ama la prima? 

No, es grande; pero las ciu- 
dades del pais son pequeñas. 

Son pequeños y no tienen 

No, el primo no ve á la prima. 

Los reyes tuvieron la ciudad 
y el pais. 

No, el vecino llama al caballero. 

El caballero llama el criado. 

No, señor, la ciudad es grande. 

No, la reina tiene tres castillos 
y dos palacios. 

La casa tiene veinte (20) ven- 

El vecino tiene dos casas. 

El caballero ve á estas mu- 

El palacio es mvij(very) grande. 

Estos alelíes son muy hermosos. 

La prima quiere al primo y 
al hermano. 

Fourth Lesson. — Lección cuarta. 

Prepositions. — Preposiciones. 

Some prepositions appear almost in every sentence, 
and should therefore be learned at once. The Spanish 
prepositions govern no particular case— e.e.^ they are 

* Transí, not sees, ** Transí, sees he? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

20 Lesson 4. 

simply placed before the nouu. — Full particulars of 
adverbial phrases formed with prepositions will be given 
in Lesson 32: On Prepositions. 

The prepositions most in use are the following: 

at at, to, in. liacia, towards. 

ante, before. h<ista, till. 

con, with, para, for. 

contra, against. por, by, from, for. 

de, of, from. según, according to. 

desde, since. sin, without. 

durante, during. sobre, on, over. 

en, in. tras, after, behind. | 
entre, between, among. 

A few general hints on the use of the above 
prepositions are: 

1. Contra means against^ taken in a sense of oppo- 
sition^ whereas hacia indicates a direction^ as: Contra los 
enemigos^ against the enemies; hacia el poniente^ towards 
the west, westward. 

2. Fara corresponds generally to the French pour, 
means for, and implies purpose, as: Este dinero será 
para los pobres, this money will be for the poor. Used 
with an infinitive mood, it corresponds to the English 
in order to, as: Fara trabajar, in order to work. Para 
also denotes direction, as: Salgo (infin. salir, to set out) 
para España, I set out for Spain. 

3. Por corresponds generally to the French par, 
is by and from (denoting origin, motive, or cause), as: 
Por temor, through fear; por vanidad, through vanity. 
It likewise means for, denoting an equivalent, as: Doy 
mi capa por la tuya, I give my cloak for yours, or "in 
exchange for thine." It also means in favour, as: Hablar 
por alguno, to speak in favour of somebody. Again, it 
vaguely indicates time and space, as: Por la mañana, 
in the morning; por la tarde, in the afternoon; por la 
calle, somewhere in the street, por el jardín, somewhere 
in the garden. Finally, por denotes the author of some- 
thing, as: Este libro está continuado por N,, this book 
is continued by N. 

4. Sobre is on or upon, and also over, on the other 
side of, as: Sobre las rodillas^ on (upon) the knees; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



sohre los montes^ over (also "on the other side of) 
the mountains. 


El comerciantey the merchant. 

la región, the country. 

Inglaterra, England. 

la madera, the wood. 

la mesa, the table. 

el rio, the river. 

(el) vino, (the) wine. 

(7a) cerveza, (the) beer. 

la vida, .the life. 

la diferencia, the difference. 

el temor, the fear. 

el pudor, the shame, [change. 

la bolsa, the purse, the Ex- 

la gente, (the) people. 

la paciencia, (the) patience. 

la necesidad, the necessity. 

la fruta, (the) fruit. 

d año, the year. 

el mediodía, the noon. 

destinado, -a, destined. 

delicioso, -a, delicious. 

eserito, written. 

Estoy, I am. 

estás, thou art. 

está, he (she, it) is. 


justo, -a, just. 

todo, -a, all. 

soportar, to bear. 

quieres, thou wilt. 

debemos, we must. 

vive, lives. 

vivir, to live. 

siempre, always. 

flotar, to float. 

hablan, they speak. 

&e5e, drinks. 

corre, runs. 

ijosa, spends (time). 

vuelve, returns, comes back. 

dar, to give; dado, given. 

wj, my. 

ayer, yesterday; hoy, to-day. 

mañana, to-morrow. 

casi, almost. 

todo el, toda la, the whole. 

usted, you. 

su . . , de usted, your . . . 

estamos, we are. 

estáis, you are. 

"V está, he (she, it) is. están, they are. 

There is, there are, hay. 
there was, there were, habia. 
Note,— To be is translated by estar and ser, J^he proper 
nse of these verbs is rather difficult. For the present we, only 
state that estar denotes an accidental and transitory condition 
or state, whereas ser expresses a characteristic quality, thus: 
Está bueno means: he feels Es bueno means: he is good, 
well, he is (now) well. 

(See the Auxiliary Verbs.) 

Beading Exercise. 7. 

El caballero está en el cafó. ¿Hay cafés en España? 
Si, hay muchos cafés. En España los hombres pasan la noche 
en el café. Mucha gente pasa toda la noche en el café. ¿Qué 
líebe la gente en España, vino, ó cerveza? ' La gente bebe 
^no. ¿Qué bebe V, vino, ó cerveza? Bebo (1 drink) vino 
y cerveza. Estoy bueno cuando estoy en el campo. ¿ Á quién 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

22 Lesson 4. 

quieres dar este libro? Á mi hermano. Debemos soportar 
con paciencia los males de la vida. La Bolsa es para los 
comerciantes. No debes hablar por vanidad. Esta región es 
deliciosa por sas (its) frutos. He dado á mi primo mi diccio- 
nario por su gramática. Mi hermano vive casi siempre en 
Inglaterra. La madera flota en el a^na. El libro está sobre 
la mesa. Los malos (wicked) hablan siempre contra los buenos. 
Mi padre vuelve hacia el mediodía. No ^uáe(Icould ~) dor- 
mir durante toda la noche. Desde la mañana hasta la noche. 
Desde ayer hasta mañana. El vino no es una necesidad de 
la vida; el hombre puede vivir sin vino. Es un hombre sin 
pudor. Este libro trata (treats) de la agricultura. 
Tradacción. 8. 
This book is (está) written by Mr. N. He is (está) well 
when he is at (en su) home (casa). Wilt thou* give this 
book to my cousin (m.)? This book is for thy brother. I 
have given (to) Mr. Verguero my grammar for his dictionary. 
The merchant lived two years in England. Man can (puede) 
live without wine, but (pero) not without bread. Does** 
thy brother come back at (á) noon? (The) merchants sal- 
ways (talk about) i speak of (the) Exchange. Towards (the) 
west there is (hay) a beautiful country. I give my book for 
thine (el tuyo). He sleeps (duerme) from (the) evening till 
(to the) morning. The fruit is on the table. The father took 
(tomó) the son on his knee. This river runs (corre) through 
many countries. We must not act (obrar) through fear. 
This wine is for the father and this bread is for the child. 
There is a great difference between these two men. I have 
been (Estoy) here since yesterday. He is a man without fear 
and without shame. My brother comes (viene) in the morning 
and in the afternoon. 


¿Dónde (Where) está su amigo En el cafó ; pasa toda la noche 

de usted? en el cafó. 

¿Dónde está el hijo de ese Está en el colegio (at school), 
(that) hombre? 

¿Vive en Inglaterra el her- No, vive casi siempre en Es- 
mano ? paña. 

* The 2nd person sing, is more frequently used in Spanish 
than in English. See footnote ***, pag. 10. 

** Interrogative forms with the verb to do are not admissible 
in Spanish. In this language, as in German, the interrogative 
form is expressed by placing the verb before the nominative, as: 
Does the woman speak? ¿Habla la mujerl Do I think? ¿Pienso 
yo? — or merely by the verb itself, as: ¿Pienso? in any case, 
the signs of interrogation are written both at the beginning and 
at the end. 


by Google 

The Sabstantive without the Article. 28 

¿Cómo (How) debemos sopor- Sin temor y con paciencia, 
tar los males de la vida? 

¿ Para quién (whom) está des- Está destinada para los comer- 
tinada la Bolsa? ciantes. 

¿Cuándo vuelve el padre? Vuelve hacia mediodía. 

¿Hablan los comerciantes de No, sefior, hablan casi siempre 
la agricultura? del comercio. 

¿ Tiene mi hermano el dinero No lo só* (I donH know), se- 
para los pobres? flora. 

¿Está el vino sobre la mesa? No, sefior; la fruta y el pan 

están sobre la mesa. 

¿Por qué es deliciosa esta Es deliciosa por sus frutas, 
región ? 

¿Hay mucho vino en Ingla- En Inglaterra no hay vino, 

Fifth Lesson. — Lección quinta. 

The Substantive without the Article. — El 
sastantiYO sin el articulo. 

§ 1. In English, the word some (or any) often pre- 
cedes a substantive when taken in an indefinite sense, 
no particular kind, measure, or quality being meant, 
as: some wine; some bread; any ink, etc. 

In Spanish, the noun without the article is used in 
this case, thus: Give me some bread, déme V. pan. I 
have some cheese, tengo queso, etc. 

§ 2. If one of these words is governed by a pre- 
position, this preposition simply precedes the noun, as 
in English. Ex.: We speak of money, hablamos de 
dinero; mth cheese, con queso, etc. 

§ 3. In the plural, some or any may be expressed 
by the plural of uno or alguno, if the sense appears 
somewhat hmited, as: 

Tengo flores, libros, perros, etc. I have flowers, books, 
dogs, etc. (i.e., in quite a general sense). 


Tengo uncís flores, unos libros (or alffunas flores, fúr 
gunos libros), I have some flowers, a few books, etc. 
(in a limited sense). 

* Lit. (7> not it know. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

24 Lesson 5. 

§ 4. The above rules hold good in the nomina- 
tive and accusative cases only. If, however, the noun 
is governed by another word (substantive, verb, or ad- 
jective), de comes before it (as in English o/*, etc.). Ex.: 
A piece of bread, un pedazo de pan. 
A bottle of wine, una botella de vino. 
Full of sugar, lleno de azúcar. 
Laden with booty, cargado de presa. 
Worthy of confidence, digno de confianza. 
By this phrase with de, English compound substan- 
tives are rendered, as: The fencing-master, el maestro 
de esgrima; the slave-trade, el tráfico de esclavos. Ad- 
jectives denoting materials are expressed in the same 
way, as: a gold watch, un reloj de oro. 

§ 5. Words denoting quantity require no pre- 
position after them ; thus : little cheese, poco queso; Uttle 
hope, poca esperanza; fewer books, mmos lihros; many 
times, muchas veces. (And not as in French, peu de 
livres; moins de fromage, etc.) 

§ 6. If, however, quantity is expressed by a word 
preceded by the article, as: a little of this wine, etc., 
the preposition de should follow. Thus: 
Little bread, poco pan, but : 
A little of this bread, un poco de este pan. 


La naranja, the orange. la tía, the aunt. 

el limdny the lemon, citron. el dinero, the money. 

la aceituna, the olive. vergonzoso, -a, shameful. 

el género, the kind, species. todo, -a, all, whole. 

el aceite, the oil. todos, -as, all (plural). 

el papel, the paper. visto, seen. 

el barco, the ship. produce, produces. 

el trigo, the corn. déme V., give me. 

la plata, the silver. me falta (or necesito), I want. 

el cobre, the copper. he, (I) have ; ha, he (she) has. 

el lino, the flax, linen. conoce V., you know. 

la carne, the meat. piensa, thinks. 

el jabón, the soap. estar pensando, to be thinking. 

el tio, the uncle. pero, but; que, than. 


Yo soy, I am. nosotros (-as) somos, we are. 

tú eres, thou art. vosotros (-as) sois, you are. 

él es, he is. ellos \ „^ ..^^ ^^^ 

ella es, she is. ellas f '^' ^^"^ ^^^' 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

The Substantive 'without the Article. 25 

N.B,—ThQ auxiliary do, does, etc., in questions is never 
translated into Spanish ; the corresponding verbal form of the 
principal verb being given instead— i.e. : 

What does Spain produce? 

¿ Qué produce España ? 

Heading Exercise. 9. 

España produce vino, naranjas, limones, aceitunas y todo 
género de frutas. Déme V. papel, pluma y tinta. El pais 
tiene trigo, aceite, plata, cobre y lino. Me falta (I want, lit. 
it fails me) carne y agua. Este hombre no tiene pan. ¿ Tiene 
el primo unos libros? El hermano tiene agua y jabón. Las 
naranjas y limones son hermosas frutas. El niño no quiere 
las aceitunas. He visto árboles y flores, jardines y palacios. 
¿Conoces al maestro de esgrima? Déme V. un pedazo de 
pan y una botella de vino. Tengo poca esperanza. El tío 
tiene menos dinero que la tía. He visto á mi fio muchas 
veces en casa de aquel hombre. Déme V. un poco de tinta 
y unas plumas. El primo tiene poca tinta, pero tiene muchas 
plumas. Este hombre no es digno de confianza. Me falta 
papel y tinta. 

Traducción. 10. 

I want some paper and ink, pens and pencils. Do you 
know the fencing-master? Slave-trade is shameful. We have 
little cheese, but we have much bread. Give me a little 
bread and a little cheese. This country has copper and silver, 
oranges, citrons, and olives. I have seen flowers and fruits. 
The uncle has no sugar, and the aunt has no coffee. I have 
not seen the king and the queen. This man has less cour- 
age than that man. What does Spain produce? Spain pro- 
duces all kinds of fruits. Do you know my uncle and my 
aunt? Give me a piece of meat and a bottle of beer. This 
ship is laden with sugar and coffee. This man always thinks 
(is always thinking) of (en) wine and beer, and this woman 
always thinks of dresses and flowers. Has the uncle fine 
pictures ? The aunt has some fine pictures, but the uncle has 
no pictures. 


¿Qué Cw;Aa¿) produce España? España produce vino, naran- 
jas, limones y aceitunas. 

¿Qué produce Alemania (Ger- Alemania produce vino, trigo 
many)^ y todo género de frutas. 

I Déme V. algunas plumas! No tengo plumas. 

¿Qué tiene el país? El país tiene cobre y plata. 

¿Tiene el primo unos libros? El primo tiene muchos libros 

y mucho papel. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

26 Lesson 6. 

¿ Quiere el nifio las aceitunas ? El nifio no quiere las aceitunas. 
¿Qué ha visto el tío? Ha visto árboles y flores, jar- 

dines j palacios. 
¿ Conoce V. al maestro de es- No conozco (I know) al maestro 

grima? de esgrima. 

I Déme V. un pedazo de pan! No tengo pan. 
¿ Tiene el tío muchos cua- No tiene muchos cuadros, pero 

dros? tiene algunos. 

¿Es digno de confianza ese No, señor, no lo es. 

¿Qaó le falta al hermano? Le (him) falta (== he wants) 

tinta y papel. 

Sixth Lesson. — Lección sexta. 

Angmentatives and Dlminntives. — Ánmentativos y 

The Spanish language, like the Italian, abounds in 
endings modifying the original meaning of the substan- 
tives as well as the adjectives, adverbs, etc., to which 
they are applied. Besides the idea of augmentation and 
diminution, these endings very often convey an accessory 
idea of tenderness or ugliness, love or contempt, praise 
or derision, etc. The shades which the original signifi- 
cation may thus acquire are so manifold that they 
are often utterly inexpressible in other languages, even 
by two or more adjectives. Thus the proper use of 
these endings offers great difficulties to the foreigner, 
and can only be properly learned in daily intercourse 
with Spaniards; the more so as they may not be 
used indifferently with every substantive or adjective. 

The most important of these endings are: 

For the Aagmentatives: 

1. on, azo^ and ote for the masculine; ona, aza, and 
ota for the feminine. These endings express augmen- 
tation in general. 

Examples: Hombre, man; homhrón, tall man; mu¿er, 
woman; mujerona; perro, dog; perrazo, a big dog; libro, 
book; libróte, old book. 

Notes, — 1. Endings in on may be combined with azo. 
— 2. By the addition of ote the noun becomes masculine. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Augmentatives and Diminutives. 27 

Examples : Hombrón, hombronazo ; mtijerona, mujer&nor 
za; capa (i.)» (Spanish) cloak; capote (m.), large cloak. 

O&servaiio».— Frequently the termination azo does not 
imply augmentation, but simply the effect of the instrument 
denoted by the noun. Thus: el canon means the gun, can- 
non; el cañonazo^ the detonation of a cannon; el fusil, the 
gun; el fusilazo, the shot of a gun. 

2. acho, acMn, and arrón. Over and above the 
idea of augmentation, these suggest an accessory idea 
of disproportion, clumsiness, and disdain. 

Examples: Término, word; terminacho, vulgar word; 
hombre, man; hombrachdn, a fat, big fellow; bobo, a silly 
man; bobarron, a stupid fool. 

For the Diminntives: 

















with their feminines. 

Notes. — Ico (tea) and their derivatives are not truly 
Castilian, but local terminations used mostly in Aragón. 

Ito (ita) and their derivatives are the genuine Castilian 
endings, implying not so much diminution as youth, loveliness, 
fondness y etc. Thus: sewora, lady, Mrs. ; señorita, ííiss; señor, 
Mr., Sir ; señorito, young gentleman, Master, etc. ; mujer, wo- 
man; mujercita, nice young woman. 

Illo (ilia) expresses diminution and disdain, thus: 
hombre, man ; hombrecillo, little man (of no significance) : cosa, 
thing; cosiUa, a trifle. 

Uelo (uela) expresses the same in a very strong degree, 
as: mujerziiela, a vulgar little woman; aldehuela, insigni- 
ficant little village. 

The terminations acho and etón for augmentation, ete 
(eta), ejo, in (ino) for diminution, are less frequent and best 
learned by practice. 

Beadingr Exercise, 11.. 

Aquel hombrón que vá con aquel porrazo es un ri- 
cachón \ Es una mujerona con unos ojazos^ muy grandes y 
una vocecilla chillona*. La pobretona* no tiene dineros 
^e dado mi capote* á aquel mocetón'^. Hemos oído® fusi- 

1 very wealthy man. ^ large eyes. » little squeaky voice. 

* pobre, poor. » dinero, money. « capa, cloak. ^ mozo, boy. 

* oído, heard. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

28 Lesson 7. 

lazos y cafionazos. La sefiorita. está con su perrito^ en la 
casa de Juanita. La pobrecita^*^ habla al sefiorito. Los pa- 
jarillos están en el nido^^. Ese torazo^^ come^^ heno^* 
y yerba ^*. En esa aldehuela^^ hay algunos gitanos^''. ¡Qué 
hermoso peceznelo!^^ El hidalgote^^ tuvo que vender (to 
sell) sus palacios y jardines. Las florecillas*® brotan (spring 
up) y las avecillas'^ cantan (sing) *^. Mi hermana tiene una 
saÚta** muy pequefiita^*, pero muy bon¡ta*^ El caballerito 
no quiere estudiar. Comió (He eats) un pedacito^* de un 
huevecillo^'^. Las manguitas^® del vestidillo son preciosas 
(beautiful). Las ovejitas^^ y los conejuelos*^ juegan*^ en 
el campo^^. El pobrecito nifio se cayó (fell)^ y se hizo dafio 
en las manecitas^^. 

» perro, dog. i® pobre, poor. " nido, nest. »« toro, bull. 
" come, eats, i* heno, hay. " yerba, grass. ** aldea, village. 
" gitano, gipsy. ^^ pez, fish. ^^ hidalgo, nobleman, knight. 
20 flor, ñower. ^i ave, bird. 22 animal, animal. *« sala, drawing- 
room. 24 pequeño, little, small. 26 bonita, pretty. 2* pedazo, 
piece. 27 Jiuevo, egg. 28 manga, sleeve. 29 oveja, sheep, ^o conejo, 
rabbit. ** juegan, play (3rd pers. pi.). ^' campo, field. »3 la 
mano, hand. 

Seventh Lesson. — Lección séptima. ^ 

Proper Names. — Nombres propios. 

§ 1. As in English, proper names of persons, 
towns, and coww^ne^ take no article, as: Car?05, Charles; 
Elvira, Madrid, etc. They are varied as in English: 

Carlos, Charles. Madrid, Madrid. 

de Carlos, of Charles. de Madrid, of Madrid. 

á Carlos, to Charles. á Madrid, to Madrid. 

España, Spain. 

de España, from Spain. 

d España, to Spain. 

Exceptions are: 

(a) Proper names quahfied by an adjective, as: el 
pobre Luís, poor Lewis ; la desdichada Elvira, (the) un- 
fortunate Elvira; la América meridional, South America. 
Frequently the proper name is followed by the adjective, 
as: Alejandro el Grande, Alexander the Great. 

The adjective Santo (San), saint, holy, before proper 
names never admits of the article, thus: San Pablo, 
St. Paul; Santa Teresa, St. Theresa. 

Also, a proper name takes the article when used 
as a common noun, thus: el Apolo de Belvedere, the 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Proper Names. 29 

Apollo (statue) of Belvedere; el César de su siglo, the 
Csesar (i.e., the foremost general) of his century. In 
this signification, proper names may be used in the 
plural; as: los Césares son raros, men Uke CsBsar are rare, 
(b) The names of certain countries, provinces, towns, 
etc., as: 

El Brasil, Brazil. ZaJIfanc^a (a Spanish region). 

El Canadá, Canada. La Patagonia, Patagonia. 

El Cabo, The Cape. La Carolina (a Spanish town). 

El Perú, Peru. La Coruña, Corunna. 

El Havre, Havre. La Granja (a Spanish royal 

El Ferrol, Ferrol. residence). 

La Florida, Florida. 

Indifferent are: 

China, and la China, China. 
Persia, and la Persia, Persia. 
Africa, and el Africa, Africa. 

§ 2. Names of mountains, volcanoes, rivers^ capes, 
and seas take the article, as: 

Los Pirineos, The Pyrenees. 

La Sierra Nevada, Nevada Ridge (Spain). 

El Ebro, The Ebro. 

El Duero, The Douro. 

El Vesubio, Mt. Vesuvius. 

El Machichaco, a cape (N. of Spain). 

El Cantábrico, The Bay of Biscay. 

El Mediterráneo, The Mediterranean. 

Indifferent are: 

Sierra Morena, and la Sierra Morena \ (^^^^^tains). 
Moncayo, and el Moncayo / 


(a) The Saxon genitive — as: FredencT^s brother, etc. — 
cannot be imitated in Spanish, but must be rendered by 
means of the preposition de: Charleses hat, el sombrero de 

(b) With proper names of countries and towns the pre- 
position in or at is rendered by en, and to by á; thus: in 
Spain, en España; in England, en Inglaterra; at (in) Paris, 
en Paris ; at Berlin, en Berlin, — To go to Paris, to France, 
to Spain: ir á Paris, á Francia, á España, 

Note. — After the verb salir, to set out, to depart, the pre- 
position para is required, thus: Salgo para Italia, I set out for 
Italy. — The verb entrar, to enter, takes en; thus: entrar en 
casa, en Italia, etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 7. 

(c) The preposition on in such cases as Stratford on Avon 
is translated by de; as: 

Aranda de Duero. Miranda de Ebro. 


La provincia, the province. 
Cataluña, Catalonia. 
la seda, the silk. [very. 

la valentía, the valour, bra- 
numeroso, -a, numerous. 
Enrique, Henry. 
Guillermo, William. 
Viena, Vienna. 
Austria, Austria. 
Ñapóles, Naples. 
la capital, the capital, me- 
la iglesia, the church. 
la capa, the (Spanish) cloak. 
(él) invierno, (the) winter. 
la navegación, the navigation. 
menos, less. 

He, I have. 
has, thou hast. 
ha, he (she, it) has. 

Don, Mr. 
Doña, Mrs., Miss. 
el siglo, the century. 
aqui está, here is. 
aqui están, here are. 
hoy, to-day. 
dedicado, -a, dedicated. 
célebre, \ 

famoso, -a, > famous. 
afamado, -a, J 
estimado, -a, esteemed. 
lleva, wears (said of gar- 
se lleva, is worn. 
quiero, I want, I will. 
ir, to go. 
fueron, were (3rd pers. plur.). 

hemos, we have. 
habéis, you have. 
han, they have. 

Beading Exercise. 12. 

Aquí está la capa de Don Luis. En invierno la gente 
lleva capa en España. La capa se lleva mucho en Madrid. 
Madrid es la capital de España. Aqui están los guantes de 
Sofía. He visto el castillo del rey de Sajonia. Alejandro el 
Grande fué rey de Macedonia. Viena es la capital de Austria. 
¿Dónde está el Señor Herrero? ¿Dónde están los niños del 
señor Herrero? París es una gran capital. María es la her- 
mana de Enrique. Guillermo es el primo de Carlos. Esta 
iglesia está dedicada á San Pablo y á Santa Teresa. He visto 
el Apolo de Belvedere y la Venus de Médicis. Don Pedro 
es el hermano de Doña Elvira. El Don Carlos es una célebre 
tragedia de Schiller. Aquí están los jardines y los palacios del 
rey. Napoleon fué el César de su siglo. Andalucía es una 
región de España. Los vinos de España y la seda de Italia 
son estimados. Quiero ir á España y á Italia. Los ejércitos 
españoles fueron siempre famosos por su (their) valentía. El 
ejército de Italia es menos numeroso que el ejército de Rusia. 
Salgo para América. 

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Proper Names. 

Traducción. 13. 

Where is Lewis's hat? Here are Elvira's gloves. Have 
yon seen the castles of the Qaeen of Spain? Paris is the 
capital of France, and Madrid is the capital of Spain. Henry 
is William's brother, and Elvira is Mary's cousin. Hast thou 
seen William and Charles ? To whom (Á quiénes) are these 
churches dedicated? They are dedicated to St. Paul and to 
St. Ann (Ana). The King of Saxony and the Queen of Eng- 
land are in Paris. French wool and Spanish wines are cele- 
brated. Wilt thou go to France or te Italy? I will go to 
Spain, and te-morrow I set out for Madrid. The Spanish 
army is less numerous than the Italian army. Barcelona is 
a province of Catalonia. Have you read (leído) the tragedies of 
Schiller and the comedies (comedias) of Moliere? Italian silk 
is famous. The situation of England is very favourable to 
navigation. To-day we have seen William and Henry, Mary 
and Theresa. Here are Charles's books. (Mount) Vesuvius 
is near (cerca de) Naples. Spanish wool (lana) is much es- 


¿Dónde está el sombrero de 
D. (Don) Luis? 

¿Qué ha viste el extranjero 

¿ Cómo se llama (is called) la 
capital de España? 

¿Y cómo se llama la capital 
de Inglaterra? 

¿Don Carlos es el hermano 
de Doña Ana? 

¿Á quién está dedicada esa 

¿Cómo se llama aquella fa- 
mosa tragedia de Schiller? 

¿Adonde (Whither^ where) 
quieres ir? 

¿Dónde está el rey de Ingla- 

¡Mariana, trae (bring) la en- 
salada (salad)\ 

¿Qué se dice del ejército es- 

Está sobre la mesa. 

Ha visto el palacio del rey y 
los jardines de la reina. 

La capital de España se llama 

La capital de Inglaterra es 

No, señor, es su (her) primo. 

Está dedicada á San Pablo y 
á Santa María. 

Se titula Don Carlos, infante 
de España. 

Quiero ir á Italia y á Ingla- 

Está en Windsor. 

¡Aquí está, señor! 

Que fué siempre famoso por 
su valentía. 

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82 Lesson 8. 

Eighth Lesson. — Lección octava. 

The Auxiliary Verb Haber, to haye. — El yerbo 
auxiliar haber. 

Indicative Mood. 

Simple Tenses. 


(To) he, I have. (nosotros, nosotras) hemos 

(habernos)* we have. 
(tú) has, thou hast. (vosotros, vosotras) habéis, you 

(él, ella; V,) ha, he, she, has; (ellos, ellas; Y Y.) han, they 
you have. have; you (pi.) have. 

Había, I had. habíamos, we had. 

habías, thou hadst. habíais, you had. 

había, he had. habían, they had. 

Hube, I had. hubimos, we had. 

hubiste, thou hadst. hubisteis, you had. 

hubo, he had. hubieron, they had. 

Habré, I shall have. habremos, we shall have. 

habrás, thou wilt have. habréis, you will have. 

habrá, he will have. habrán, they will have. 

Conditional Mood. 

Habría, I should have. habríamos, we should have. 

habrías, thou wouldst have. habríais, you would have. 
habría, he would have. habrían, they would have. 

Imperative Mood. 

Hé (tú), have (thou). Habed (vosotros), have (you). 

Past Participle. 

Habido, had. 

Compound Tenses. 

Compound Perfect. 
He \ I have j hemos\ we have \ 

has ¡habido, thou hast > had. habéis)habido, jou ha.Ye \hdLa. 
ha j he has j han | they have» 

* Almost obsolete. 

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The Auxiliary Verb Haber, to have. 33 

HaUa \ g I had | habíamos] |* we had \ 

habías > g thou hadst ; had. habíais \ g you had > had. 
habia js^ be had ) habían ) o they had ) 

2nd Pluperfect 
Hube \ ^ I had | hubimos \ g we had \ 

hubiste)^, thou hadst) had. ^w6¿s¿cis>g you had > had. 
hubo ]^ he had ) hubieron) S" they had) 

Compound Future, 
Habré \ f I shall ) , habremos \ ^ we shall ) , 

habrás >|t thou wilt } ?^T® habréis }^. you will } ^*T® 
habrá }F be will J ^^^' habrán }P they will! *^*^- 

Compound Conditional. 

Habría] I" I should \ , habríamos) ^ we should K 

habrías) |í thou wouldst) , , habríais ) |í you would >, ^T® 

^&na js' be would ]^^^' habrían ) §^ theywouldj^^^- 

Gerund (Present Participle). 

Habiendo, having. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Haya, I have. hayamos, we have. 

hayas, thou have. hayáis, you have. 

haya, he have. hayan, they have. 

Hubiese, that I had. hubiésemos, that we had. 

hubieses, that thou hadst. hubieseis, that you had. 

hubiese, that he had. hubiesen, that they had. 

(Si) hubiere, *(if) I shall have. (Si) hubiéremos, we shall have. 
» hubieres, thou wilt have. » hubiereis, you will have. 
> hubiere, he will have. » Aw&^erew, they will have. 

Hubiera, (that) I should have, hubiéramos, we should have. 
hubieras, thou wouldst have. hubierais, you would have. 
hubiera, he would have. hubieran, they would have. 

Compound Tenses. 
These are formed like those of the Indicative, by adding 
habido to the respective form of the simple tense, thus: 
Haya habido, that I have had. 
hubiese habido, that I bad bad. 
hubiere habido, that I shall have had. 
hubiera habido, that I should have had. 

Spanish CJonv.-Grammar. 3 

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84 Lesson 8. 


1. The tenses of the Indicative Mood are the same as in 
the other Romance* languages; the Subjunctive Mood, how- 
ever, has two tenses peculiar to the Spanish language. Of their 
employment we shall speak when treating of the regular verb, 
and again in Less. 20, Part. IL These tenses are the Fu- 
ture and the CondUianal. For the present we merely state 
that the Conditional of the Indicative and that of the Sub- 
junctive differ but little in their signification, so that they 
may be used indiscriminately. Thus the sentence: He would 
have had friends, is either: Habria tenido amigos or hubiera 
tenido amigos. 

2. In Conditional clauses the verb stands in the Imper- 
fect of the Subjunctive, whereas the verb of the principal 
sentence is put in the Conditional of the Indicative or of the 
Subjunctive; thus: 

If I had had money (conditional clause), I should have 
had friends (principal clause). 

Si huMese** tenido dinero habria tenido amigos, or 
» » » » hubiera » » 

3. For the Future of the Subjunctive see Part IL, On 
the Use of Tenses. 

4. Like ser (to be) the verb haber is a true auxiliary — 
i.e., it only forms the compound tenses of other verbs, as: 
ha sido, he has been; hubo amado, he had loved. If, on the 
contrary, "to have" is a principal verb— i.e., if it governs 
an direct and signifies to possess, as : I have a house = 
I possess a house— it must always be rendered by tener (pro- 
perly "to hold"), thus: 

I have money, is not transí, he dinero, but luengo dinero.á friends, is » » hubo amigos, » Tuvo amigos. 
For this reason, the Imperative of haber is no longer 
used in conversation. 

5. In the signification of the English "there is," "there 
are" (and the French il y a), haber is still a principal verb^ 
but only in the 3rd person of the singular; hay in some 
cases is replaced by ha, as ha mucho que no le he visto, it is 
a long time since I have seen him. 

* i.e., of Latin (Roman) origin— wx?., French, Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese, Provencal, etc. 

** We may also employ the Conditional of the Subjunctive 
after si (if), as: si hubiera, if I had, but we must use the same 
tense in the following principal sentence, or the Conditional of the 
Indicative : 

Si hubiera tenido dinero, haibria tenido amigos. 
» » » » , hubiera » » 

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Tenefj to have, to hold. 85 

Hay* hombres, there are men. 
hahia * » were men. 

hubo » » were men. 

habrá » > will be men. 

habría » > would be men. 

Only in this signification the compound tenses with the 
participle habido are admissible, as: " 

Habrá habido hombres, there will have been men. 

6. Haber de with the Infinitive corresponds to "must," 
"shall," etc., as: He de pagarle, I must (shall) pay him. 
Tener que has the same signification, as: Tengo que Tiablar 
con ü, I must speak with him (lit. I have to speak, etc.). 

7. The polite mode of addressing a person (the English 
you) introduces a pecuHiar word : Vuestra merced (your Grace) 
which always requires the third person singular of the verb. 
The full form of this word is no longer used, it having been 
replaced by usted — in writing, F. — Usted is the common 
mode of addressing all persons, without distinction of rank, 
provided they are not relations of the speaker. The Spaniard 
addresses even a beggar in V. The plural form ustedes 
(accented ustedes), a contraction from vuestras mercedes, short- 
ened Yds. or VV., is used in addressing several persons. 
The verb is then in the third person plural. Thus: Have you ? 
is translated: ¿Tiene V.? /pron. tiene uste(d)]. Had you? 
¿Tuvo v.? Shall you (plur.) have? ¿Tendrán Yds,? (pron. 
tendrán ustedes). 

Near relations commonly address each other in tú 
(thou), without totally excluding V,, as: (tú) Puedes decir^ 
meló, you may tell it me (speaking to a brother). 

(As the verb haber offers too little material for Reading 
£xercise and Translation, we at once pass on to the verb tener, 
which however is no auxiliary, but a principal verb.) 

Ninth Lesson. — Lección novena. 

Tener, to have, to hold. 

Tengo, I have (hold). tenemos, we have (hold). 

tienes, thou hast. tenéis, you have. 

tiene, he has. tienen, they have. 

* In the compound tense (Compound Perfect), however, ha 
(and not hay) habido, there has been (there was). 


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86 Lesson 9. 

Tenia, I had (held). teníamos, we had (held). 

tenias, thou hadst. teníais, you had. 

tenia, he had. tenían, they had. 

Tuve, I had (held). tuvimos, we had (held), 

¿tiria^e, thou hadst. tuvisteis, you had. 

¿t«t;o, he had. tuvieron, they had. 

Tendré, I shall have (hold). tendremos, we shall have. 
tendrás, thou wilt have. tendréis, you will have. 

tendrá, he will have. ¿cwdrán, they will have. 


Tendría, I should have (hold), tendríamos, we should have. 
tendrías, thou wouldst have. tendríais, you would have, 
fcnilria, he would have. tendrían, they would have. 


Ten, have (thou). Tened, have (you). 


Tenido, had (held). . 

Compound Tenses, 
Compound Perfect, 
He \ I have j hemos\ we have | 

has > tenido, thou hast > had. ^aí>á¿5| tenido, you have ;had. 
^a I he has ) ^an j they have J 

Había \ S" I had \ habíamos \ ^ we had | 

habías ) |. th. hadst ; had. habíais > |. you had > had. 

había ) §" he had | habían ¡S' they had) 

2nd Pluperfect. 
Hube I ^ I had | hubimos \ S" we had \ 

hubiste)^ th. hadst /had.' ^tt6is¿eis>|. you had >had. 

hubo ) ^ he had ) huibieron ) §" they had ) 

Compound Future, 

Habré \^ I shall 1 , ' habremos]"^ we shall 1 1,-_^ 

habrás }| thou wilt l^^d ^<^^réis >|. you will )^J^ 

"' ] ' habrán J 

Compound Conditional, 

i i Ihave ^cib^ici'^os , 

g. th. wouldst > , T habríais / 1. you would > . , 
S' he would J ^^^' habHan J I' they wouldj ^^^' 

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habrá }^ he will ) ^^^' habrán ¡^ they will)^*^- 

Compound Conditional, 
Habría ) §• I should 1 , habríamos) ^ we should K 

Exercises. 37 

Teniendo, having (holding). 

Tenga, I have. tengamos, we have. 

tengas, thou have. tengáis, you have. 

tenga, he have. tengan, they have. 

Tuviese, that I had. tuviésemos, that we had. 

tuvieses, that thou hadst. tuvieseis, that you had. 

tuviese, that he had. tuviesen, that they had. 

(Si) Tuviere, if I shall have. (si) tuviéremos,iíyíeshsllhd,ye, 

> tuvieres, if thou wilt have. » tuviereis, if you will have. 

> tuviere, if he will have. » tuviesen, if they will have. 


Ti«t;iera, that I should 1 ^ ¿tivíáramo^, that we should have. 
tuvieras, that thou wouldst \ % tuvierais, that you would have. 
tuviera, that he would J ® iwwcraw, that they would have. 

Compound Tenses. 

These are formed, as in the Indicative mood, by adding 
tenido to the respective simple tenses of haber. Thus : 
Compound Perfect : Haya tenido, I have had. 
Pluperfect: Hubiese tenido, that I had had. 

Compound Future : HuMere tenido, that (if) I shall have had. 
Compound Conditional: Hubiera tenido, that I should have had. 

N.B. — The Participle, if used with haber, is always in- 
variable; if with tener, it is not. Thus: ella había amado, 
she had loved; ellos han tenido, they have had; las casas que 
he tenido, the houses (which) I have had. — But: tengo leídos 
muchos libros (or Uidas muchas cartas), I have already read 
many books (letters). 

Tenth Lesson. — Lección diez. 

Exercises. — Ejercicios. 


Xa rigwe^a, (the) riches, wealth, el protector, the protector. 
la pobreza, (the) poverty. la pérdida, the loss. 

el influjo, \ ^ i^fl^^^^^ el ánimo, the courage. 
la influencia, f ^"""«"v^. ^i f^tedo, the fear. 


by Google 

S8 Lesson 10. 

la Exposición, the Exhibition, amado, loved. 

eldesdichadOtthennhd^ppjmtkn, logrado, got, obtained. 

el ¡holgazán, the idler. enviado, sent. 

el hambre (f.), (the) hunger. pagado, paid. 

la sed, (the) thirst. recibido, received. 

la libertad, (the) liberty, free- perdió, he (she) lost. 

dom. debe, he (she) owes. 

la mercancía, the merchandise, sabido, learned. 

d principe, the prince. poco, -a, a little. 

la gana, a mind (to do some- más, more. 

thing); the appetite. pero, but. 

Za nación, the nation. g por qué . . .^, why ? ; porgue be- 
l^odccwio, \ g^ff..^^ cause. 

Beading Exercise. 14. 
¿Hay dinero en esa bolsa? ¿Hubo hombres en el jardín? 
Habrá muchas flores en los jardines de la Exposición. La ri- 
queza y la pobreza tienen un gran influjo sobre los hombres. 
Tuve protectores, pero los (them) he perdido. Hemos sufrido 
grandes pérdidas. ¡Tened ánimo! ¡No tengáis miedo! Habría 
menos desdichados, si hubiese menos holgazanes. ¿Tiene V. 
dinero? ¿Tienen Yds. hambre ó sed? ¿Ha amado Y. á ese 
hombre? El capitán no habría logrado su libertad, si no 
hubiese tenido grandes protectores. Le habría enviado á V. 
más mercancías, si Y. me (me) hubiese pagado. (Él) no me 
ha pagado el dinero que (which) me debe (owes). Cuando 
(él) hubo recibido su (his) dinero, lo (it) perdió. No he re- 
cibido las mercancías que Y. me ha enviado. Habiendo sabido 
por mi criado que el capitán está aquí, le (him) he enviado 
todos sus libros. El desdichado no tendrá protectores. ¿Ha 
visto Y. los castillos del rey? Los niños de nuestro tío ten- 
drán papel y plumas, tinta y lápices. Los hermanos de nuestro 
jardinero han sufrido una gran pérdida. ¿Por qué tuvo 
Y. miedo? Ha* habido muchos criados en el palacio del 
príncipe. El holgazán no tiene jamás gana de trabajar. El 
señor N. tendría más dinero, si hubiese tenido gana de traba- 
jar. La libertad tiene un gran influjo sobre las naciones. 
El general quiere que Y. no tenga miedo. Ha de pagar Y. 
el dinero que (Y.) perdió. Tendré que hablar con Y. 

Tradnccióu. 15. 

1. This man had great riches. What have you to tell 
me (decirme)*^ The footman was always thirsty (tr. had 
always thirst). Riches (sing,) will always have a great in- 
fluence on (the) men. Are there any large towns in this 

* See page 35**. 

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Exercises. 89 

country? There (have always been) were always men who 
(que) had no mind to work. I will not (have you lose heart) 
that you have (suhj, pres,) fear*. I ha^á to speak to you 
yesterday. We should have many friends if we had more 
money. I have lost the protectors whom (que) I had. The 
unhappy man has always had poor friends. Had you much 
money in the purse which you have lost ? The prince would 
have obtained his liberty had he had more protectors. Why 
have you not sent me (me precedes the verb) the merchandise 
(pi.)? I had no mind to speak with (á) the prince. 

2. The idle man is hungry (tr. has h.), but he will not 
work. Are you hungry or Üiirsty (tr. have you h. or th.)? 
Mast you pay the money which the footman has lost? 
These nations have sustained** great losses. There are men 
who love (the) liberty more than (the) riches (sing.). Why 
have you not loved this man? These nations had always 
good (buenos) princes. The prince had two castles and three 
palaces in (the) town. Do you know (sahe V.) how many 
(cuánto, -a) provinces Spain has? Has Mr. Figueredo many 
books? He has more books than my father and my cousin (m.), 
I had already (ya begins the sentence) paid (for) these goods 
yesterday. Thou wilt have the money to-morrow. He had 
had unfortunate friends. 

¿ Quién ha tenido dinero? El comerciante ha tenido mu- 

cho dinero? 
¿Tiene el criado hambre ó No tiene hambre, pero tiene 

sed? siempre sed. 

¿Hay flores en ese jardín? Hay en ól flores y árboles. 

¿ Qué tiene un gran influjo La riqueza y la pobreza tienen 

sobre los hombres? un gran influjo sobre los 

¿Que tendrá la señorita El- Tendrá un hermoso espejo 

vira? (looTdng-glass). 

¿Cuántas horas (hours) tiene El día tiene veinticuatro horas. 

el día? 
¿Tiene V. que hablar con mi No, señor, tengo que hablar 

hermano? con V. 

¿Por qué no tiene amigos el Porque no tiene dinero. 

desdichado ? 
¿Tuvo muchos palacios el Tuvo dos palacios y muchos 

principe? jardines. 

* For the convenience of the beginner the English text is 
occasionally modified, so that a literal translation may be good 

** Transí, suffered. 

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Lesson 11. 

i Por qué no me ba pagado V. ? 
¿Ha sabido V. que mi padre 

ba sufrido una pérdida? 
¿Ha visto V. las mercancías? 

Porque no be tenido dinero. 
No, sefior, no lo be sabido. 

No las be visto. 

Eleventh Lesson. — Lección once. 

The Auxiliary Verb Ser, to be. — El verbo auxiliar 
ser^ to be. 


(nosotros) somos, we are. 
(vosotros) sois, you are. 
(ellos) son, they are. 


éramos, we were. 
erais, you were. 
eran, they were. 


fuimos, we were. 
fuisteis, you were. 
fueron, they were. 


seremos, we shall be. 
seréis, you will be. 
serán, they will be. 


seriamos, we should be. 
seríais, you would be. 
serían, thej would be. 


sed, be (you). 


Sido, been. 

Compound Tenses. 
Compound Perfect. 
He sido, I havo been. hemos sido, we have been. 

has sido, thou hast been. habéis sido, you have been. 

ha sido, he has been. han sido, they have been. 

(Yo) sop, I am. ' 
(tú) eres, thou art. 
(él) es, he is. 

Era, I was. 
eras, thou wast. 
era, he was. 

Fui, I was. 
fuiste, thou wast. 
fué, he was. 

Seré, 1 shall be. 
serás, thou wilt be. 
será, he will be. 

Seria, I should be. 
serias, thou wouldst be. 
seria, he would be. 

Sé, be (thou). 

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The Auxiliary Verb 5er, to be. 41 

Había sido, I bad been. hdbiamos sido, we bad been. 

Mbias sido, tboti badst been, habíais sido, you bad been. 
Mhia sido, be had been. habían sido, they had been. 

3nd Pluperfect 
Htibe sido, I had been. hubimos sido, we had been. 

hubiste Hdo, thou hadst been, hubisteis sido, you had been. 
hubo, sido, he had been. hubieron sido, they had been. 

Compound Future. 
Habré sido, I shall | , habremos sido, we shall j , 

habrás sido, thou wilt}, habréis sido, you will >i^^^ 

habrá sido, he will ) ^^^' habrán sido, they will) ^®®'^- 

Compound Conditional. 
Habría sido, I should j, ^^riamosstdo, we should!. 

habrías sido, th. wouldst; ?*^® habríais sido, you wo'il<^rv>f!J^ 
Ju¿bría sido, he would j habrían sido, they would) ^ 

Siendo, being. 


Sea, I be. seamos, we be. 

seas, thou be. 5eíí¿5, you be. 

sea, he be. sean, they be. 

Fuese, I were. fuésemos, we were. 

fueses, thou wert. fueseis, you were. 

/mcsc, he were. fuesen, they were. 

Fuere, (if) I shall be. fuéremos, (if) we shall be. 

fueres, > thou wilt be. fuereis, > you will be. 

/were, > he will be. fueren, » they will be. 


Fuera, that I should be. fuéramos, that we should be. 

fueras, that thou wouldst be. fuerais, that you would be. 
/«era, that he would be. fueran, th&t they would be. 

Compound Tenses. 

Like those of the Indicative Mood, the compound tenses 
of the Subjunctive are formed by adding the Participle sido 
to the respective forms of the Subjunctive of haber, thus : 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

42 Lesson 11. 

Haya sido, I have been. 
Hubiese sido, that I had been. 
Hubiere sido, if I shall have been. 
Hubiera sido, that I should have been. 


1. Ser is used with nouns, adjectives, etc., in order to 
express a permanent state of existence of the sabject, as: 
Ser hombre, to be a man; ser general, to be a general; ser 
bueno, malo, to be good, bad, etc. Here the qualities attri- 
buted to the subject appear as characteristic and, as it were, 
inseparable from it. Such qualities are size, dignity, ncUionaJ- 
ity, office, occupation, etc. Thus: 

Ese señor es juez, francés, general, pintor, alto, bajo^ etc. 
This gentleman is a judge, a Frenchman, a general, a 
painter, tall, short, etc. 

2. On the contrary, estar is used when the attribute 
appears merely accidental, or if a dwelling in any place what- 
ever is to be expressed. Thus: 

Está cansado, he is tired. 
No está en casa, he is not at home. 
Some examples will show the difference between the two 

Ese hombre es bueno, malo, this man is good, bad. 
Ese hombre está bueno*, malo, this man is well, un- 
well (in good gealth, in bad health), etc. 
In the first example, the quality is a characteristic and 
permanent one; in the second, it is accidental and transient. 
Esta puerta es alta, this door is high (i.6., the quality 

is permanent). 
Esta puerta está cerrada, this door is shut (i.e., in 

this moment, but it might be open). 
The pupil should carefully compare the following sentences : 
El señor N. es muy docto, Mr. N. is a very learned man. 
Estamos prontos, we are ready. 
Es librero, he is a bookseller. 
Estoy contento, I am satisfied. 
Somos fuertes, cuerdos, we are strong, prudent. 
Estar en el paseo, en el café, en el campo, to be on the 

promenade**, at the coffee-house, in the country. 
Ser rey, to be king. 

* Estar bien means also: to be at ease. 
** el paseo—i.e., the avenue, park, public gardens, quay, 
place or street where the townspeople usually take their walk. 

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Estar^ to be. 43 

Es sabio, rico, etc., he is wise, rich, etc. 

Ya estamos aqui, now we are here. 

Bon Fulano es de Paris, Mr. N. is from Paris. 

3. Sometimes ser and estar may be coupled with the 
same word, as: 

8er enamorado, to be of an amorous disposition. 

Estar enamorado, to be in love. 

But here, again, in the first example the quality is a 
characteristic mark of the person; in the second, however, it 
is merely accidental and transitory. 

4. The Passive voice of the verb is always formed with 
ser, as: Ser amado, to be loved. The compound tenses do 
not differ from the English: He sido amado, I have been 
loved. (See the Passive Voice,) 

5. The adjectives atento, attentive; contento, satisfied; 
libre, free; enfadado, angry, are commonly used with estar. 

6. Very often estar with the Gerund is an equivalent 
for to be with the present participle, as : 

Estoy buscando á mi hermano, I am looking for my 

Estaba leyendo un libro, I was reading a book. 

Twelfth Lesson. — Lección doce. 

Estar, to toe*. 

Jfj I am. estamos, we are. 

^9tás, thou art. estáis, you are. 

wW, he is. están, they are. 

Estaba, I was. estábamos, we were. 

^abas, thou wast. estabais, you were. 

estaba, he was. estaban, they were. 

Estuve, I was. estuvimos, we were. 

tuviste, thou wast. estuvisteis, you were. 

estuvo, he was. estuvieron, they were. 

* We need not add that estar (like tener) is no auxiliary, 
*^^t a principal verb. 

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44 Lesson 12. 

Estaré, I shall be. estaremos, we shall be. 

estarás, thou wilt be. estaréis, you will be. 

estará, he will be. estarán, they will be. 


Estaría, I should be. estaríamos, we should be. 

estarías, thou wouldst be. estaríais, you would be. 

estaría, he would be. estarían, they would be. 

Está, be (thou). estad, be (you). 

Estado, been. 

Compound Tenses. 

Compound Perfect. 
He estado, I have been. hemos estado, we have been. 

has estado, thou hast been. habéis estado, you have been. 
ha estado, he has been. han estado, they have been. 

Había \ I had | ^ habíamos) 8 we had | 

h<Mas) estado, th. hadst>Í habíais ||* you had [been. 
haUa ] he had J ? habían \P they had j 

2nd Pluperfect. 
Hube I I had . | ^ hubimos | S we bad 1 

hubiste \ estado, th. hadst > * hubisteis \ S* you had \ been. 
hubo J he had J? hubieron]^ they had J 

Compound Future. 

Habré \ I shall ) , habremos ) S we shall ] , 

habrás \ estado, th. wilt ^^^® ^aftrew |" you will ?*J® 

^aftrá J he will J ^®'*- habrán \f they will J *^®®^- 

Compound Conditional. 

Habría estado, I should have habríamos estado, we should 

etc. been. etc. have been. 


Estando, being. 

Esté, I be. estemos, we be. 

estés, thou be. estéis, you be. 

esté, he be. estén, they be. 

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Exercises. -45 

Estuviese, I were. estuviésemos, we were. 

estuvieses, thou wert. estuvieseis, you were. 

estuviese, he were. estuviesen, they were. 

Estuviere, ' (that) I shall be. estuviéremos, (that) we shall be. 
estuvieres, (that) thou wilt be. estuviereis, (that) you will be. 
estuviere, (that) he will be. estuvieren, (that) they will be. 

Estuniera, that I should be. estuviéramos, thB,t we síhonláhe, 
es^wwra^, that thou wouldst be. estuvierais, that you would be. 
estuviera, that he would be. estuvieran, that they would be. 

Compound Tenses, 
Like those of the Indicative Mood, they are formed 
by joining the Participle estado to the Subjunctive of 
haber ^ as: 

Haya estado, (that) I have been. 
hubiese estado, that I had been. 
hubiere estado, that I shall have been. 
hubiera estado, that I should have been. 

Bule, — The past participle, used with haber, is al- 
ways invariable, as in EngHsh; thus: 

ÉH ha estado, he has been. 

eUa ha estado, she has been (and not estada), 

eUo8 han estado, they (m,) have been (and not estados). 

ellas han estado, they (f,) have been (and not estadas). 

Thirteenth Lesson. — Lección trece. 

Exercises. — Ejercicios. 

El deseo, the wish, desire. el viaje, the journey. 

ia manera, the manner. el extranjero, the foreign coun- 

^ sueño, the dream. try; al extranjero, abroad. 

^ cosa, the thing. el bebedero, the trough, bird's 

^ situación, the situation. trough. 

el heredero, the heir. la cruz, the cross. 

^ precio, the price. el pájaro, the bird. 

el ceibal juicio, the good sense, la virtud, the virtue. 

^ error, the mistake. el reina, the kingdom. 

h piedra, the stone. la aldea, the village. 

^l duque, the duke. eí concierto, the concert. 

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46 Lesson 13. 

la viuda, the widow. adornar, to adoro. 

d edificio, the building, edifice, mirar, to look at. 

la plaza, the square. conquistar, to conquer. 

el baile, the ball. alcanzar, to obtain, to get. 

la compañía, the company. vivir, to live, to dwell. 

la prosperidad, the happiness, muerto, died (Past, p.), dead. 

prosperity. tarde, late. 

lastimoso, -a, sorry, sad. lejos, far. 

precioso, -a, precious. j?or desgracia, unfortunately. 

enfadado, -a, cross. a^wi, here. 

cierto, -a, certain. de paso, for the time being, 
colmado, -a, filled. actually. 

favorable, favourable. en medio, in the middle, amidst. 

Reading Exercise. 16. 

El deseo de alcanzar fama es activo en muchos hombres. 
El suefio no es más que una fantasía (fantasy). Mi situación 
es muy lastimosa, no obstante de ser* yo un heredero rico. 
Las mercancías inglesas son de precios moderados. Y. no está 
en su cabal juicio. V. estuvo en un error. ¿Estará V. en 
casa mañana? Esta cruz de oro estaba adornada de muchas 
piedras preciosas. El duque y la duquesa están aquí de paso 
en su viaje al extranjero. Los niños- tendrán de cuatro á 
cinco años. Estoy mirando (looking) si (whether) el bebedero 
del pájaro tiene agua. Doña Julia está muy enfadada hoy. 
Por desgracia es cierto que el hijo de la pobre viuda ha 
muerto. ¿Qué edificio es aquel que está en medio de la plaza? 
¿Estuvieron Vds. ayer en el baile? No hubo baile ayer. 
Sería muy hermoso este viaje, si no hiciese tanto calor (were 
not so hot). El duque ha estado en su palacio, y la duquesa 
estuvo en el extranjero. La vida es un sueño. Los niños no 
están en su cabal juicio. Mi padre quiere que yo esto en 
casa todo el día. Es una cosa deliciosa vivir en compañía 
de un amigo. La casa de su amigo de F.** está muy lejos 
de la ciudad. ¡Quiera (would to) Dios que sus años de V. 
sean colmados de toda (all) prosperidad! Las plazas fuertes 
de todo el reino están conquistadas. 

Traducción. 17. 

Where are you*"^? Were you at home yesterday? No, 
sir, I was not at home. I was at the concert. The cross of 
the duchess was (set) adorned with precious stones. A poet 

* no obstante de ser, although I am. In English, the Infini- 
tive following no obstante should be rendered by the respective 
tense of the verb. 

** you when printed in italics is always V. — For Your, 
see the Note on page 48. 

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Exercises. 47 

says (dice): (the) Error is (the) life. The duke and the 
dnchess are travelling {tr, on a journey) abroad. In the middle 
of the square there is a large palace and a beautiful garden. 
The building is very for from the village (la aldea). Where 
was (Def,) the son of the widow? The trough of the bird is 
without water. (The) Fortune is a precious thing; but (the) 
virtue is more (más) precious. Your cousin (m,) is very cross 
to-day. unfortunately it is certain that the emperor has died. 
There were ten precious stones on the cross. The prices of 
(the) English goods are very moderate. Your brother (Su 
hermano de F.) has been greatly mistaken (transí, in a great 
mistake). Why are you not* satisfied with (con) your situ- 
ation? I wish you to be (tr, I wish that you be) at home 
at 12 o'clock (á las doce). If you were in Madrid» your si- 
tuation would be more favourable. Were you not at the con- 
cert yesterday? I should have been at home if your brother 
had come (venido). It is already (ya) somewhat (algo) 
late; why did you not come at ten o'clock (á las diee)l 
This man has always been very happy (feliz); notwithstand- 
ing (sin embargo) he is not satisfied with his (su) situation. 
I was just reading a book, when (cuando) my brother came 
(vino). What are you looking for? I am looking {tr. searching) 
for my hat. 

¿Dónde está el duque? Está en el palacio de la duquesa. 

¿Qué deseo es activo en los El deseo de alcanzar fama y 

hombres? riqueza. 

¿Qué es el sueño? El suefio es una cosa fantástica. 

¿Por qué se lastima (compíatn) Porque mi situación es muy 

V.? lastimosa. 

¿ Cómo son los precios de esos Son muy (very) moderados. 

géneros (commodities)'^ 
¿ Estuvo V. ayer en su casa ? No, señor, estuve en casa de 

mi primo. 
¿De qué (With what) estaba Estaba adornada de muchas 

adornada la cruz del obispo piedras preciosas. 

(bishop) 'i 
¿ Qué edad es la de V.? (or tiene Tengo treinta años (lam . . . 

V?) — (How old are you ?) old), ' 
¿Qué estás leyendo? Estoy leyendo el Don Quijote. 

¿Está V. buscando su som- No, señora, estoy buscando 

brero? mis guantes. 

¿Quién ha muerto? El hijo de la pobre viuda ha 


* In Spanish, the meaning of a verb is rendered negative 
by prefixing fto to it, as : I do not think, (Yo) no pienso. 

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48 I^esson 14. 

¿No puede (^Canno^^V. decirme El edificio que e$tá en medio 
(tell me) qué (what) edificio de la plaza es el Tribunal 
es aquel? Real (royáí). 

¿Qué quiere su padre de V.?* Quiere que esté hoy en casa 

hasta la tarde. 
¿Cómo está su padre de V.? Está un poco indispuesto (un- 

Fourteenth Lesson. — Lección catorce. 

DetermlnatiTe Adyectiyes. — Ádjectíyos deter- 
!• BemonstratiTe Adjectiyes. — Adjectiros demostratiyos. 

They are; 

Sing. Plur. 

JStoíe**, esta, esto, this estos, estas, these. 

Bse, esa, eso, that esos, esas, those. 

Aquel, aquélla, aquéllo, that aquellos, aquellas, those. 

Demonstratives are considered to be Pronouns when 
employed zvithout a substantive. When employed with 
a substantive, they are Adjectives. 

§ 1. These demonstratives diflfer as follows. Este 
refers to anything which is near the speaker, and ese 
to anything which is near the person addressed. Thus 
este sombrero means this hat (near me), whereas ese 
sambrero means this or that hat (near you). Aquel, on 
the contrary, refers to a person or a thing distant from 
the speaker as well as from the person addressed to. 
Again esta ciudad is the town where the speaker or 
writer lives; esa ciudad means the town in which the 
person to whom I write or speak Hves — i.e., your, town'; 
aquélla ciudad is neither my town nor yours, but another 
place remote from both. 

§ 2. The forms esto (this), eso, and aquello are 
neuter (like the article lo\ and difíer in the same way. 
They may never be. coupled with a substantive. Ex.: 

¿Le has hablado de eso? Have you spoken to him of 
it? (of that, thereof etc.) 

* Your (polite mode) is expressed el . . . de V. (the ... of 
you), or more elegantly su . . . de V. (your ... of you). (See the 
following Lesson.) 

** JDe este, de esta, de esto were formerly contracted into 
deste, desta, desto. This practice is now obsolete. 

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Determinative Adjectives. 49 

§ 3. JEZ mistifio, la misma, lo mismo^ the same. 

This demonstrative takes the definite article as 
well as the indefinite. Preceded by un, it corresponds 
to the English similar or like; thus: 

El mismo árbol, the same tree. 

Del mismo árbol, of the same tree, etc. 

Un mismo uniforme, a similar (the like) uniform. 

Mismo may also be joined to este, ese, and aqud, 
and then means the very same, or this very . . ., as: 
Este mismo hombre, the identical man. 
io mismo is neuter and means the same thing. 

2. Interrogative Adjectives. 

§ 4. ¿ Qué? what? which? is invariable as to 
ier and number; and its sense is more general 
than that of ¿cuál? thus: , 
¿Qué hombre? What man? 
¿ Qué culpa tengo ? What is my fanlt ? i.e., in what 

does my. fanlt consist? 
¿Qué libro tiene Y,? Which book have you got? 

Qué is also exclamativo, as: 

/ Qué hombre ! What a man I 

If followed by an adjective, tan (so, so much) or 
más, most (utmost) should be added, as: 

/ Qué mujer tan, hermosa ! What a beautiful woman I 
/ Qué casa más alta! What a high house! 
N.B,— Indirect interrogative sentences are also intro- 
duced by qué, as: 

No sabemos qué pasajeros han llegado. 

We do not know which passengers have arrived. 

Preguntaba qué noticias traía el vapor, 

I was asking what news the steamer brought. 

§ 5. The interrogative and exclam^itive qué, when 
joined to the Accusative of a person, does not, like the 
relative pronoun que (see Lesson 26), admit of the pre- 
position á; thus: 

¿ Qué hombre ha visto V, ? Which man have you seen? 
and not: ¿A qué hombre ha visto V,? 

§ 6. ¿Cuál? ¿Qué? what? which?; ¿cuál? which? 
what? (plur. ¿cuáles?) are invariable only as to gender, 

Spanish Conv. -Grammar. * 

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50 Lesson 14. 

and used to specify or distinguish between two or 
more persons or things : 

¿Cuál hombre? which man? what man? 

¿Cuál mujer? which woman? 
PI. ¿ Cuáles hombres ? ¿ Cuáles mujeres ? which men ? which 

La carta, the letter. majestuosOy -a, majestic. 

ü muchacho, the boy. pesado, -a, heavy. 

la callé, the street. natural, native, born in. 

la arquitectura, the architec- alto, -a, high. 

tore. primorosamente, first rate, 

la iglesia, the church. very well. 

el nombre, the name. hablo, I speak. 

la tienda, the shop. habla, he (she) speaks. 

la señora, the lady. mire F. , look! (3rd Sing. 

el lujo, the magnificence. Imper.) 

la carga, the burden, weight, se llama, is named. 
el oficial, the officer. comprado, bought. 

(H cuarto, the room. hecho, done, made. 

el color, the colour. cómo, how. 

á^-i^vii "»'•»«••'• 

dos, two. 

Beading Exercise. 18. 
Este hombre. Aquellas cartas. Esa mujer. Ese muchacho, 
i Qué calle tan hermosa! Ese {or aquel) teatro es muy grande. 
Esta casa no es grande. La arquitectura de aquella {pr esa) 
iglesia es majestuosa. iMire V. estos árboles! Aquellas dos 
señoras son extranjeras; son cantantes (singers). Esta señora 
es natural de Madrid (es madrileña), ¿Cómo se llama este 
café? ¡Qué lujo en esta casa! lOh qué carga tan pesada! 
¿Está bueno su amigo de Y. en esa ciudad? ¿Tiene V. el 
mismo libro que tengo yo? Aquellos oficiales tenían un mismo 
uniforme. He visto á las mismas señoras que usted ha visto. 
¿Qué deseo tiene su hermano de V.? ¿Cuál hombre estuvo 
en mi cuarto ? No hablo de este hombre sino (but) de aquel. 
El mismo color. Las mismas personas. El hijo de aquel 
hombre es muy pequeño. He comprado las mismas plumas 
en la tienda de aquel mismo hombre. Hemos leído los mismos 

Tradnccién. 19. 

This man is rich. That boy is poor. Those women were 
in my room. Have you seen that theatre? This church has 
a majestic architecture. What splendour in this palace! 
What [a] rich man! In your (§ 1) city there was (hubo) 

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PossesBÍves. 51 

a merchant who (gue) had the same name. These two officers 
have the same uniform. This gentleman is called (has the 
name of) Charles, and that lady is called Elvira. Do jou speak 
of these gentlemen or of those ? Many flowers have the same 
colour. What [aj maní What [a] beautiful woman! These 
boys were at (the) church. I have seen the same persons. 
These gentlemen are natives of Paris, and those ladies of 
Madrid. The trees before your house are very high. This 
burden is very heavy. What is the name of that boy (tr. 
How calls himself that boy) ? Do you speak of this gentleman 
or of that lady? 


?Cómo se llama este mu- Se llama Celedonio. 

chacho ? 
¿T cómo se llaman esos hom- No sé como se llaman. 

¿Es grande ese teatro? Si, señora, es muy grande. 

¿Cómo es la arquitectura de (ja arquitectura de aquella 

aquella iglesia? iglesia es majestuosa. 

¿No es madrileña esta señora? ¡Perdone V.! (1 beg your par- 

don O Esta señora es natural 
de Paris (or ftcí^er parisiense.) 
¿Conoce V. esta flor? Si, es una rosa. 

¿Y aquella? Es un tulipán. 

¿Son cantantes esas señoras? No son cantantes, pero bailan 

(they dance) primorosamente. 
¿ Cómo estaban vestidos aque- Tenían todos un mismo uni- 

llos oficiales? forme. 

¿ Qué hombre ha visto V. ? He visto al padre de este mu- 

¿Qué ha hecho V. esta ma- He escrito una carta. 


Fifteenth Lesson. — Lección qnince. 

Possessiyes. — Posesiyos. 

Possessives may be either adjectives (when imme- 
diately preceding or following a noun or its equivalent), 
or pronouns (when by themselves, whether preceded or 
not by an article). Compare: 
¡Hija mía! my daughter. Sus libros, his books. 

And ¿De quién es hija? — Mia, 

Whose daughter is she? — Mine. 

¿ Qué libros son ? — Los míos. 

Which books are they? — Mine. 


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Lesson 15. 

In any case Possessires are treated as adjectives as 
to inflection and agreement, though in Spanish they 
agree with the possessed object, not with the possessor. 

1. Possessire adjeetiyeg* 

They assume two forms: 

(a) Complete form (which follows): 



mio, nda, my 

1 ^ 

mios, mias, my 


tuyo, tuya, thy 

ferring to onl 

tuyos, tuyas, thy 

o 3 

1 his i .. 
suyo, suya, ) her / ^ ^ 

^' 1 its 
suyos, suyas, ) her f 

ring to tno 
bject posi 

) your 

J your 


S 3 

nuestro, niAestra, our 


nuestros, nuestras, our 

vuestro, vuestra, your 


vuestros, vuestras, your 

i- i* 

\ their 
suyo, suya, ¡ ^^^^ 


suyos, suyas, } ^^^^ 

. s 



(b) Apocopate form (which precedes): 



mi, my 


mis, my 


tu, thy 


tus, thy 



sus, her } '^^ 


to only 



nuestro, nuestra, our 

nuestros, nuestras, our 

s ^ 

vuestro, vuestra, your 

vuestros, vuestras, your 


su \ ^^^" 
^' i your 


1 their 

• § 


Mi amigo, my friend (= a friend of mine). 

¡Amigo mio! my (dear) friend! 

Fué por culpa fnia y no por culpa suya, it was 

through my fault and not through his (fault). 
Fué por mi culpa, y no por tu culpa, 

§ 1. His and her are both rendered by su, as sti 
amigo, his friend or her friend. — Besides, su signifies 
their, as: My brothers have sold their dog, mis hermanos 
han vendido su perro, . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Possessives. 58^ 

§ 2. Mi, tu, su have no particular form for the^ 
feminine gender; nuestro and vuestro, however, change 
the final o into a, as: nuestro amigo, our friend (m,); 
nuestra amiga, our friend (f.). 

§ 3. As in English, the possessive adjective, when 
no stress is laid on it, may be omitted, if another sub- 
stantive with a possessive adjective precedes, coupled 
by the conjunction y (and) or ó (or); thus: 

Sus libros y (sus) plumas. 
His books and (his) pens. 

§ 4. If in English a possessive adjective is repeated 
before two adjectives expressing matter — as: wooden, 
gold, silver, etc. (when in Spanish, as stated in Less. 6, 
§ 4, the material is expressed by a substantive with de) — 
Üie Spaniard omits the second possessive adjective and 
puts the definite article in its stead, as: 
Neither your gold nor your silver watch. 
Ni tu relej de oro ni el de plata. 

§ 5. Likewise, the demonstrative pronoun is ren- 
dered by the definite article, if a substantive preceded by 
a possessive adjective is followed by another substantive 
in the Genitive case, as: 

My friend and that of my cousin. 
Mi amigo y el de mi primo. 

If we say: El amigo mío y de mi primo, the sense 
is different. In the first sentence we speak of two per- 
sons, whereas in the second phrase the same person is 

§ 6. The English expression : a friend, a relation, etc. 
of mine, should be translated un amigo mío, etc., as : 
Charles is a friend of mine. 
Carlos es (un) amigo mio. 

§ 7. The possessive pronoun referring to the polite 
form F. is either d (la) de F. or more elegantly su de 
V,; simply su (and not su de F.), if F. precedes imme- 
diatdy, when no misunderstanding would arise, thus: 

Have you your stick? ¿Tiene Y. su hasten? (and not: 
su hasten de V., because Y. precedes.) Whereas: 

I have your stick. Tengo el hasten de F. ; or more 
elegantly: Tengo su bastón de F. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

54 Leeson 15. 

N.B.—The English possessive is rendered not by the 
Spanish possessive, bnt by the article, in snch phrases as: 
I have cat my hand, me he cortado la mano. 
He has broken his arm, se ha roto el brazo. 


La dicha, the fortune. la edad, the age. 

d conocido, the acquaintance, la iltisión, the illusion. 

el mantenimiento, the mainte- poético, -a, poetical, 

nance, livelihood. único, -a, sole, only. 

la edtuíación, the education. estudiar, to study. 

la incuria, the carelessness. cuidar, to care. [teem. 

el descuido, the negligence. apreciar, to appreciate, to es- 

la causa, the cause. vienes, thou comest. 

la desgracia, the misfortune. quieren, they like. 

los padres, the parents. repasad, repeat (2nd Plur. Im- 
el hierro, the iron. perat.). 

la cadena, the chain. hallado, found. 

Readingr Exercise. 20. 

1 Mire V. mi reloj ! ¿ Vienes á estudiar con tu hermano ? 
¡Repasad vuestras lecciones, niños! Mis hermanos estuvieron 
ayer en su jardín de V. ¿Tiene V. su reloj de oro ó el de 
plata? Esta madre ha perdido su hijo y su hija*. Es culpa 
mía el no haber venido ayer. Ese hombre es mi amigo y 
no el de mi hermano. Mi amigo y el de mi hermano han 
muerto. ¡Por dicha mía he vendido mi casa! ¿No es amigo 
tuyo ese señor ? Es un conocido mío. ¡ Dadme (give [pl.] me) 
mi libro y mis plumas! Estos niños han perdido á su padre. 
He hallado su bolsillo de V. Esta casa es mía, y aquella es 
de** mi padre. Mi tío cuida de mi mantenimiento y educación. 
Tu incuria y descuido son la única causa de tu degracia. 
Hemos hablado de nuestro amigo y no del tuyo. Me he cor- 
tado la mano. Se ha roto el brazo. 

Traducción. 21. 

His children are the cause of his misfortune. Have you 
studied (estudiado) with your brother? This gentleman has lost 
his son, and this lady has lost her daughter. These children 
love their parents. It is (by) your .fault that I have lost 
(el haber perdido yo) my gold watch. Is this lady your 
friend or that of your sister? I have come with my cousin 
(m.) and with yours. Have you your silver or your gold 
chain? Have you your hat? I have not mine, but (sino) I 

* Ha perdido á su hijo may mean: ''has ruined her son." 
** To belong to, is usually expressed by the verb ser with 
the Genitive case. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



have my brother's hat. A friend of mine has provided for 
the education of the children. My friends and acquaintances 
(did not) have not come. I have found your purse in the 
garden. Our aunts have found their letters. He has broken 
his arm. 


¡Mire V. (look at) mi reloj! Su reloj de V. atrasa (loses). 

¿Cuál es la causa de su des- 
gracia de V.? 

¿Quieren esos niños á sus 

¿Con quién ha venido V.? 

¿Qué se ha de (must one) 

apreciar en un hombre? 
¿Dónde estuvo V. ayer? 
¿Qué tiene su criado de V.? 

La única causa de mi des- 
gracia es mi descuido. 
Si, señor, los quieren. 

He venido con mi amigo y el 

de mi hermano. 
Su persona y sus cualidades 

Estuve en el jardín de mi tío. 
Tiene mi gorra (cap) y su 

sombrero de V. 

¿Es ese señor su hermano de 

No, es mi primo; mi hermano 


es aquel. 

¿De qué debe (ought, shall) 

Del mantenimiento y 

de la 

cuidar un buen padre? 

educación de sus hijos. 

¿No es ese señor un conocido 

Sí, señor, es un conocido mío. 

de V.? 

Amigo mió, iqué has hecho 

¡No es culpa mía! 


2. Possessive pronouns. 

mase. fern. 


(el) mío, (la) mía. 

(lo) mío, mine 


(el) tuyo, (la) tuya. 

(lo) tuyo, thine 

t' ■ 

(el) suyo, (la) suya, 

(lo) suyo, 



or or 




(el) de el, (la) de él 

(lo) de él, 



* (el) de ella, (la) de ella, 

(lo) de ella, 


§■ •' 

(el) de Y., (la) de F., 

(lo) de V., 1 *'^""" 

(el) nuestro, (la) nuestra. 

(lo) nuestro, ours 


(el) vuestro, (la) vuestra, 

(lo) vuestro, yours 


(el) suyo, (7a) suya, 

(lo) suyo. 

■§. ■ 

or or 



§ , . 

(el) de ellos, (la) de ellos. 

(lo) de ellos. 


1: ..■: 

(el) de ellas, (la) de ellas. 

(lo) de ellas. 

(él) de VV., (la) de VV„ 

(lo) de YY„ ) J 

;- .•;>:.. 

Digitized by V 



Lesson 16. 

(los) mios, 
(los tuyos, 
(los) suyos, 


(los) de él, 
(los) de ella, 
(los) de F., 

(los) nuestros, 
(los) vuestros, 
(los) suyos, 


(los) de eUos, 

(los) de ellas, 

(los) de VV., 

N.B.—Eñch of the 

article : 

(las) mías, mine 
(las) tuyas, thine 
(las) suyas, 

(las) de él 
(las) de ella, 
(las) de Y., 


(las) nuestras, ours 
(las) vuestras, yours 
(Uls) suyas 

1 theirs 




OQ 2 




(las) de ellos 

(las) de ellas 

(las) de VV.,\ 

above forms may appear T?ithont the 


¿Qué libro es éste? — El mío. 
Which book is this? — Mine. 
¿De quién es este libro? — Mío. 
Whose book is this? — Mine. 


Which hat have you got ? (¿ tiene F. ?) — Mine. No ; 
that is mine ; this is yours. He has lost his (neuter) and hers 
(neuter). That house is ours; those windows are mine. 
Whose gloves are these ? — Hers. I thought they (creía que) 
were yours. 

Sixteenth Lesson. — Lección dieciséis. 

Numerals. — Namerales. 

1. Cardinal Numbers. — Numerales Cardinales. 

Uno (un), u/na, one. 
dos, two. 
tres, three. 
cuatro, four. 
cmco, five. 
seis, six. 
siete, seven. 
ocho, eight. 
nueve, nine. 
diee, ten. 

once, eleven. 

doce, twelve. 

trece, thirteen. 

catorce, fourteen. 

quince, fifteen. 

diez y seis or dieciséis, sixteen. 

diejs y siete or diecisiete, se- 

diez y ocho or dieciocho, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Cardinal Numbers. 57 

diee y nueve or diecinueve^ trescientos, -as, \ oqq 

nineteen. trecientos, -as, f 

veinte, twenty. cuatrocientos, -as, 400. 

veinte y %mo* \ ^ ^ quinientos, -as, 500. 

(veintiuno), ] ^"^^^^y^^^- seiscientos, -as, 600. 

veinte y dos, twenty-two. setecientos, -as, 700. 

veinte y tres, twenty- three. ochocientos, -as, 800. 

veinte y cuatror, twenty-four. novecientos, -as, 900. 

treinta, thirty. mil, 1000. 

cuarenta, forty. mil uno, 1001. 

cincuenta, fifty. mil dos, 1002. 

sesenta, sixty. mU tres, 1003. 

setenta^ seventy. dos mil, 2000. 

ochenta, eighty. tres mil, 3000. 

noventa, ninety. [red. diez mil, 10,000. 

dentó (contract cien), a hund- cien mil, 100,000. 

ciento uno, 101. un millán (antic, un cuento)^ 
ciento dos, 102. 1,000,000. 

doscienios, doscientas, \ oaq 
dodentos, decientas, f 

1. Uno, either by itself or in its, compounds vein- 
tiuno, treinta y uno, etc., drops the o when imme- 
diately followed by a substantive or its adjective, or 
the numerals ciento, mil, millón; thus: un cabaUo, a 
horse; un buen caballo, a good horse; un miUón de 
pesetas, 1,000,000 pesetas. 

2. Before mil (1000) and dento (100) un is never 
used, provided no misconception may arise by omitting 
it. Thus, one thousand one hundred and eleven is trans- 
lated mil ciento once; but, cuatrocientos y un mil 401,000, 
because cuatrocientos mil (without tm) is 400,000. 

3. Ciento drops the last syllable (-to) when immedi- 
ately before a substantive or an adjective, and hkewise 
before mil and millón, as: a hundred men, den hombres, 
a hundred thousand, cien mil; but ciento ocho, 108. 
The English expressions: eleven hundred, twelve hund- 
red, etc., must be rendered by mil ciento [one thousand 
one hundred], etc. Ex.: mil ochocientos (-as), eighteen 

4. C&w^o in the j>iwraZ (two hundred, three hundred, 
etc.) is inflected like an adjective, taking s before a 

* In modern orthography, veinte is often written as one word 
with the following number, thus: 

veintiuno, 21; veintidós, 22; veintitrés, 23, etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

58 Lesson 16. 

masculine and changing the final o into (is before a 
feminine noun, as: Doscientos hombres, 200 men; dos- 
cientas mujeres, 200 women; but cientos de hombres, 
cientos de mujeres, hundreds of men, hundreds of women. 

5. Some before hundred and thousand is translated 
unos (-as), as: sojne hundred (thousand) dollars, unos 
cien (mil) pesos. 

6. The days of the month (except "the first," él 
primero) are expressed by cardinal numbers, generally 
preceded by the article, as: the 25th, d veinte y dncó; 
the 18th of January, ^el diez y ocho de enero. The 
general question is: ¿^ cuántos estamos? what is 
the date of to-day? — We have the is translated 
estamos á: we have the 18th of January, estamos 
á diez y ocho de enero. The date of a letter is either 
given as in English, as: Madrid, May 4th, 1889, Madrid, 
á (cuatro) de mayo, 1889, or: Madrid, y mayo 4 (cuatro) 
de 1889 {lit. Madrid and May the 4th of 1889). 

Note.—TYíQ Spanish language sometimes prefers cardinal 
numbers where the English makes use of ordinals. The 
following may serve as examples: In his third year, á los' 
tres años de edad; on the ninth day, á los ntíeve dios. 

7. The hours of the day are expressed by the 
article la, las, and the cardinal numbers. The English. 
clock is omitted. What is the time? or what time 
is it? is rendered in Spanish by ¿Qué hora es? 

One o'clock, Za* una (i.e. hora, hour). 

Two o'clock, las dos (i.e. horas, hours). ' 

Three o'clock, las tres, etc. 

At is á, as: at four o'clock, á las cuatro. 
Time between two consecutive hours is expressed 

A quarter past one, la una y cuarto (= l^^). 

Half past one, la una y media (= IVa). 

A quarter to two, las dos menos cuarto (lit. : 2 o'clock 

less a quarter). 
N.B.—It will strike directly . . . is: e8tá(n) pa/ra 
dar la(8) . . ., or pronto dará(r¿) la(s) . . . .; it strikes . . . 

• The article is in the singular, because one o'clock meana 
one hour; with all the other hours the article should be plural. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Cardinal Numbers. 


is: da(n) la(8) .... and : it has just struck ... is: acaba(n) 

€le dar la(8) — Precisely at 5 o^ clock is: á las cinco 

en punto. Afternoon is la tarde, evening and night la 
noche. The early morning (before daybreak) is la ma^dru/- 
gada; the nnornir^ (also before midday), is la mañana. 

8. The expressions: a quarter of a year, half a 
year, etc., are rendered either by un trimestre, un se- 
mestre, or b)»^ three months, six months, etc., as: tres meses 
(three months); seis meses (six months). Nueve meses 
(nine months), etc. Quince días is a fortnight; media 
hora^ half an hour. 

9. The age of a person is commonly expressed by 
tener .... años, as : He is six years old, tiene seis años 
(he has six years). The question: Hoiv old are you? is 
therefore translated: ¿Cuántos años tiene V.? or 
also: ¿Qué edad tiene V.? (what age have you?). 

10. Both is los dos, las dos, or ambos (f. ambas); or, 
though less frequently, ambos (-as) á dos, as: He visto 
á los dos (or ambos á dos) en el paseo, I have seen them 
both on the promenade. 

The most important collective numerals are: 

medio ciento, half a hundred. 
una centena 

Un par, a pair, a couple. 

una decena, ten. 

una docena, a dozen. 

una veintena, a score. 

una treintena, cuarentena, etc., 

thirty, forty (some thirty, 

forty, etc.). 
media docena, half a dozen, 

The names of the days and months are 

(un ciento, un [ a hundred, 
centenar, un í some hundred. 
centenal), ) 

un millar, a thousand, some 
thousand, etc. 

lAmes, Monday. 
martes, Tuesday. 
miércoles, Wednesday. 
jueves, Thursday. 
viernes, Friday. 
sábado, Saturday. 
domingo, Sunday. 

Enero, January. 
febtero, February. 

marzo, March. 
abril, April. 
mayo. May. 
junio, June. 
julio, July. 
agosto, August. 
setiembre, September. 
octubre, October. 
noviembre, November. 
diciembre, December. 


El . alfonso, the alphonse (a el duro, the dollar (= 4 shill- 
; gold coin). ings). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 16. 

dreálf the real (==2^2 pence). 

la peseta = 4 reals. 

el céntimo, the centime. 

el biUete de banco, the bank- 

la caja, the box. 

la caja de cerillas (de fósfo* 
ros), the box of matches. 

la caja de cigarros, the cigar- 

la cajetilla de cigarrillos, the 
packet of cigarettes. 

un fósforo (una cerilla), a 

un cigarro, \ . 

un puro, i ^ 

un cigarrillo (colloq. un pi- 
tillo), a cigarette. 

el tabaco, the tobacco. 

él estanco, the tobacconist-shop. 

el ternero, the calf. 

el cerdo, the pig. 

la revolución, the revolation. 

él mes, the month. 

la legim, the league. 

él contorno, the outskirts ; cir- 

d arrabal, the suburb. 

el vecino, the neighbour; the 

la caUe, the street. 

d puente, the bridge. 

el farol, the (street-) lampi 

the lantern. 
la luna, the moon. 
la tierra, the earth. 
Júpiter, Jupiter. 
Mercurio, Mercury. 
Saturno, Saturn. 
Venus, Venus. 
d carnicero, the butcher. 
el buey, the ox. 
la fecha, the date. 
la capital, the capital. 
el zapato, the shoe. 
el gtmnte, the glove. 
el pañuelo, the handkerchief! 
América, America. 
varón, male. 
hembra, female. 
medio -a, half. 
fumar, to smoke. 
girar, to turn round. 
falleció, he (she) died. 
hace, makes, does. 
descubierto, -a, discovered. 
alrededor, round, round about. 
todavía, yet; no, .. todavía (or 

todavía no), not yet. 
ahora, now. 

Beading Exercise. 22. 

1. El alfonso tiene cinco duros; el daro tiene cinco pe- 
setas; la peseta tiene cien céntimos. ¿Quiere V. cambiarme 
este laillete de banco? ¿Dónde hay un estanco? Déme V. 
una caja de cigarros. Media docena de cigarros. ¿Cuánto 
es ? Déme Y. tres cajetillas de cigarrillos. Una caja de cerillas. 
¿Cuánto? ¿Fuma V.? ¿Quiere V. un cigarro? Aqui está 
la caja. Tome V. un cigarrillo. 

2. ¿Sabe Y. qué hora es? No es todavía la una y 
media. Son las ocho y cuarto de la noche. Mi hermano 
murió á los tres años de edad. Mi padre tiene 71 años. 
¿ Han dado ya las once ? ¿ Á cuántos estamos del mes ? Hoy 
es el día diez y siete de julio. Estamos á veinte y siete 
(veintisiete) de enero. 

3. El carnicero ha comprado 35 bueyes, 42 vacas, 88 ter- 
neros y 76 cerdos. Saturno hace su revolución en 30 años; 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Cardinal Numbers. 61 

Júpiter en 2 afios, la Tieri-a en 365 días y 6 horas; Venus 
en 225 días j Mercurio en 3 meses. La lana gira alrededor 
de la Tierra en 27 días, 7 horas y 43 minutos. Esta capital 
tiene 9 leguas de contorno, 18 arrabales, 1,500,000 vecinos, 
2006 calles, 500,000 casas, 83 plazas, 26 hospitales, 15 puentes 
y 80,000 faroles. Están para dar las 10. He visto cien 
hombres"'. ¿Ha visto Y. á mis primos? Les he visto ayer 
á ambos en la calle. 

Traducción. 28* 

1. My aunt had 7 children**, 6 boys and a girl. The girl 
is seventeen years old. How old are you ? I shall be twenty 
in March. My sister is 21 years old. When is your birth- 
day (cumpleaños)? My birthday is on the 11th (once) of Au- 
gust. To-day is Wednesday. Have we to-day the lOfch or the 
11th of May? The 10th. I have 10 dollars and 4 pesetas. 
The butcher has bought 10 oxen, 37 pigs, and 17 calves. 
The city of Vienna has 1,201,000 inhabitants, 38 suburbs, 
and (is) 4 (Glerman) miles in circumference. Louis XVI., king of 
France, died in Paris on the 21st of January, 1793. It has 
struck 9 o'clock. We have bought 16 pairs of gloves and 
two dozen handkerchiefs (de — ). My brother was three 
months in Paris and half a year in Madrid. He came at 
1 o'clock to-day. It is now 8 o'clock in the evening. He 
came (has come) at noon yesterday. 

2. The Archduchess (archiduquesa) Sophia of Austria died 
in the third year of her age. The letter (bears) has the date : 
Vienna, the 8th of May, 1889. To-day we have the 23rd of 
April. Spain (España) has 17,500,000 inhabitants Ceie —;. This 
town had 301,000 inhabitants. Three hundred and eighty 
seven pesetas and 12 centimes. I have given to the lawyer 
(abogado) some hundred dollars. America was discovered in 
the year 1492. The day has 24 hours, the hour has 60 
minutes. June has 30 days, October has 31 and February 
has 28 or 29 days. 

¿Qué edad es la de V.? Tengo 41 años. 

¿Y su padre de V.? Tiene ahora 76. 

¿Cuándo falleció el rey Luis Murió (he died) el (á) 21 de 

XVI de Francia? enero de 1793. 

¿Cuántos hijos tiene V,? Tengo 4 hijos; 3 niños y una 


* The personal object in the Accusative, when preceded by 
a numeral, does not take á, 

** As hijos means both sons and children^ the sex must be 
expressed by the addition of the words varón (male) and hembra 
female), as in the above sentence. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 17. 

¿Qué ha comprado V.? 

¿Á cuántos estamos hoy? 
¿Ha recibido Y. una carta? 

¿Han dado ya las doce? 

¿Qué hora es? 

¿Cuántos dias tiene el afio? 

¿Cuántos dias tiene un mes? 

¿Qué ha dado Y. al abogado? 

¿En cuánto tiempo hace Sa- 
turno su revolución alre- 
dedor del sol (the sun)^ 

¿Ha perdido Y. algo? 

He comprado una docena de 
guantes y un par de zapatos. 

Estamos á 18 de enero. 

Si, be recibido una carta de 
Cádiz, con fecha 9 de octubre 
de 1903. 

No, sefior; pero pronto darán. 

Acaban de dar las 9. 

Un afio tiene 365 dias 6 horas. 

Un mes tiene 30 ó 31 dias. 

He dado al abogado cien pesos. 

En treinta afios. 

He perdido 4 duros. 

Seventeenth Lesson. — Lección diecisiete. 

Numerals. — Numerales. 

2. Ordiüal Numbers. — Fractionals. — 


Ordinales. — Fracciónales. — Multiplicativos. 

^l primero A y^^ 

la pnmera, f 

él segundo, \ . , , 

la segunda, f ^^® ^®^^°^' 

el tercero, the third. 

el cuarto, the 4th. 

el quinto, the 5th. 

el sexto (sesto), the 6th. 

él séptimo I 4.1 ^ 74.t 

(el sétimo), f ^^"^ ^**^- 

el octavo, the 8th. 

el nono ) 

(el noveno),! 

el décimo, the lOth. 

el tmdécimo \ 

(él onceno), f 

él duodécimo, the 12th. 

el décima tercio*, the 13th. 

the 9th. 

the llth. 

el décima cuarto, the 14th. 
el décimo quinto, the 15th. 
el décimo sexto, the 16th. 
el décimo séptimo, the 17th. 
el décimo octavo, the 18th, 
el décimo nono, the 19th. 
el vigésimo, the 20 th. 
el mgésimo primo (primero), 

the 21st. 
el vigésimo segundo, the 22nd. 
el vigésimo tercio, the 23rd. 
el vigésimo cuarto, the 24tb. 

?.,'7Sl;, }"■•«'"■• 

el cuadragésimo, the 40th. 
el quincuagésima I the 50th. 
(el cincuenteno), f 
el sexagésimo, the 60th. 

* The forms decimotercio, decimocuarto, etc., are becoming 
more generally used. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Ordinal Numbers. 68 

€Í septuagésimOf the 70tb. el quingentésimo, íYlq 500th. 

él octogésimo ] el sexcentésimo^ the 600th. 

(el octuagésimo), \ the 80th. el septingentésimo, the 700th. 

(él ochentésimo), } el octogentésimo \the800th 

d nonagésimo, the 90th. (el octingentésimo)^ f 

el centesimo, the lOOth. el nonagentésimo \ ^, 900th 

el centesimo primo (primero), (él nongentésimo),} 

the lOlst. el milésimo, the lOOOth. 

el centesimo segundo, the I02ná. el dosmilésimo, the 2000th. 

el ducentésimo \ .t^ oaa4.u ^^ penúltimo, the last but one. 
hi ">« 200th. a^imo^ \ 

d trecentésimo, the 300th. el postrero, f 

the last. 

el cuadringentésimo, the 400th. 

2^ ote, — The numbers in brackets are less frequent. — 
Besides, there are a few archaic forms, as: 
el cuarenteno, the 40th. el setentésimo, \ ., • «q^i 

el cincuentésimo, the 50th. el setenteno, / 

el sesentesimo, \ ^ ^^ j el ochentésvmo, \ ^^ ^^^^ 

el sesenteno, f el ochenteno, f 

el noventésimo, \ ^ ^^^^ 

el noventeno, f 
The forms setuagésimo for septuagésimo, and octuagésimo 
for octogésimo are now obsolete. 


1. The numerals primero, tercero, and postrero drop 
the final o before a substantive, with the exception of 
tercero in the legal phrase dentro de tercero día, within 
three days. Ex.: 

El primer dia, the first day. 
El tercer dia, the third day. 

Sometimes the feminine primera drops the final a, 
as: la primer alma, the first soul. If, however, primero 
is coupled by y or ó with another ordinal number, 
except tercero and postrero (last), the complete form 
should be used, as: 

El primero y el octavo libro, the first and the eighth book. 
But: El primer y el tercer libro, the first and the third book. 

2. The forms deceno, onceno are becoming obsolete. 

3. Proper names of princes take the ordinal num- 
bers without an article, as: 

Philip II., Felipe segundo, 
Ferdinand IV., Fernando cuarto. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

64 Leaoon 17. 

N,B.—Wiih the names of the kings of ¿Jpotn and of Um 
popes, cardinal numbers are used np to the tenth, thus Isabel 
segunda, Carias in (tercero). Charles HI., but Alfonso X 
(diez), Alfonso doce. From the tenth upwards, both cardinal 
and ordiuEil numbers may be used. Thns we ma y sa y in- 
differently: Benedicto décimo cuarto. Pope Benedict AlV., and 
Benedicto catorce. Wúh the names of other foreign sover- 
eigns, ordinal numbers are used up to the tenth or eleventh, 
and then follow cardinal numbm. Thus Enrique cuarto, 
Henry IV. (of France); Luis once or undécimo, Louis XI.; 
Carlos doce, Charles XII. (of Sweden). But: Luis XIV (ca- 
torce), Louis XIV. 

4. With some substantives, cardinal as well as 
ordinal numbers may be employed, but only beyond 
undécimo, the eleventh. In this case they should follow 
the substantive; thus: 

Chapter 15th, Capitulo décimo quinto or Capitulo quince. 

Page 20, Fagina veinte or vigésima. 

Fractionals are expressed by ordinal numbers, as 
in English: 
medio, -a, half* {la mitad, un séptimo \ ., 

the halO. (unasepHmaparle),}^^^"^^^^' 

un tercio \ un octavo \ . ... 

(una tercera parte \ a third. (una octava parte), f^^^^^ 

i.e., part), I un noveno \ . ., 

un cuarto \ ^ (una novena parte), f * '^^*^- 

(una cuarta parte), I ^ * un décimo \ í ih 

un quinto, a fifth (part). (una décima parte), f * *^^^*^- 

un sexto Í «¡^fu un centesimo, Vioo. 

(una sexta parte) ^ f ' un milésimo, Viooo. 

Note. Some feminine forms of fractional numbers are 
used in certain expressions only, as: una cuarta, i.e., vara, 
a quarter of an ell; una tercia de carne, a pound of meat. 
Prom ten upwards the fractional numbers are formed by add- 
ing the word avo (liter, fractional part) to the cardinal num- 
bers, which thereby undergo some orthographical alteration. 
The numbers ending in -ce change this syllable into z, as: 
ires onzavos, ^/n; ocho quinzavos, ®/i6. Uno is changed into 
unavo(s). Beyond V20, the termination avo is added to the 
last consonant, the word p (and) being written f, and the 
whole number contracted into one word. 

For the sake of greater clearness, all these forms are 
given below in their arithmetical order: 

* Without article. With the article, un medio, a half (subst.). 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Ordinal Numbers. 


Vil un onzavo. . 

Vn un dozavo. 

Vit un trezavo. 

Vi4 un catorzavo. 

Vi 6 un quinzavo. 

Vis un dicieseisavo, 

ViT nn diecisieteavo. 

Vis un dieciochoavo. 

Vi9 un diecinueveavo. 

^/so un veintavo. 

Vai un veintiunavo. 

^/«a un veintidosavo. 

^/as un veintitresavo. 

^/a4 un veinticuatroavo. 

Vas un veinticincoavOy etc. 

'/ii dos onzavos. 
%2 dos dozavos. 
Vis dos trezavos. 
Vi 4 dos catorzavos. 
Vi 6 dos quinzavos, 
'/it dos dieciseisavos. 
ViT dos diecisieteavos. 
*/i8 dos dieciochoavos. 
Vi» dos diecinueveavos, 
Vao dos veintavos, 
Vso un treintavo. 
Vio un cuarentavo» etc. 

un cienavo, 
Vi 00 ] un centavo, 

un centesimo. 

él triple, the triple, etc. 

un céntimo (in South America; un centavo) is Vioo of a 
peseta, franc, etc. 

The MtUUpUcatives are: 
Bmpky simple. 

triple, I 

triplOy -a, 1 threefold. 
tfiplice, J 
cuadruplo^ -a, fourfold. 
gifintuplo, -a, fivefold. 

séxtuplo, séptuplo, óctuplo, nóneuplo, décuplo, céntuplo, 6-, 7-, 
8-, 9-, 10-, lOOfold, etc. 
The other multiplicatives are periphrased with . , . . 
freces (times) and a comparative or tanto following, as: Su 
pena es nueve veces mayor, his punishment is ninefold (nine 
times greater). Catorce veces tanto, fourteenfold. 

El diente, the tooth. 

la edad, the age. 

la elección, the choice, elec* 

el maestro, the masten 
el mes, the month. 
la libra, the pound. 
la onza, the ounce. 
el kilogramo, the kilogramme. 
d azúcar, the sugar. 

Spanish Ck>ny.-Giammar. 


el café, the cofPee, 

d té, the tea. 

la semana, the week. 

la vara, the (Spanish) yard. 

el paño, the cloth. 

el tomo, the volume. 

mudar, to change. 

llamado, called. 

sucedió, succeeded, followed. 

viene, comes. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

66 Lesson 17. 

Beading Exereise. 24. 

El caballo (horse) mnda los dientes á los dos años y 
medio. Felipe Aagnsto faé el 429, Franciso I el 58p, Enri- 
que IV, llamado el Grande, el 70? rey de Francia. Carlos IV 
sucedió á Carlos III el 12 de agosto de 1788. ¿Sabe V. qué 
hora es? Todavía no es la una y media. Á los nueve días 
de 8u elección le sobrevino (surprised him) la muerte, que 
fué (which happened) el 23 de agosto, á los sesenta y cuatro 
afios de edad. Mi maestro de música viene cada (every) 
tres días. He comprado una docena de guantes. Déme V. 
(give me) la vigésima parte 0^ quincuagésima, la sexagésima 
y la centésima parte). Un mes es la duodécima parte del 
afio. Tome V. (take) siete veintavos y cuatro diecinueveavos. 
Enero es el primero, marzo el tercero, junio el sexto y di- 
ciembre el último mes del afio. Compre V. (buy) dos libras 
y media de café, una libra de té y dos libras y tres onzas de 
azúcar. Cincuenta es la mitad de ciento. Quince es el quin- 
tuplo de tres, y la décima parte de ciento cincuenta. 

Traducción. 25. 

A week is the 52nd part of a year. I was one year and 
a half at Paris, and two years and one month in Italy. Louis XVI. 
of France died (falleció) in Paris the 21st of January, 1793. 
My brother is the fourteenth and my sister the eleventh of 
the class. Does your music-master come every fourth day? 
No, he comes every other day (un dia si y otro no, lit. one 
day Yes and the other No). Take the 10th, the 30th, the 
70th, and the 90th parts. I have bought 8^2 pounds of sugar 
and 2^/3 pounds of coflfee. Give me % and %. The first 
king of France, Pharamond (Faramundo), reigned (reinó) 
eight years. Louis XIV. of France died the 1st of Septem- 
ber, 1715, at the age of 77 years. I have bought 6% yards 
of this cloth. The Emperor Francis Joseph (José) of Austria 
was horn (nadó) at Vienna the 18th of August, 1830. When 
were you born ? (¿ nació V ?) I was born on the 6th of July, 
1878. February is the second, April the fourth, May the fifth, 
July the seventh, August the eighth, September the ninth, 
October the tenth, and November the eleventh month of the 
year. I have read the 18th and the 14th chapter of the 2nd 
volume. A day is the seventh part of a week. 


¿Cuándo muda el caballo los Á los dos afios y medio de 

dientes? edad. 

¿Cuándo murió el rey Luis Murió el 21 de enero de 1793. 

XVI de Francia? 

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Indefinite Numerals. 67 

¿Qué lugar (place) tiene su Es el octavo ó el noveno de 
hermano de V. en el co- su clase, 

¿ Y su hermana de V. ? Creo (I bdieve, I think) que 

es la sexta. 
¿En qué afio nació V.? Nací (I was bom) en el afio 

¿En qué mes? En enero. 

¿Qué dia? El 18. 

¿De qué emperador habla V.? Hablo del emperador Francisco 

José de Austria. 
¿Cuándo nació? Nació en Viena el 18 de agosto 

de 1830. 
¿Qué ha comprado V.? He comprado ocho libras y 

media de azúcar y doce 

varas de tela (cloth), 
¿Cuánto tiempo (how long) Afio y medio*. 

estuvo V. en París? 
¿ No viene su maestro de V. No, señor, viene cada tres días, 
un dia si y otro no? 

Eighteenth Lesson. — Lección dieciocho. 

Numerals. — Numerales. 

3. Indefiüite Numerals. — Numerales indefinidos. 

These words are pronouns when used without a 
substantive. With a substantive, however, they are 
adjectives. They are: 

Alguno, -a, plur. algunos j -as, any, anybody, somebody; 

pi. any, some. 
Alguien, any, anyone, anybody. 
Ninguno, -a; no, nobody, no one; none. 
Nadie, nobody. 

Cualquiera, pi. cualesquiera, whoever, whatever. 
Quienquiera, whoever. 
Unos, unas, some, any, a few. 
Uno Oa) y otro (-a), \ both, all. 

plur. unos (-as) y otros (-as), f ' 
Ni uno, not a single one. 

Ni él uno ni el otro, neither the one nor the other. 
Unos cuantos, unas cuantas, some, a few. 

* In the expressions one year (hour etc.), and a half, the 
indefinite article is usually omitted. Ex. : Hora y media, an hour 
and a half. Año y medio, a year and a half. 


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68 Lesson 18. 

Otro, -a (plur. otros, -as), other, another, someone else; 

plur. ¡08 otros (las otras), the others. 
MismOj -a, plur. mismoSf -as, same. 
El mismo, la misma, the same. 
Cada (in combination), every. 
Cada uno (when alone), each. 
TodOy -a, all; plur. tochs, -as, all. 

todos los (todas las), all who . . .; every. 
Tal, such; plur. tales, such. 

Fulano, -a, ) ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ 
Zutano, -a, / 


1. Cada, every, each, is used for both genders and 
numbers, and may be applied either to persons or 
things; as: Cada hombre, every man; coda semana, 
every week. With numerals in the plural, it corresponds 
to the English every followed by an ordinal number, as: 
Ckida cinco días, every fifth day ; coda dos pasos, every 
two steps. With uno it means everyone^ as: Cada uno 
de por sí, everyone for himself. 

2. Alguien, any, anybody, anyone, is likewise used 
for both genders and numbers, but only of persons and 
affirmatively ov interrogatively, as: ¿Entra alguien? does 
anybody enter? Nobody is ninguno, -a (referring either 
to persons or things), or nadie (only of persons), as: 
Ninguno debe hablar, nobody shall speak. If ninguno 
or nadie follow the verb, the negation río shoujd precede 
it, as: Eso no es de, ninguna importancia, that is of 
no importance. 

3. Cualquiera, whoever, whatever, stands for both 
genders (in reference either to persons or things); plur. 
cualesquiera. The final a is sometimes dropped, but 
the complete form is preferable. Thus any thing means 
cualquiera cosa or cualquier cosa; pi. cualesquiera libros 
or cucdesquier libros. A similar form is quienquiera, 
whoever; this pronoun being only used for persons and 
commonly followed by que, as: Quienquiera que lo diga, 
whoever says so (it). 

4. Na^ie is the English nobody, and nada is nothing. 
Like ninguno, alguno, and ni uno ni otro (neither one 
nor the other), these pronouns admit of no negation be- 

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Indefinite N ameráis. 69 

fore the verb when preceding it, whereas the verb should 
be preceded by nOy if nadie and nada follow. Ex.: 
Nadie lo ha visto, nobody has seen it. 
Bat: JVo lo ha visto nadie, » » » ». 

JSÍada he dicho, I have said nothing. 
Bat: JSfo he dicho nada, » » » . 

5. Alguno, -a, any, anybody, anyone, is used in 
both genders and numbers, and referring either to per- 
sons or things. In the plural it means several^ a few^ 
soine, etc. Like uno, it drops the final o before mascu- 
line nouns, as: Algún hombre, any man. Examples: 
alguna mujer, any woman; algunos hombres, several men; 
algunas mujeres, several women. With no and the verb 
preceding, it means nobody, not anybody, not anyone, etc., 
2ñ: No he visto (á) alguno"^, I have seen nobody, I 
have not seen anyone. In this case it has the same 
signification as nadie, which may be used in its stead, 
provided it does not precede the verb. Thus: 

A nadie he visto, means: I have seen nobody; 

(Á) alguno he visto, means: I have seen somebody. 
Note.— On nadie with the signification anybody, some" 
body, etc., see second Part. 

6. Fulano and zutano mean a certain, so and so, etc. 
in quite a vague sense; Fulano is sometimes joined by 
de tal (lit. of such), as : Fulano lo sabe, so and so knows 
it; el Señor don fulano de tal, Mr. So and So. Commonly 
they are used together, as: Fulano quiere á zutana, a 
certain gentleman (Mr. So and So) loves a certain lady 
(Miss So and So). 

7. OtrOj 'tty other, is never used with the indefinite 
article un; thus: Another has said so. Otro (not un 
otro) lo ha dicho, I have another pen, tengo otra pluma* 


El orgullo, the pride. la estampa, the engraving. 

la hora, the hour. el paseo, the public walk, 

la fuerza, the strength. promenade. 

el motivo, the reason. propio, -a, proper. 

la comida, the dinner, food. cierto, certain. 

* The preposition á is there frequently omitted for the 
sake of euphony, or when not emphatic. 

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70 Lesson 18. 

ir ^ á ver i ^ ^^^ ^°.* ^^ trabajar, to work. 
venir f * \ pay a visit. presumir de . , ., to overrate. 
quejarse, to complain. tener hambre, to be hungry. 

tratar con, to deal with, to tener sed, to be thirsty. 

treat. hecho, done, made. 

acertar, to succeed in. ahora, now. 

preguntar por, to ask for. junto, -a, together. 

lisonjear, to flatter. acaso, perhaps. 

Reading Exercise. 26. 

Nada lisonjea más el orgullo de los hombres que la con- 
fianza de los grandes. V. tiene algunos libros. No he visto 
á nadie en casa de mi amigo. ¿Ha venido alguno? Nadie 
ha venido. He visto á su hermano cada dia. Trabajamos 
todos juntos y cada uno de por si (by himself). El mismo 
hombre me ha dado el dinero. Yo mismo lo he hecho. Hasta 
ahora nadie ha venido. Nadie en esta ciudad conoce á mi 
hermano. Ninguno está cierto de la hora de su muerte. 
Ninguno debe (shall) presumir de sus propias fuerzas. Quien- 
quiera que lo diga, se equivoca (is mistaken). El uno 
decía (said) que sí (yes), el otro que no*. Cada seis meses 
tendré (I shall come) á verle á V. De todos los (those) que 
vratan conmigo (with me), ¿hay acaso uno (alguno) que tenga 
motivo de quejarse? Cualquiera cosa que él haga (may do), 
la hará mal (he will do it wrong); no puede (can) acertar 
en nada. Fulano y zutano han preguntado por V. Todos 
hablan de ello (it), como si fuera cierto. Cualquiera comida 
es buena para quien (him who) tiene hambre. Quienquiera 
que sea, ha hecho mal en decirlo (to say so), ¿ Tiene V. otro 
caballo ? 

Traducción. 27. 

I have no other book. He has given me nothing. We 
have some good books and some fine engravings. Nobody 
has done it (eso), I have not seen anything. Whoever says 
so (que — lo diga), is mistaken. I do not believe (creo) it. Charles 
has not done it, someone else (otro) Has done it. Has anybody 
asked for (por) me? No, sir, nobody has asked for you. I 
have seen the same lady. Everyone speaks (habla) for 
himself (si mismo). You (tú) have done it yourself. I do 
not know (conozco) anybody in this town. The one is hungry, 
the other is thirsty, but neither (of them) has money. I shall 
come every third day to call on yon. Does Mr. So and So 
live here? (¿ Vive aquí, ,,?) He who is hungry says that all food 
is good. Both have done it. I think that someone else has 

* After decir y "to say," the affirmative and negative particles 
si and no are pleonastically preceded by que. [Aa in French.] 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

The Adjective. 


done it. Give me (Déme V.) some books. Nobody knows 
(sabe) it, because (porque) I (did not tell anyone) have not 
told it to anybody. 


¿Quién (who) lo sabe? 
¿Quién lo ha hecho? 

¿Qué han dicho? 

¿Cuándo vendrá V. á ver á' 

mi padre? 
¿Ha venido alguien? 

¿Á quién lo ha dicho V.? 
¿Quién lo ho creído (believed)? 
¿Ño es verdad? 

¿Tiene V. otro sombrero? 
¿Ha visto V. á alguno en el 

paseo ? 
¿Quién ba visto á mi amo 

(master) ? 
¿Ha visto V. á alguna de 

aquellas señoras? 

Nadie lo sabe. 

Ninguno lo ha hecho, or No 

lo ha hecho ninguno. 
El uno dijo que si, el otro que 

Vendré cada cinco días. 

Sí, señor; fulano y zutano han 

preguntado por V. 
Á nadie lo he dicho, 
usted mismo lo ha creído. 
No, señor; quienquiera que lo 

diga, falta á la verdad (tells 

a lie). 
No, señora, no tengo otro. 
No he visto á nadie. 

Nadie le ha visto. 

Á decir verdad (To speak the 
truth), no he visto á ninguna. 

Nineteenth Lesson. — Lección diecinueve. 

The Adjective. — Del adjetivo. 

Rule. — The Spanish Adjective agrees in gender 
and number with the word it qualifies. 

§ 1. Adjectives ending in o change this vowel into 
a for the feminine, as: 

hermoso, beautiful, fern, hermosa, 
bueno, good, » buena. 

Note, — The very limited number of adjectives ending 
in -ete and -ote follow the same rule: as: 

regordete, short stout (man) — regordeta, 
aUote, very high — altota. 

§ 2. Adjectives not ending in o, hence those 
ending in a consonant (I, w, r, s, ^), or in one of the 
vowels a, 6, ¿, have only one termination for both gen- 
ders. Ex.: 

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72 Lesson 19. 

un hambre cortés, a polite man. 
una mujer cortés, a polite woman. 
un hombre grave, a serious man. 
una materia grave, a serious matter. 
un oljeto haladi, a trivial olDJect. 
una cosa baladi, a trivial thing. 


Some words, being used both as substantives and 
adjectives, take a in the feminine in either capacity, as : 
holgazán, holgazana, idle and idler; mam^antón, maman- 
tona, sackling or nursling. 

Also adjectives denoting nationality, as: 
francés, French, fern, francesa, 

andaluz, Andalosian, » andaluza, 
alemán, German, » cUemana. 

inglés, English, » inglesa, etc. 

Those terminating in a, like persa^ Persian, are 
alike in both genders. 

§ 3. Formation of the plural of the adjectives. 
All adjectives ending in an unaccented vowel form 
their plural by adding «, as: 

bueno, Plur. buenos, 
buena, » bu>enas, 

francesa, > francesas. 

Adjectives terminating in an accented vowel or in 
a consonant add e«, as: 

ruin, bad, wicked, plur. ruines, 
baladi, trifling, » baladies. 

español, Spanish, » españoles. 
^oíe.— -The orthographical rule given in § 1, Less. 2, is 
also applied to adjectives, as: feliz, happy; plur. felices, etc. 

§ 4. The adjectives alguno, ninguno, bueno, malOj 
as well as the numerals una, primero, tercero, postrero, 
lose the o before a masculine substantive in the 
singular; whilst grande drops its last syllable before any 
substantive in the singular either masculine or feminine. 
— Ciento, also, loses its last syllable before any plural 
^see Less. 16, Cardinal Numbers). Thus: 

buen hombre for bueno hombre, 

mal caballero, » malo caballero, 

algún libro, > 


by Google 

The Adjective. 78 

gran caballo^ 
ningún amigo, 
una gran casa, 
un gran caballo. 

Santo drops its last syllable before names of saints, 
and its abbreviation is S. 

S. Juan (San —), S^- John. 

S. Pedro (San -), S^- Peter. 
^.^.— Before feminine noons, the omission of the last 
syllable is very rare, except with grande. Thus one had better 
say: la primera cosa, the first thing, than la primer cosa. 
With grande the apocopation* is rather arbitrary, and before 
substantives beginning with vowels the full form is preferable, 
as: grande alma (soul); grande hombre, great man; grande 
amigo. It may be observed that before the names Domingo, 
Tomás, Tomé, and Toribio the adj. santo does not drop the 
last syllable; thus: Santo Domingo, St. Dominions**. 

§ 5. In reference to the position of the adjective, 
the following are the principal rules: 

1. Adjectives as well as participles denoting a 
general quality, as attributed to all objects of the same 
kind, precede; whilst those denoting a special quality 
attributed to a certain object, foUow: 

La dulce miel, sweet honey. 
La blanca nieve, the white snow. 
Un pié pequeño, a small foot. 
Una mano blanca, a white hand, 
^ote.-— However, whenever it is desirable to emphasize 
the quality of a certain understood object, the adjective pre- 

Movió el pequeño pié, she moved her small foot. 

Le alargó su blanca mano, she tended him her white hand. 

2. Adjectives and participles used in a metaphorical 
meaning, as distinguished from their primary one, pre- 
cede, while the latter follow: 

homi>re bueno, good man. buen hombre, good fellow. 

cdbaUo grande, big horse. gran caballo, fine horse. 

niño pobre, a poor child. ¡pobre niño! poor child! 

* i.e., the omission of the final de. 

** However: la isla de San-Tomas, the island of St. Thomas. 
The pupil is requested to remember the following "locus memo- 
rialis": Santo Tomás nunca estuvo en San- Tomas, St Thomas was 
never in St. Thomas. 

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74 Lesson 19. 

JV!B.— Consequently adjectives not susceptible of a meta- 
phorical meaning, such as those expressing nationality y or origin, 
scientific ideas or theories of any kind, quantity, number or 
division, follow: 

La nación española, the Spanish nation. 
La bandera inglesa, the British flag. 
Las fuerzas físicas, physical forces. 
Una linea recta, a straight line. 
La religión protestante, the Protestant religion. 
Muchos libros, many books. 
Dos billetes, two tickets. 
Media peseta, half a peseta. 

Note. — Adjectives denoting order may precede or follow: 
Vivo en el piso segundo (or en el segundo piso), 
I live on the second floor. 

Lea V, el primer capitulo (or el capitulo primero). 
Bead the first chapter. 

§ 6. An adjective qualifyÍDg two substantives must 
be in the plural; thus: 

El amK) y él criado están contentos. 

The master and the servant are contented. 

El ama y la criada están contentas. 

The mistress and the servant-maid are contented. 

If the substantives are of different genders, the 
adjective is put in the plural masculine, provided the 
nouns denote persons or living beings. Thus : 

Los hombres y las mujeres fueron salvados. 
The men and women were saved. 

If, on the contrary, things are spoken of, the gender 
of the last substantive prevails, thus : 

Ojos y orejas abiertas^ eyes and ears open ; 
but: Orejas y ojos abiertos, ears and eyes open. 

§ 7. A noun in the plural is followed by several 
adjectives in the singular, when each adjective would 
have, if alone, the noun in the singular: 

Las lenguas latina y griega. 

The Latin and the Greek languages. 

Los cantos tercero y cuarto. 

The third and fourth hymn. 


La costumbre, the custom, el temor, the fear, 
manner. el vasallo, the vassal. 

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The Adjective. 75 

d orden, the order. casado, -a, married. 

la orden, the command. feo, -a, ugly. 

el discípulo, the pupil, scholar, cuantioso, -a, considerable. 

el autor, the author. vano, -a, vain. 

la suerte, the fate. • serio, -a, serious. 

la materia, the matter. alegre, merry. [gent. 

la canción, the song. trabajador, -a, laborious, dili- 

el alma (f.), the soul. desordenado, -a, disorderly. 

la injuria, the offence. hábil, able, clever. 

la hacienda, the estate, the célebre, famous, renowned. 

fortune. honrado, -a, honoured. 

d caudal, the capital, fund. sonoro, -a, sonorous. 

d difunto, the dead (man), the corrompen, they corrupt, they 

late .... taint. 

d pintor, the painter. fluctúan, they fluctuate. 

d perro, the dog. crió (3rd s. def.), (he) created. 

la hazaña, the heroic deed. mantiene, maintains. 

Burdeos, Bordeaux. perdona, pardons. 

glorioso, illustrious. estudia, studies. 

amable, amiable. aborrecido, detested, abhorred. 

Readingr Exercise. 28. 
Una mujer hermosa, virtuosa y rica se ha casado con un 
hombre feo, malo y pobre. Las malas compañías corrompen 
las buenas costumbres. Los hombres fluctúan siempre entre 
falsas esperanzas y vanos temores. Un hombre malo es siempre 
aborrecido. Un buen rey hace felices á sus vasallos. El primer 
hombre que Dios crió fué Adán, y la primera mujer fué Eva. 
Las españolas son serias y las francesas alegres y amables, 
lina mujer holgazana es siempre desordenada, pero una mujer 
trabajadora mantiene en orden su casa. El hábil maestro 
tiene discipulos aplicados. Miguel de Cervantes fué el célebre 
autor del D. Quijote de la Mancha. ¿Qué quiere V. hacer 
con esos objetos haladles? La suerte de un hombre es una 
materia muy grave. Las canciones andaluzas son muy boni- 
tas. Una grande alma perdona fácilmente (easily) una in- 
juria. El cTeatro Grande» de Burdeos es un gran teatro. 
Mi hermano estudia las lenguas francesa y alemana. Lope 
de Vega fué un gran poeta. San Pablo (Paul) y Santo Tomás 
han honrado la iglesia católica. Una mujer regordeta no es 
hermosa. ¡Tenga V. las orejas y los ojos abiertos! La hacienda 
y los caudales del difunto eran considerables. 

Traducción. 29. 

This man was poor, but virtuous. (A) bad company is 
a great evil (mal). False fears and vain hopes are the lot 
(d lote) of (the) man. Happy subjects love their king. Cervan- 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Lesson 19. 

tes was a great writer (escritor) and Mnrillo a celebrated 
painter. The Germans are serious, and the French are merry. 
This idle girl has no (no —) order in her things. Polite people 
(tr. men) are very agreeable. A bad king is a misfortune 
lor his subjects. CsBsar (César) was a great man. You live 
(vive) in a large house. One must (8e d^he) admire (admirar) 
the good manners of these people. This gentleman has very 
amiable children (hijos). He studies (estudia) the history of 
the second civil (civu) war. The first, second, and tíiird 
chapters (capitulo) are good. Our house is large, but our 
garden is small. A serious man does not speak of such (tan) 
trifling things. One must (Se deben) admire the glorious deeds 
of this prince. Men and women are small in that country. 
The books and letters on the table (mesa) were open. I have 
at home (en casa) a big dog and a little cat (gcUo). The 
first man was a sinner (pecador). The Spanish and Italian 
languages are very melodious (transí, the languages Spanish 
[fem. sing.] and Italian [fem. sing.] are . . . .). 


¿Cómo es la casa? 

i Quién perdona fácilmente una 

¿Qué lenguas estudia su her- 
mano de V.? 

¿ Qué canciones son muy agra- 

¿Qué Santos han honrado la 
iglesia católica? 

¿Qué sabe V. (do you know y 
can you) decirme (tell me) 
de Cervantes y Murillo? 

¿ Come se deben tratar (must 
he treated) los asuntos (mat- 
ters) graves? 

¿Cuál es la situación de ese 

¿Qué traje (suit) llevaba ("wore) 
el joven (young many youth) ? 

¿Qué sombrero tiene V.? 

¿Qué causas (law-suits) de- 
fiende (defends) un abogado 
recto (honest)^ 

La casa es muy grande. 
Una grande alma. 

Estudia las lenguas francesa y 

Las canciones andaluzas. 

San Pablo y Santo Tomás. 

Cervantes fué el célebre autor 
del D. Quijote, y Murillo 
fué un gran pintor. 

Con ánimo (mind) sosegado 
(quiety calm). 

Su situación es muy lastimosa. 

Llevaba traje azul (blue) j 
sombrero negro (black). 

Tengo un sombrero inglés. 

Un abogado recto defiende 
siempre las causas justas. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Degrees of CompariBon. 77 

Twentieth Lesson, — Lección veinte. 

Degrees of Gomparlsom — Orados de comparación. 

§ 1. The comparison of Spanish adjectives is some- 
what analogous to the English. The comparative degree 
of superiority is formed by the word más (more), and 
its superlative by el más^ fem. la más, neut. lo más 
(the most). Examples: 

Compar. Superl. 

hermoso, -a, más hermoso, -a, el más hermoso, \ the most 
beautiful ; more beautiful ; f. la más hermosa, | beautiful. 

The comparison of inferiority is effected in a simi- 
lar way by the adverb menos (less), as: 

Compar. Superl. 

poblado, -a, menos poblado, -a, el menos poblado, \ the least 
populous; less populous/ not i. lámenos poblada, f]^o]^\úoxiB. 
so populous; 

§ 2. Again, there is an absolute superlative, by 
which a high degree is expressed. It is formed by the 
addition of the ending isimo for the masculine and 
isima for the feminine to the positive degree of the ad- 
jective, which then drops its final vowel, as: 

docto, learned; abs. superl. doctísimo, very learned. 
santo, holy; » » santísimo, very holy. 

Note,— Some adjectives undergo a slight alteration in 
the formation of the absolute superlative. These are: 

(a) Adjectives ending in -io, which drop the i when 
adding the ending -isimo; thus: amplio, wide, abs. superl. 

Except: agrio, sour; frio, cold; 3,ná pio, pious, which form 
agriisimOf friisimo, piisimo, 

(b) Adjectives in -ble, which adopt their Latin stem, as: 
amable (Lat. amaMlis)^ amiable, abs. superl. amabiUHm^o. 

(c) Those in 4ente and -ierto, which drop the i before e, 
as: ardiente, glowing — ardentisimo; cierto, certain — cer- 

(d) And the following, which are directly derived from 
their corresponding Latin forms: 

acre, sharp — acérrimo. 

amigo, friendly — amicisimo (also amiguísimo). 

(mtiguOf old — antiquísimo. 

áspero, rough — aspérrimo, also asperísimo. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 20. 

henéficOy beneficent — beneficentísimo, 

benévolo, benevolent — henevolentisimo, 

bueno, good — bonísimo, 

célebre j famous — celebérrimo, 

fiel, faithful — fidelísimo, 

fuerte, strong — fortísimo, 

íntegro, upright — integérrimo. 

Ubre, free — libérrimo, 

magnífico, magnificent — magnifi^centísimo, 

mísero, miserable — misérrimo, 

munífico, liberal — munificentísimo, 

nuevo, new — novísimo, 

pobre, poor — paupérrimo, 

sagrado, hallowed — sacratísimo, 

salubre, healthy — salubérrimo, 

sabio, wise — sapientísimo, 

(e) Adjectives ending in -z, -co, and -go change these 
terminations into -cisimo, -quisimo, and -guisimo, thus : voraz, 
voracious, — voracísimo, most voracious; rico, rich — riquí- 
simo; vago, vague — vaguísimo. 

(f) Adjectives terminating in i, l,n,r — as: turquí, blue; 
paternal, paternal; ruin, wicked, bad; secular, secular — do 

' take the ending -isimo. The absol, superl, of these adjectives is 
formed by placing the adverb mu¡/, very, before the positive; 
thus : muy paternal, etc. 

Note.— The absol, superl, of every adjective may be formed 
by placing muy before the positive. Thus: Verp faithful is 
fidelísimo or muy fiel; very learned, muy docto or doctísimo. 

§ 3. The following adjectives, besides their ordinary 
regular comparison, have an irregular form for the com- 
parative of superiority and the superlatives: 

bueno, -a, 

malo, -a, bad. 


me^'or, better. 

peor, worse. 


? I mejor, the 

Li ^««*- 

el \ 
l^ypeor, the 

lo\ ^^^^*- 

^^[maijor, the 
lo ( greatest. 

óptimo, -a* Wery 
(bonísimo, -a)] good. 

pésimo \ very 
(malísimo) ] bad. 

máximo Wery 
(grandísimo)) gredit. 

Almost absolete. 

When grande implies size, its degrees of comparison are 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Degrees of Comparison. 


pequeño, -a, 
little, small. 

alto, -a, bigb. 

lajo, -a, low. 

menor, less, 


inferior, low- 
er, inferior. 

el \ menor, tbe 
la ) least, 
lo j smallest. 


7 I superior, 
J* j tbe bigbest. 

f I inferior, 
^^j tbe lowest. 

mínimo \ very lit- 

(pequeñi- > tie, very 

simo^ I small. 

supremo, I 

inñmo \ very 
(bajisimo) f low. 

Adjectives and Adverbs. 

(poco, little, ;nténo5, less, 

los menos, leeL»t\poquisimo, very 
(people, etc.).! little. 

I mucho, más, more, los más, most muchísimo, very 
mucb. (people, etc.). | mucb. 

Note, — Tbe difference in tbe use of tbe double form 
of tbe tbe above adjectives and adverbs is as follows: 

Mejor and peor are more frequent tban más bueno and 
más malo. Mayor means greater, larger, more considerakle, 
and menor denotes tbe contrary of mayor. Besides, mayor 
signifies elder, and menor means younger, like tbe Latin 
major natu and minor natu, — Superior, supremo, and 
inferior, ínfimo denote by preference rank, sometimes also 
tbe situation of a place or a tbing. — Tbe regular abs. sup. 
grandísimo is more in use tban máximo, — Más and menos 
are adjectives and adverbs. Wben used as adjectives, tbey 
may, of course, take tbe definite article; tbus las más noches, 
most nigbts, etc. Lo más and lo menos are neuter, and mean 
the most, the least (for instance, lo menos que V. puede hacer, 
etc., tbe least you can do, etc.). 

§ 4. Than, after a comparative, is translated in 
various ways — vi¿:: 

(a) By que, if ''than" is followed by a substantive, 
Si pronoun, or another adjective^ as: 

Tu primo es más rico que mi hermano. 

Your cousin is ricber tban my brotber. 

Tu primo es más rico que yo. 

Your cousin is ricber tban I. 

Use hombre es más desdichado que malo, 

Tbat man is more unbappy tban wicked. 

(b) By de lo que, if "than" is followed by a sent- 
ence, as: 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

80 Lesson 20. 

He is more clever than he seems (i.e., to be). 
Es más listo de lo que parece. 

(c) By de, if followed by a numeral, as: more 
than six. más de seis, 

§ 5. As — ds = tan — como. Ex.: 

Tan elocuente como Cicerón. 
But if the comparison concerns quantity, number, etc., 
as — OS is expressed by tanto, -a — cuanto, -a or tanto, -a 
— coma, as: 

Tiene tanta hacienda cuanta (como) tenia su padre. 
He has as much wealth as his father had. 
Esta traducción tiene tantas faltas como las otras. 
This translation has as many faults as the others. 
Note.— It must be distinctly understood that tanto and 
cuanto are adjectives, and therefore agree with their respective 
substantives in gender and number, as in the above sentences. 
Instead of cuanto, -a, como is used if no verb follows, as in 
the second instance. With the verb following (see the fírst 
sentence, cuanta tenia su padre), cuanto is preferable, though 
coma is admissible, too. 

§ 6. If an accessory sentence is introduced by 
^Hhat,'' this conjunction is rendered by que, as: 

He has so many books that he cannot read them all. 
Tiene tantos libros que no los puede leer todos. 


La firmeza, the firmness. dócil, docile, obedient. 

el capitán, the captain. cuerdo, -a, i reasonable, pru- 

la prudencia, the prudence. prudente, f dent. 

el valor, the bravery, valour, sabroso, -a, savoury, delicious. 

él obispo, the bishop. dulce, sweet. 

la isla, the island. bajo, -a, low. 

la almendra, the almond. sincero, -a, sincere. 

la cerveza, the beer. barato, -a, cheap. 

la noticia, the news. obrar, to work. 

el pariente, the relation. conozco, I know. 

floreciente, flourishing. vienen, they come. 

cansado, -a, tired. contar, to count, to number, 

valiente, brave. to tell (a story, etc.). 

Reading Exercise. 80« 

La rosa es hermosísima. Pedro está muy cansado. El 
padre és más prudente que el hijo. Este niño es menos dócil 
que prudente. El perro es tan fiel como valiente. Él no es 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Degrees of ComparÍBon. 81 

tan cuerdo como su hermana. Yo no tengo tanto dinero, tanta 
ñrmeza y tantos amigos como V. El capitán obró con tanta 
prudencia como valor. La madre de mi amigo es la mujer 
más virtuosa que conozco. V. tiene un criado fidelísimo. 
Estamos aquí en un lugar salubérrimo. El piísimo obispo 
Fulano ha muerto. Mi reloj es mejor que el suyo, pero el 
(that) del doctor es el mejor de todos. Italia tiene buen vino, 
Francia lo * tiene mejor, pero España es la que tiene el mejor 
vino. Esta isla es más grande que aquella. Mi primo está 
en la clase superior, y mi hermano en la clase inferior. Las 
frutas más sabrosas se hallan en la baja Andalucía. Mi ve- 
cino es un hombre integérrimo. Galicia es un país friísimo. 
Las almendras son dulces, pero el azúcar es más dulce. Mi 
primo es el hombre más sincero del mundo, y mi prima es la 
mujer más hermosa de la ciudad. Esta cerveza es más cara 
que el vino, pero es malísima. Las pérdidas por (by) mar 
£on más considerables que por tierra. Las manufacturas 
inglesas son más baratas que las (those) que vienen de Francia. 
El comercio de Sevilla es menos floreciente que el (that) de 
Barcelona. Europa es la parte más pequeña del mundo, y 
Asia la más grande. 

Traducción. 81. 

This rose is prettier than that; it is the prettiest of all 
tny flowers. My father is very de old ; he is older than yours 
(el de usted). Mrs. (La Señora de) Muntafiola is very amiable ; 
sbe is the most amiable lady (that) I know. This news is 
quite certain (abs, sup,). Murillo was a very famous Spanish 
painter. That bishop was very beneficent ; now (ahora) he is 
very poor. Is your brother (su, V.) older or younger than 
you (usted)? He is taller than I, but he is younger. A very 
rich man is not always a very happy man. This fruit is more 
sweet than sour. This translation is more difficult than it seems. 
The captain was as brave as [he was] generous. He has so 
many relations that he cannot count them all. That is the 
richest man of the town. The island of Madeira is finer than 
the island of Majorca. Galicia is the coldest region of Spain, 
[it] is a very cold country. Are you in the upper or in the 
lower class? This wine is very bad; the beer is better. 
We were all very tired, but my sister was the most tired of 
all. Why are you (usted) not as obedient as your (su — de 
y,) brother? You would have been more prudent if you had 
been older (más viejo). Do you know a fruit which is more 

* SomCf referring to a preceding substantive, and followed 
by an adjective^ is rendered by the acciis. of the personal pro- 
fioun; thus: lo tiene mejor ^ has some better (i.e., \*ine). 

Spanish Cony.-Grammar. A t 

Digitized by VaOOQlC ' 


LesBOD 21. 

delidoas than ibis? That book had as many mistakes as the 
other. God is the Supreme Being (Ser). 


¿ Cómo fué el comercio de esta 

¿Eá fuerte su hermano de V. ? 
¿Quién ha muerto ayer? 
¿Cómo era el capitán? 
¿Es pequeña esta casa? 

¿ Tiene V. tantos criados como 

tenia su padre? 
¿Es cierta esta noticia? 
¿Es integro ese empleado 

(clerk) ? 
¿Cómo es la almendra? 

¿ Tiene V. buenas almendras ? 

¿Quién era Murillo? 

¿ Conoce V. á un hombre sin- 

Fué muy floreciente. 

Si, es un hombre fortisimo. 
El piísimo obispo Fulano. 
Era tan valiente como sincero. 
Al contrario, es más grande de 

lo que parece. 
Tengo más. 

8i, señor, es certísima. 

Es un empleado integérrimo. 

Es dulcísima, pero menos dulce 
que el azúcar. 

Las (see Exercise 30) tengo 
buenas, pero mi vecino es 
quien las tiene mejores. 

Murillo era un celebérrimo pin- 
tor español. 

Conozco á un hombre muy 
sincero, le conozco á V. 

Twenty-first Lesson. — Lección veintiuna. 

On the Regalar Verb. — Del verbo regalar. 

By the terminatiou of the Infinitive Mood we dis- 
tinguish three diflferent forms of conjugation— í;í^.: 

The first conjugation, with the Infinitive Mood end- 
ing in ar, as: amar, to love. 

The second conjugation, with the Infinitive ending 
in eVy as: comer y to eat. 

The ^Aird conjugation, terminating in ivj as: vivir ^ 
to live. 

^o<e.— The vowel preceding the final r is characteristic 
of the whole conjugation. The inflections after these charac- 
teristic vowels are nearly alike in all three conjugations. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

On the Regular Verb. 


I. Conjug. 


Ain-ar, to love. 

(Charact. vowel a.) 

II. Conjug. 


Coin-er, to eat. 

(Charact. vowel e.) 

III. Conjug. 


TiY-iP, to live. 

(Charact. vowel !•) 

Yo am-^, I love. 
tú —as, thou lovest. 
el — a, he loves. 

i/uisotros — amos, 
we love. 



you love. 
— an, 

they love. 

Amaba, I loved. 

— aftcw^thoulovedst, 
—aba, he loved. 

— ábanios,y/e loved 
—abais, you loved. 
—aban, they loved. 

Amé, 1 loved. 
—aste, thou lovedst. 
— Ó, he loved. 

—amos, we loved. 
—asteis, you loved. 
—aron, they loved. 

Amaré, I shall 


—aras, thou wilt 

—ara, he will love. 

Simple Tenses. 



Comro, I eat. 
— es, thou eatest. 
— e, he eats. 

—emos, we eat. 

— éis, you eat. 

—en, they eat. 


Comía, I ate. 
—ias, thou atest. 
—ia, he ate. 

—iamos, we ate. 
—iais, you ate. 
—ian, they ate. 

Cowf, I ate. 
—iste, thou atest. 
— <ó, he ate. 

— imos, we ate. 
— isteis, you ate. 
— ieron, they ate. 


Comeré, I shall 


—eras, thou wilt 

— erd, he will eat. 

YiV'O, I live. 
—es, thou livest. 
— e, he lives. 

—imos, we live. 

— i«, you live. 

— «n, they live. 

Vivía, I lived. 
—ias, thou livedst. 
— ia, he lived. 

—iam,os, we lived. 
— iai«, you lived. 
—ian, they lived. 

Yivi, I lived. 

— i«f6, thou livedst. 

—id, he lived. 

—imos, we lived. 
—isteis, you lived. 
—ieron, they lived. 

Firfrá, I shall live. 

— <ríí«, thou wilt 
— irá, he will live. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 21. 

—aremos, we shall 

— aréis f you will 

— aran, they will 

Amariaf I should 

— arias f thou 

wouldst love. 

—aria, he would 

—ariamos, we 

should love. 
—ariais, you would 

— arian,they would 


Ama^ love (thou)! 
amad, love (you)! 

Ame F.*, love! 
(polite form.) 

^0 ames^y do (thou) 
not love! 

No améis* y do (you) 
not love! 

No ame F.*, do not 
love! (pol. form.) 

Ame, I love. 
—eSf thou love. 
— e**, he love. 

—eremos, we shall 

—eréis, you will 

—eran, they will 

Comería, I should 
—erias, thou 

wouldst eat. 
— eria, he would 

—eriam^os, we 

should eat. 
—eriais, you would 

— «rían, they would 


Come, eat (thou)! 
comed, eat (you)! 

Cornea F,*, eat! 

(pol. form.) 


No comas, do (thou) 

not eat! 

No comáis, do (you) 

not eat! 

No coma V., do not 

eat! (pol. form.) 

Coma, 1 eat. 
— as, thou eat. 
—a, he eat. 

—irem4>s, we shall 

-iréis, you will 

—irán, they will 


Viviría, I should 

—irías, thou 

wouldst live. 

—iría, he would 

—iHamos, we 

should live. 
—iríais, you would 

— ir£an, they would 


Vive, live (thou)! 
í;¿i;<€í, live (you)! 

Fira F.*, live! 

(pol. form.) 

No vivas, do (thou) 
not live! 

No viváis, do (you) 
not live! 

No viva v., do not 
live! (pol. form.) 

Viva, I live. 
—€is, thou live. 

I — a, he live. 

* These forms are taken from the present of the Subjunctive 
Mood (see the following Note). 

** The 3rd pers. sing, of the Pres. Subj. is of great impor- 
tance, because used with V., it replaces the Imperative of the 
polite form, thus: Ame V! (Do) love! Coma V.! (Do) eat! Viva 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

On the Regular Verb. 


—emos, we love. 
—HSf you love. 
—en, they love. 

Amase, if I loved. 
—ases, if thou 

— «wc, if he loved. 

—asemos, if we 

—aseis, if you 

—€isen, if they 


Amare, if I should 

—ares, if thou 
should st love. 

—are, if he should 

—aremos, if we 

should love. 
—areis, if you 

should love. 
—aren, if they 

should love. 

— amos, we eat. 
—ais, you eat. 
—an, they eat. 


Comiese, if I ate. 
—ieses, if thou 

— iese, if he ate. 

—iésemos, if we 

— ieseis, if you ate 

—iesen, if they ate. 


Comiere, if I should 

—ieres, if thou 

shouldst eat. 

— iere, if he should 

—iéremos, if we 
should eat. 

—iereis, if you 

should eat. 

—ieren, if they 

should eat. 

I —amos, we live. 

— ais, you live. 

I — an, they live. 

Fir<e«c, if I lived. 
—ieses, if thou 

—iese, if he lived. 

—iésemos, if we 

—ieseis, if you 

— -ie^en, if they 


Viviere^ if I should 

—ieres, if thou 
shouldst live. 

—iere, if he should 

—iéremos, if we 

should live. 
—iereis, if you 

should live. 
— iereny if they 

should live. 

v.! (Do) live! The indirect aflBrmative construction would be: 
Qukro que F, am>e or que ame F, The diflference between 
the affirmative and the interrogative forms, with which the 
so-called Imperative of the polite form is easily confounded, will 
be seen best in the following table: 

I. Conjug, 

You love, F. ama. 

Do you love? ¿Ama V.? 

Do love! ¡Ame F./ 

IL Conjug. 
You eat, F. come. 
Do you eat? ¿Come V/f 
Do eat / Coma F. / 

IIL Conjug. 

You live, F. vive. 

Do yoa live? ¿Vive V.? 

Do live! ¡Viva F./ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 21. 

Amara, if I loved. 
—aras, if thou 

—ara, if he loved. 

— aramos f if we 

— araiSj if you 

—aran, if they 


Amando, loving. 
Amado, loved. 


Comiera, if I ate. 
—ieras, if thou 

—iera, if he ate. 

—iératnos, if we 
—ierais, if you ate. 

—ieran, if they ate. 

Viviera, if I lived. 
—ieras, if thou 

—iera, if he lived. 

—ieramoSj if we 

— ierais, if you 


—ieran, if they 


I Comiendo, eating. | Viviendo, living. 

I Comido, eaten. | Vivido, lived. 

He \ 

has ) amadOy comido, vivido, 

ha } 


Compound Tenses. 

Compound Perfect, 

I have I 

thou hast /loved, eaten, lived, 
he has | 


Había I 

I had 

loved, eaten, 

habías \ amado, comido, vivido, thou hadst/ lived 
había J etc. 


3nd Pluperfect. 
Hube amado, comido, vivido, 1 had loved, eaten, lived. 

etc. etc. 

Compound Future. 
Habré amado, comido, vivido, I shall have loved, eaten, 


Compound Conditiona}, 
Habría amado, comido, vivido, I should have loved, eaten, 



Compound Perfect. 

Haya amado, comido, vivido, that I have loved, eaten, lived. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

On the Regular Verb. 87 

Hubiese amado, comido, vivido, if I had loved, eaten, lived. 

Compound Future, 
Hubiere amado, comido, vi- if I shall have loved, eaten, 
vido, lived. 

Compound ConditionaL 
Hubiera amado, comido, vi- that I should have loved, 
vido, eaten, lived. 

By way of practice the pupil should conjugate the 
following regular verbs: 

After the First Conjugation. 

^rre^Zar, to order, put in order, ilustrar, to illustrate. 

bajar, to descend. llegar, to arrive. 

mar, to create, breed. llevar, to carry, to wear. 

emplear, to apply. olvidar, to forget. 

engañar, to deceive. representar, to represent. 

fumar, to smoke. trabajar, to work. 

gastar, to spend. viajar, to travel. 

After the Second Conjugation. 

Aprender, to learn. emprender, to undertake. 

correr, to run. esconder, to conceal. 

conceder, to concede, grant. sorprender, to surprise. 
deber, to be obliged, to be vender, to sell, 
indebted to, to owe. 

After the Third Conjugation. 

Acudir, to hasten to. percibir, to penetrate, look 

exigir, to demand. recibir, to receive, [through. 

hundir, to sink (trans.). subir, to ascend. 

Although the use of the tenses will be given in the 
Second Part, it is* desirable to give here a few hints on 
those tenses which offer the greatest difficulties to the be- 

1. In Conditional clauses beginning with **if," the Spaniard 
uses the Imperfect of the Subjunctive or the Conditional of 
the same Mood, and the principal sentence follows (or pre- 
cedes) with the Conditional of the Indicative Mood, thus: 

Imperf, Subj. Cond. Suhj. Cond, Indie. 

8i amases (or amaras) los buenos libros, serías más 

If you loved good books, you would be more learned. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

88 Lesson 21. 

Condit Subj, Impf. Suhj. 
Si las riquezas hubieran (or hubiesen) podido saciar 

Condit Ind, 
mis deseos, las habría amado. 

If riches could have satisfied my wishes^ I should have 
loved them. 

2. In exclamations expressing desire, etc., the Imperfect 
of the Subjunctive is used as well as the Conditional of the 
same mood, as: 

¡Ojalá fuera (or fuese) eso asi! 
Would that it were so! 

3. After to tell, to say, to think, and similar verbs, the 
Conditional of the Indicative is used, if the principal sentence 
is affirmative. If, on the conti*ary, the principal sentence is 
negative, interrogative, or expresses doubt, either the Conditional 
or the Imperfect of the Subjunctive should be employed in 
the accessory sentence, thus: 

He said (had said) that he would come. 

Cond. Ind, 
Deda (dijo) (hahia dicho) que vendHa* 
I did not think that they would overtake us. 
Cond. Subj. Impf. Suhj. 
No creía que nos alcanzaran or alcanzasen. 

4. After the verbs "to be willing, to desire, to wish, to 
pretend," etc., the Conditional of the Indicative should never 
be used ; the Conditional of the Subjunctive or the Imperfect 
of the same Mood are employed, as: 

I wished he would come. 

Quería que viniera or viniese (but never vendría). 

5. The Future of the Subjunctive refers to a FtUure or 
Imperative in the principal sentence, as: 

You will come if you can (properly : if you will be able 

to come). 
Vendrá V. si pudiere (or puede, pres.). 

This is commonly the case, if the accessory sentence is 
introduced by "he who," "that which," "all that," where in 
English, too, the Future might be used instead of the Pre- 
sent, as: 

Choose of these places that which pleases you best. 
Elija V. de estos puestos el que más le agradare (or 
agrade, pres. Subj.). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

On the Regular Verb. 89 


Los esttidioSf the studies. estudiar^ to study, 

el joven, the young man, creer, to believe, to think, 

youth. comprender, to understand. 

la escoba, the broom. meter, to put. 

la capa, the cloak. temer, to fear. 

el negodo, the business. ofender, to offend. 

el negociante, \ . , merchant l^**^***» to \Qzy^ (for), to set out, 

tl comerciante, t ' trabajar, to work. 

piadoso, -a, pious. llegar, to arrive. 

diligente, diligent. dííc^, said (past part). 

Reading Exercise. 82. 

¿Que busca V.? Busco mi sombrero, y estos niños 
buscan sus libros. Amamos á nuestros padres (parents) y 
parientes (relations). Hablaba siempre de sus flores y pájaros. 
£se rey ama á su pueblo. Amaremos siempre á los que 
(those who) son virtuosos. Hablaré mañana al médico. Ha- 
blarla más de sus estudios, si fuese más diligente. ¿Cree Y. 
que nuestro vecino llegue hoy? Creo que llegará mañana. 
¿Ha comprendido V. lo que he dicho? No lo he comprendido 
todo. La criada dejó la escoba en el cuai*to, cuando hubo 
acabado (done) de barrerlo (it). ¿Venderá V. sus perros? 
Venderé mis caballos, pero no venderé mis perros. Venderla 
su capa si se la comprasen (if they . .). Estos negociantes 
no venderían sus casas, si hubiesen hecho (done) mejores 
negocios. ¿Á quién ha vendido V. sus libros? ¿Cuándo par- 
tirá su padre de V. para Madrid? Partirá esta tarde. ¿Desde 
(since) cuándo vive V. en esta casa? Desde hace siete ú 
(inst. of ó, or; see the Conjunctions) ocho días. ¿Cuándo ha 
recibido V. el dinero? Recibí el dinero ayer. 

Traducción. 88. 

Will you (usted) look for (tr. search) my books and pens? 
I should look for them (los), if I had more time. We 2 always 
1 speak for our friends. Shall you (V,) speak to the physician 
to-morrow? I should speak to the physician to-day, if he 
were here. The good king always loved his (su) people. Do 
you understand (Entiende Y.) the book which I have given 
(dado) you? I have understood all* very well (muy bien). 
The footman has put the hat on the table. If you (V.) were 
more diligent, you would speak more of your studies. God 
loves those who are pious and virtuous. My friend always 
spoke of his horses and dogs. I do not think that the Spanish 
merchant has (Subj.) yet (todavia) arrived. The young man 

* Everything. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 21. 

studied the whole day. I should leave ¡this afternoon if the 
weather were not so bad. Do you think (that) you will set 
out. to-day? I should set out at once (desde luego) if I had 
received my (el) money. We have been living for three 
months in this house. The footman has not swept the room 


¿Quiere (to love^ like) V. á 

mi hermano? 
¿Á quién ama Dios? 

¿Qué buscaba su criado de V.? 

¿Ha cogido (taken) V. mi 
cortaplumas (penknife)^ 

¿Hablará V. hoy á aquel su- 
jeto (that man)l 

¿Trabajará V. esta tarde? 

¿ Por qué llora (crieSj weeps) 

este nifio? 
¿Vive aquí su tío de V.? 

¿ Cree V. que el criado llegue 

(see Lesson 22, 2) pronto 

¿Qué ha vendido su amigo 

de V.? 
¿Desde cuándo vive V. en 

esta calle? 
¿Ha recibido V. una carta 

de Sevilla? 
¿ Dónde viven las hijas de su 

amigo de V.? 

Le quiero mucho á su her- 
mano de V. 

Dios ama al que (him who) 
hace bien á los desdichados. 

Buscaba mi sombrero y mis 

No he cogido nada. 

Le (to him) he hablado ya 

No trabajaré, porque no tengo 

Porque no tiene nada que (to) 

comer (eat). 
No, señor, vive en casa (at) 

de Don Casimiro Verguero 

(Mr, VJs), 
No creo que llegue hoy. 

Ha vendido sus caballos y sua 

Desde hace año y medio. 

Aún (yet) no la he recibido. 

Viven en una quinta (country- 
Jwuse, cottage) muy lejos 
(far) de la ciudad. 

Reading Exercise. 

Geografía de España. 

Situación, clima, extensión, población. 

España tiene la misma longitud de las Islas Británicas, 
y la misma latitud del Norte de los Estados Unidos. Con- 
fina al N. con el Mar Cantábrico y Francia; al E. con el 
Mediterráneo; al S. con el Mediterráneo, el Estrecho de Gi- 
braltar y el Océano Atlántico, y al O. con Portugal y el At- 
lántico. — La Península. Ibérica está" enteramente rodeada de 

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Euphonic Changes in Certain Verbs. 


mar, excepto por la parte donde los Pirineos la separan de 

Su clima es vario ; en el Norte frío y nebuloso, en el Sud 
cálido, en el Centro frío ó cálido, según las estaciones; en 
general el clima es muy seco, por la destrucción de los bosques. 

La extensión superficial de Espafia es de 504 517 kiló- 
metros cuadrados, y la población de 18000000 de habitantes. 

Twenty-second Lesson^ — Lección vein- 

Euphonic Changes in Certain Yerbs. 

Certain classes of regular Verbs undergo various 
orthographical modifications in order to retain their 
pronunciation. These are as follow: 

1. Verbs ending in -car^ as: tocar, to touch, change 
the c into qu before e; whilst those in -quiry as deHn- 
quir', to transgress, change qu into c before o, a; i.e.: 

Perf. Imper. 
toqué, toque V., (Do) touch, 
etc. etc. 

But: toco, tocos, etc. 

toque, etc. 

Ind. Pr. Imper. 
delinco, delinca V., 
etc. etc. 

delinca, etc. 

But: delinque, etc.; delinquí, etc. 

2. Those in -gar as : pagar, to pay, insert u after 
g before e; whilst those in -guir, like distinguir, to dis- 
tinguish, change gu into ^before o, a; i.e.: 

Perf. Imper. 


pagué, pague Y., 
etc. etc. 

But: pago, pagas, etc. 

pague, etc. 

Ind. Pres. Imper. 


distingo, distinga V., 
etc. etc. 

But: distingues, etc.; distinguí, etc. 

distinga, etc. 

Digitized by Google 

92 Lesson 22. 

3. Verbs in -zar, as : rezar, to pray, change s into 
c before e; verbs in -cer and -dr change c into » before 
a and o, ca, co, jra^ flfo; 

rezavy to pray, 
recé. rece, rece F. 


rcccí, etc. 
vencer, esparcir, conocer, yacer, 

to conquer, to scatter. to know. to lie down. 

venzo, esparzo, conozco, yazgo, 

venza, esparza, conozca, yazga, 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 

4. Verbs ending in -ger and -gir change g into J 
before a or o, as: 

escoger, to choose. dirigir, to direct. 
escojo, dirijo, 

escoja, dirija^ 

escojas, dirijas, 

escoja, dirija, 

etc. etc. 

5. Verbs in -guar assume the diaeresis before e, 
é; while those in -güir lose the diaeresis before end- 
ings not having i with the stress or i: 

averiguar, to ascertain. argüir, to argue. 

averigüé, arguyo, 

averigüe, arguyes, 

averigües, arguye, 

averigüe, etc. etc. 

But: averiguo, etc.; argüí, etc. 

6. O if diphthongised to ue assumes the form hue 
in oler, and the form ne if preceded by g: 

oler, to smell. avergonzarse, to be ashamed. 

huelo, me avergüenzo, 

hueles, te avergüenzas, 

huele, se avergüenza, 

etc. etc. 

7. i unaccented between two vowels is converted 
into y, the same as i unaccented, initial, before a vowel: 

argüir, to argue. errar, to make a mistake. 
arguyo, yerro, 

arguyes, yerras, 

arguye, yerra, 

etc. etc. 

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Euphonic Changes in Certain Verbs. 93 


El cuartOf the room. avergonzarse, to be ashamed. 

la sencillez, the simplicity. oler, to smell. 

el error, la falta, \ .y^ n i . olvidar, to forget. 

d defecto, J ' ignorar, not to be aware. 

el iw;o, luxury. entregar, to deliver, to give. 

el escritorio, \ the counting- padecer, to suffer. 

el despacho, J house, office. llegar, to arrive. 

escoger, to choose. escoger, to choose. 

la cuenta, the account. dirigir, to direct. 

él ahílelo, the grandfather. /mir, to flee, to fly (French :/wir). 

el periódico (or diario), the buscar, to search, to look for. 

newspaper. es preciso, it is necessary ; me 
creer, to believe. (lie, le) es preciso, I, (thou, 

pegar, to beat. he), etc., must, 

tocar, to touch. 

Reading Exercise. 3á. 

¿ No le pegue usted al perro ? i No toque V. eso I ¿ Por- 
qué toca V. eso? Huyamos del lujo y busquemos la sencillez. 
Olvidamos nuestros defectos, creyendo que el mundo los ignora. 
Llegué ayer con su hermano de V. Huela V. esta rosa. 
Búsquele V., entregúele la cuenta, y que se la pague. ¿Por 
qué no paga V. lo que V. ha comprado? Mi abuelo está 
leyendo el periódico. ¡Huya V. la mala compañia y busque 
V. la buena! Escoja V. lo mejor. Averigüe V. donde tiene 
el despacho. ¡Cuanto padezco! Se avergüenza de que yo le 

TradncciÓD. 35. 
(Do) choose one of these rooms! Why did you beat my 
dog? I did not beat him Qe precedes the verb). What are 
you reading (use leer) ? I am reading the newspaper. The 
man who conquers his passions is prudent. Do not beat the 
poor boy. He has suffered much in (= during) his life*. 
Why don't you pay {transí. Why not pay yon) me (no me — ) ? 
Do pay him ! One must pay one's (sus) bills. Did you arrive 
(Bef.) from Paris? I attributed (use atribuir) his faults to 
bis bad company. Do not touch that, and do not argue. Do 
you want me (Quiere V, que) to ascertain it? Do not be 
ashamed, everybody (todo el mundo) makes a mistake (use 
errar). When you know him, you will like him (le querrá). 
He does not want me to (No quiere que le —) direct him. 
Smell these roses. Give it to him when he arrives (use the 

* Lifetime. 

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Lesson 23. 

¿Qué hace V.? 
¿Qué creía su padre de V.? 
¿Qué quiere V.? 
¡Pagúeme V.I 

¿Quién es prudente? 

¿De qué se avergüenza V.? 

¿Cuándo llegó V.? 


Escojo lo mejor. 

Creía que estaba V. leyendo. 

Que V. le dirija. 

Como quiere V. que le pague 
si no me pagan. 

El hombre que vence (con- 
quers) sus pasiones. 

Me avergüenzo de que él no 
se avergüence. 

Llegué ayer. 
Reading Exereise. 

Yo no sé lo que yo tengo, 
ni sé lo que me hace falta, 
que siempre espero una cosa, 
que no sé como se llama. 

(Ferrán, **La Soledad," XVIIL) 

Antes piensa y después habla, 
y después de haber hablado, 
vuelve á pensar lo que. has dicho, 
y verás si es bueno ó malo. 

(Ferrán, "La Soledad," XLI.) 

Twenty-tilird Lesson. — Lección Yeintitrés* 

Personal Pronouns.— Pronombres personales. 
Gonjunctive Personal Pronouns. 

1st Person. 
Nosotros (nos), 
de nosotros, 
á nosotros, nos, 

Yo, I. 

de mí, of me. 
á mi, me, to me, 

conmigo, with me. 

tú, thou. 
de ti, of thee. 
á ti, te, to thee, 

contigo, with thee. 

con nosotros, 
2nd Person. 
de vosotros, 
á vosotros, o8, 

con vosotros. 

Nosotras (nos), we. 
de nosotras, oí us. 
á nosotras, nos, to 
US, US. [us. 

con nosotras, with 

Vosotras (os), you. 
de vosotras, of you. 
á vosotras, os, to 
you, you. [you. 
con vosotras, with 

* As we stated (Lesson III.), the personal accusative is 
rendered in Spanish by the dative. 

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Personal Pronouns. 95 

3rd Person. 

Sing, Elf he. Plur, Ellos, they. 

de él, of him, de ellos, of them. 

á él, le, to him, him. áello8,les,ioihem,ihem. 

con él, with him. con ellos, with them. 

Sing, Ella, she. Plur. Ellas, they. 

de ella, of her. de ellas, of them. 

á ella, le, lay to her, her. á ellas, lea, las, to them, 

con ella, with her. con ellas, with them. 

Sing, Ello, it. 

de ello, of it. 
á ello, lo, to it. 
con ello, with it. 

Polite Form of Address^ i.e., you (always in the 
third perami). 

For both genders. 
Sing, Usted (V,), Plur. Ustedes (V.V.). 

de usted (V.), de ustedes (V.V.). 

á usted (V.); substitute, á ustedes (V.V.); subst. loa, 
le, la. les, las. 

Reflective of Third Person (usted included). 

For both genders and numbers. 

Gen. de si, of himself, herself, itself, themselves. 

Dat. and \ á si, to himself, herself, itself, themselves. 
AccuB. I himself, herself, itself, themselves. 

Ablat. consigo, with himself (herself, itself, yourself, polite) ; 
themselves, yourselves (pol.). 


1. The forms de él, de ella, de ello, etc., were formerly 
conti-acted into del, della, déllo, etc. These contractions are 
now obsolete. 

2. Nos and vos, instead of nosotros, -as, vosotros, -as, 
as nominatives, are only used in official style, nos expressing 
the so-called "plural of Majesty". Ex.: Xos Don N., Obispo 
de , . , , o8 mandamos. We NN. bishop ... bid you. 

No8 — as accusative — and os are placed before the verb: 
Nos lo dijo, he told us. 
¿ No OS lo contó ? did he not tell you ? 


by Google 

96 Lesson 23. 

Contrary to the practice of other Romance languages, in 
Spanish we and you have a mase, and fern, gender. Thus: 
Nosotros (masculine); vosotms (feminine). 

3. The preposition con (with) is contracted with mi, tí, 
si into conmigo, contigo, consigo, with me, with thee, with 
him(self), etc. 

4. In the dative and in the accusative there are two 
kinds of personal pronouns — viz: the absolute and the con- 
junctive; the former is always detached from the verb; the 
latter is only employed in the dative and accusative cases 
and may closely join the verb. 

Yo lo tengo (el periódico), I have it (the paper). 
Tómelo V,, Have it. 

5. The diflference between the forms de él, de ella, de ello, 
de V,, de ellos, etc., á él, á ella, etc., con él, con ella, etc., 
and the forms, de sí, á 8í, consigo is that the latter refer 
to the subject of the sentence, whilst the former refer to a 
different person or thing. Compare: 

Iba hablando con él, he was talking to him. 
Iba hablando consigo^ he was talking to himself « 

6. Ello (nominative) may only be used as the subject of 
the sentence, and should be placed at the beginning. In the 
middle of the phrase, lo is used instead of ello; as: 

(Ello) parece difícil, mas no lo es. 
It seems (to be) difficult, but it is not. 
7. The English expressions "I myself or "my own self," 
"he himself," "your own self," etc., are always rendered by 
yo mismo, fem. yo misma; él mismo, V, mismo, -a, etc. 

^.jB.— The Spanish personal pronoun in the nominative, 
i.e., as a subject, is always suppressed, unless required for 
the sake of emphasis, contrast, or to avoid ambiguity. 


El dinero, the money. no tener razón, to be wrong. 

ver, to see. alabar, to praise. 

luego (adv.), soon. acusar, to accuse. 

tener razón, to be right. llevar, to carry. 

Reading Exercise. 30. 

¿ Quién lo (it, so) dice ? Yo, — el — ella — nosotros — 
vosoti*as. Nosotros tuvimos razón; vosotras lo veréis (wUl 
see) luego. ¿Quién lo ha dicho, él ó ella? ¿Vienes tú con- 
migo? No voy contigo. ¿Quién estuvo aquí, él ó ella? No 
hablo de él, sino de ellas. Hablamos de vosotros y de voso- 
tras. ¿Habla V. de ellos ó de ellas? Esos hombres se ala- 

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Personal Pronouns. 97 

ban á sí mismos (themselves). Las mujeres se acusan á sí mis- 
mas. Harías* mejor (You had better) en ocuparle (care) de 
tí mismo (mind your own business). Llevo todo mi dinero 
conmigo; ól nunca lleva dinero consigo cuando voy con él. 
¿Quién ha hablado de mí? Yo he hablado de V., de ól y de 
ella. ¡No hable V. siempre de sí mismo I ¿Me ha dado V. 
el dinero á mi ó á mi amigo? 8e lo he dado á él. Vosotros 
tenéis razón. 

Tradnceióu. 87. 

Who is there? He, she, we, you, they. Bo you give 
(da V,) the money to me or to her? I love (quiero) thee, 
bat I do not love him. Have you seen me or her? You 
carry it all about (con) you. Has (use llevar) he money about 
him? She has no money about her. We (m) are poor, but 
you (f,) are rich. We (m,) speak of you (f,), and you (f,) 
speak of us (m,). Have you any money? I have more (of 
it) than you. Have you any friends? I have none (no los 
tengo). That (it) seems [to be] very difficult, but it is very 
easy. I have seen you (m, pi,) and them (f, pi,). She loves 
thee, but she does not love me. He and she were here; they 
have spoken (to) with him and (to) with her. I did not 
speak of you, but (sino) I spoke of them (pi, fern.). This 
lady praises herself. Why do you accuse her, and not him? 
Shall you take all your money with you? He would have 
taken all his books with him, if he had had time (tiempo). 


¿Quién ha hecho eso? Yo, tú, ól, ella. 

¿Quién ha hablado de mí? Yo he hablado de V. 

¿Quién ha venido conmigo? Yo he venido contigo. 
¿ Tiene dinero ? Tiene más dinero que yo, pero 

nunca lleva dinero conmigo. 
¿Qué falta tiene ella? Que habla mucho de sí misma. 

¿Me llamas (Dost thou cali) No te llamo á tí, les llamo á 

á mí? él y á ella. 

¿ Quién se acusa á sí mismo ? Pocos se acasan á sí mismos. 
¿De quién habla ól? Habla de nosotros y de vosotras. 

¿Ha llegado sola ella? No, ha llegado conmigo. 

Beading Exercise. 

Geografía de España. (Continuación.) 

Mares, golfos, cabos; montañas, ríos. 

Sus mares son el Atlántico y el Mediterráneo; la parte 

del Atlántico que se extiende por la costa norte se llama Mar 

Cantábrico ó Golfo de Vizcaya, ó de Gascuña. En Cataluña 

• From hacer, to do. 
Spanish Cony. -Grammar. 7 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Lesson 24. 

hay el golfo de Rosas. Sas principales cabos son el de Creus^ 
en Cataluña, el de Palos en Murcia, el de Gata en Almería, 
la Punta de Europa en Cádiz, el Finisterre j Ortegal en la 
Corufia, el de Peñas en Asturias, y el Macbichaco en Vizcaya. 
En España no hay lagos. 

El país está cortado por vanas cordilleras paralelas y 
una transversal; á saber: al N. la cordillera Pirenaica, con 
las Montañas de Santander y los Montes de Asturias; en el 
Centro la cordillera Carpetana, con las Sierras de Somo- 
sierra y Guadarrama, y la cordillera Oretana con los Montes 
de Toledo; al S. la cordillera Bética, con la Sierra Morena, 
y la Penibética con la Sierra Nevada; y al E. la cordillera 
Ibérica, que parte de las Montañas de Santander y termina 
en el cabo de Gata. Esta cordillera es la principal divisoria 
de las aguas. 

Los principales ríos corren entre esas cinco cordilleras 
paralelas, y la cordillera oriental y los dos mares, y son: 
el Duero, el Tajo, el Guadiana, el Guadalquivir y el Ebro; 
éste es el único de ellos que desemboca en el Mediterráneo. 

Twenty-fourth Lesson. — Lección veinti- 

Conjunctive Personal Pronouns. — Pronombres 
personales afijos. 

As we observed in the foregoing lesson, these pro- 
nouns have only the dative and accusative cases. They 


Dat. me, me (to me); te, tbee (to thee); 

Ace. me, me; te, thee; 

Dat. le; á V., him (to le, her (to her); 

him); to you. 

Ace. lo, him; la her; — h, it. 

Plur. \se 

Dat. no8, us (to us); os, you (to you); 

Ace. nos, us ; os, you ; 

Dat. les, áV.V.,them(io les, them (to them) (f,); 

them) ; to you (m.); 

Ace. los, them (m,); las, them (f,). 


1. The rule given in Lesson 3, that the object of 
the person is put in the dative, holds good also for the 







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Conjunctive Personal Pronouns. 99 

pronouns, but in this case it is not employed with the 
same consistency by all Spanish writers. Thus, when 
speaking of persons, we find le and lo for the sing, 
and les and los for the pi. mase; for the fem. sing. 
la, more rarely le, and for the pi. las, more rarely les. 
On the other hand, la and las occur occasionally, besides 
le (to her), les (to them) for the dat. feminine — e.g., la 
^^1 I give to her; but le is better for both genders. 

Examples : 

Nuestro amigo salía de su casa, cuando le (or lo) asal- 
taron unos ladrones. 

Our friend left his house, when several robbers as- 
saulted him. 

¿Dónde están sus hermanos de Y,? No lea or loa he 

Where are your brothers? I have not seen them. 

Creen las mujeres que los hombres laa (ace.) aprecian 
particularmente por su hermosura ; pero lo que lea 
(or laa) asegura para siempre una estimación verda- 
dera es la modestia, la^ virtud, etc. 

Women think that men appreciate them particularly 
for their beauty; but what always secures them 
real esteem is modesty, virtue, etc. 

In speaking of inanimate objects le or lo are used 
for the masculine, the latter in preference — e,g.: 

He comprado este libro, pero no lo {dr le) he leído todavía, 
I have bought this book, but have not yet read it. 

2. Concerning the construction of these pronouns, 
the following are the most important rules: 

(a) The conjunctive pronouns precede the verb in 
the Indicative^ the Subjunctive, and the Imperative moods ; 
in this latter case only when negatively employed, as: 

Lo dog, I give it. 

Lo he dado, I have given it. 

Te mando, I command thee. 

No le conocía á Y,, I did not recognize you. 

Os ha visto, he has seen you. 

(Quiere que se lo diga, he wants me to tell him. 

¡No lo diga Y,! do not tell him. 
A very remarkable anomaly is presented by the 
pronouns of the third person. Whenever a dative of 
this person (masculine or feminine, singular or plural) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

100 Lesson 24. 

meets with an accusative of the same person, the dative, 
for the sake of euphony, is rendered by 8e, not by Ze, 
les. Thus : 

Sing, Plur, 

le lOy I 1^ ^^' \ = 8e Jo, les lo, it them, = 8e lo, 

^^ ^^* I her ko) htr' ] ^ ^^ ^^' ^^^ ^^» ^®^ *'^®°^ = *^ ^^• 
^' ^^^' { hirthimrS'}= ^ ^^' ^'' ^^^' **^^^ ^^-¿.^^ *^«^' 

'^ ^^^' { him them Í/ÍÍ }= *^ ^^^' ^^^ ^^^' ^^^^ ^f'^ ^ *^®™ 

— sc las, 

^of6.— When itc^o of these pronouns, one in the dative, 
the other in the accusative case, meet in the same sentence, 
they both precede the verb, the dative being invariably placed 
before the accusative case, as: 

Te lo doy, I give it thee. 

Te lo he dado, I have given it thee. 

Me lo ha mandado, (lit.) he has ordered it to me. 

It makes no difference whether the pronouns 
precede or follow (see c) the verb. Thus: 

Se lo prometí, I promised it him, for: le lo prometí. 
Se los enviaré, I shall send them (m,) to them, for: les 

los enviaré. 
Prometiéndoselo, promising it him, for: prometiéndotelo. 

In order to avoid misconception, or if a particular 
stress is laid on the pronoun, either the absolute pro- 
noun or the corresponding substantive may be added, as: 

Se lo prometí á éí, I promised it to him, 

Se lo prometí á ella, 1 promised it to her, 

Se lo prometí á mi hermano, I promised it to my 

Se lo prometí á mi hermana, I promised it to my sister. 

(h) The conjunctive personal pronouns follow the 
verb in the Imperative (except the negative Imperative, 
see a), the Infinitive, and the Gerund, In this case they 
are contracted with the verb into one word. 

Déjame, let me; whereas: no me dejes, do (thou) not 

let me. 
Dinas la verdad, tell (thou) us the truth. 

* If preceding the verb, the substantive is followed imme- 
diately by the dative of the pronoun, as: A mi hermano se lo 
prometió, he promised it to my brother. 

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Conjunctive Personal Pronouns. 101 

Vino á visitarme, be came to pay me a visit. 

Quererse, to love oneself. 

Estoy escribiéndolo, I am writing it. 
-^o^e.— In this case, whenever two conjunctive personal 
pronouns — one in the dative, and the other in the accusative 
— meet in the sentence, the dative precedes: 

Díamelo hacer, let me do it. 

Biganoálo F., tell us. 

Estoy escribiéndoselo, I am writing it to him. 
iV.^.— Notwithstanding the preceding rules, the con- 
junctive farm precedes (not follows), in the negative im- 

No se lo deje V, hacer, do not let him do it. 

No nos lo diga F., do not tell us. 
^o<e.— Ancient writers contract the pronoun with the 
Infinitive mood in a peculiar manner. Instead oí tomarla, to 
take her, they say tomalla; instead of tenerle — teneUe, etc. 
In the 2nd PI. of the Imperative mood, which ends in 'd, this 
consonant was put before the I — of the pronoun. Thus, in- 
stead of tomadlo, take (you) it, they said: tomaldo; instead 
of decidle (tell it), decilde. This metathesis, or transposition, 
is frequently met with, for instance, in Cervantes, but is now 
quite obsolete. 

(c) If the Imperative, the Infinitive, or the Gerund 
is coupled with an auxiliary verb, or with a verb which 
may be considered as an auxiliary, Hke hacer, to make, 
dejar de, to cease, volver á, to do again, etc., the pro- 
nouns very often precede these verbs, as: 

8e deja ver, liter, he lets himself see = he shows him- 
self (instead of deja verse). 
No me vuelvas á hablar, do not speak to me again 

instead of no vuelvas á hablarme), 
(Euphony alone decides where the pronoun should be 
placed in this case.) 

(d) For euphony's sake, a slight alteration is ori- 
ginated by the pronouns nos (us) and as (you)— vi>.: 

1. When nos is affixed to a form ending in -5, 
the final -s of the verb is dropped, thus: 

Amémonos, let us love one another, for: amémosnos. 
Vémonos, we see each other, for: vámosnos, 

2, When as meets with the final -d of the Im- 
perative mood, this consonant is dropped, thus: 

Amaos, love (you) yourselves, for: amados. 

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102 Lesson 24. 

Note,— The only exception is id, go (you). Thus: idos, 
go away, begone!* 

General Memark. — Notwithstanding the preceding 
rules, in poetry as well as in literary style the Conjunctive 
Pronouns most often follow, not precede, the verb. 


El nombre, the name. parecer, to seem. 

la libertad, the liberty. esperar, to expect, to wait for. 

el estado, the state, condition, sentarse, to sit down. 

el lacayo, the footman, prometer, to promise. 

la impaciencia, (the) impa- ir \a p ?to come, to see, to 

tience. venir f ^ ^' \ call, to visit **. 

la hora, the hour. veneer, to conquer. 

comentar, to begin. anunciar, to announce, to im- 
lamentar, to lament. part. 

recomendar, to recommend. C5¿arew¿eraí?o, to be acquainted, 

saber, to know. • mucho tiempo há, it is a good 

afligir, to afflict. while. 

ver, to see. di, tell (thon). 

hallar, to find. apenas, scarcely. 

escribir, to write. algo, something. 

Reading Exercise. 38. 

¡Díganos V. la verdad! ¡Enviele V. esta carta! Le 
Tjonocemos. No le conocemos. La conozco mucho tiempo há. 
Estaba enterado de la muerte de su padre, pero no he querido 
anunciársela por no afligirle. Escríbaselo V. Puede V. ha- 
blarle. No le he de decir mi nombre. ¿No sabe V. quién 
es esa mujer ? ¿ Se lo ha recomendado V. ? Te lo he dicho á tí, y 
no á él. El pobre muchacho se comenzó á lamentar de su 
suerte. El caballero halló á su enemigo; y venciéndole (after 
having conquered him) en batalla singular (duel), después de 
perdonarle generosamente, le dio la libertad. ¿Han venido 
Vds. á verme? Ella no se lo ha prometido á él. Apenas me 
hubo visto uno de los tres pastores, cuando me llamó. Ha- 
llábame en este estado, cuando supe (knew, learned) que el 
Señor Gil Blas estaba sin lacayo. Sentámonos á la mesa mi 
hermana y yo. Esperábamos con impaciencia la hora para 

* French: Allez-vousen! 

** In the Romance languages, "to go" (Fr. aller; Ital. andaré; 
Span, ir) denotes a motion towards the person spoken tOj whereas 
*'to come" (Fr. venir; It. venire; Sp. venir) implies a motion 
towards the speaker. "Come to see me" is therefore Fr. Venez me 
voir; It. Venga a trovar mi; Sp. Venga F. á verme. "I'll call on 
you" is: Fr. JHrai vous voir; It. Andró a trovarla; Sp. Iré d verle 
á V. 

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Conjunctive Personal Pronouns. 103 

vemos y hablarnos. ¿Tiene V. algo que decirnos? ¿Conoce 
Y. á esos hombres ? Les he visto ayer en casa de mi amigo, 
pero no les conozco. Dime la verdad, que (and) no te arre- 
pentirás (pou will not repent) de haberla hecho. Se lo dijeron 
(told) á mis hermanas. Á mi amigo no le pareció bien este 

Tradocción. 89. 
Tell me (poh form)\ Tell (thou) it us! I expected you. 
I do not expect him. Had you expected it? He has given 
it to him. There are the books; has he given them to them 
(fem,)t He has given them to the daughters of the neighbour. 
Leave them (to) them! I promised them to them. Has my 
brother seen you (plur,) ? Why will you not impart it to 
him, if you are acquainted (with) of it? Have you told him 
80? I have told her, but not him. Tell him! We were not 
able (lit, in the state) to promise him it. Why have you 
promised it her? I should not have promised it to her, if 
you had not given it to me. Begone! I do not give you so 
much money as I gave you (the) last time (vez). Love one 
another, men ! He was very sorry (tr. to afflict ones self)^ 
when he heard (transí. Tcnew) that you had not recommended 
him. Have you known this gentleman? I did not know 
him, but 1 knew his sister (transí, hut his sister, I knew her). 
He has recommended her to me. We came (tr. have come) 
to visit him, but as we do not find him at home, we shall 
(wait for) expect him. I have something to tell you. Did 
you know (—supo Y.) it? I am acquainted with his con- 
dition, and I (did tell him so) have also told him, but he 
will not believe it (me). Do you know that I will send them 
(mase.) to them? 

¡Dígame V. la verdad! La digo siempre. 

¿Conoce V. á ese señor? Le conozco muy bien; es el 

primo de la Señorita de Fi- 
¿Espera V. á su amigo? Espero á mi tio: me ha pro- 

metido venir á verme hoy. 
¿Se lo ha dicho Y. á ól, ó á Se lo he dicho á ella, y no á 

ella? él. 

¿Por qué lo han hecho? Lo han hecho para honrarle (^¿n 

¿A. quién se lo dijeron (told Se lo dijeron á mis hermanos. 

¿Se lo ha prometido? Sí, se lo ha prometido* 

¿ Quién ha venido ? Ha venido un caballero á ver- 

le á V. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

104 Lesson 25. 

¿ Qué nos manda (orders ^ com- Nos manda amamos como her- 

mands) el Evangelio (Gos- manos y socorremos (assist) 

pel)^ en la desgracia. 

¿Ha enviado V. las cartas Se las enviaré por el correo 

á la marquesa? (post). 

¿Por qué no le da (gives) di- No puede darle dinero, por- 

nero su padre? que no lo* tiene. 

¿Quiere V. prestarme este No puedo prestárselo (or no 

libro? se lo puedo prestar) á V. 

porque lo estoy leyendo. 

Beading Exereise. 

Cuando nacemos, lloramos, 
y sonríen los demás, 
y al morir nos sonreimos, 
y ellos se echan á llorar. 

[Palau, "Nuevos Cantares," CXXXL] 
Despedida, despedida, 
eres fuente de dolores, 
cuando las manos se sueltan 
se rompen los corazones. 

[Palau, "Nuevos Cantares," CCXCVIU.] 

Twenty-fifth Lesson. —Lección veinticinco. 

Demonstrative and Interrogative Prononns. — Pro* 
nombres demostratiros é interrogativos. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

As stated in Lesson 14, these words are pronouns 
when used in lieu of a Substantive — i.e., alone. Of course, 
they may be inflected with the prepositions á, de, con, 
etc. They are: 

Sing. Plur. 

Este, esta, this; esto (n.), this; estos, estas, these. 
Ese, esa, this; eso (n.), this; esos, esas, these. 

A quel, aquella, that ; aquello (n.), that ; aquellos, aquéllas, those. 

Note. — The forms aqueste, aquesta, aquesto, for este, 
esta, esto; aquese, aquesa, aqueso for ese, esa, eso, are no^ 

* As the Spanish language has no precise equivalent for 
some or any in this meaning, the personal pronoun is often used 
instead, as in the above sentence. Thus: ¿No come V, fruta? 
Do you not eat fruit? Nunca la como, I never eat any (lit. it)- 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns. 105 

completely obsolete. This is also the case V7ith the compoands 
of este and ese with otro: estotro, estotra, this other = the 


Again, the articles el, la, and lo are used as de- 
monstrative pronouns in phrases such as: 
Mi caballo y el de mi hermano. 
My horse and that of my brother. 

The English phrases he who . . ., pi. those who . . ., 
are rendered by the definite article with que following: 

Los que no moderan sus pasiones son infelices. 
Those who do not moderate their passions are unhappy. 

The neuter lo should be added where the EngHsh 
tlmt is commonly omitted, as: 

No sabe lo que dice. 

He does not know what (that which) he says. 

He who, especially in the singular, is often trans- 
lated by quien, and not by el que — e.g.: 

Quien calla, otorga, he who is silent gives consent. 
(French: Qui ne dit mot, consent.) 

The neuter forms esto^ eso, aquello are only used 
substantively — ie., without a noun following, as: 

He hablado de esto, de eso, de aquello. 

I have spoken of it (that). 
J^.^.— Besides their general use similar to that of the 
demonstrative adjectives, the Spanish demonstratives may 
refer to a person or thing already mentioned: 

Escribí á mi amigo, y éste no me contestó. 

I wrote to my friend but he did not answer. 

Yi al padre y al hijo; aquel no me vio, éste si. 

I saw the father and the son; the former did not see 
me, the latter did. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

The interrogative pronouns differ in their form from 
the relative pronouns only in as much as they have 
the written accent, but they differ in their use. Besides 
those enumerated in Lesson 14, § 4, 5, and 6 (cuál and 
qué), we should mention: 

¿Quién? plur. ¿quiénes? who? 

¿Cuál? plur. ¿cmles? which? and 

¿ Cuyo ? í. ¿ cuya ? whose ? 

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106 Lesson 25. 

(a) ¿Quién?, ¿quiénes? are never used with a 
substantive; the singular may sometimes be used in- 
stead of the plural. This pronoun is inflected with de, 
á, con, etc. Examples: 

¿Quién habla? Who speaks? Plur. ¿Quiénes hablan? 
¿ De quién (de quiénes) habla V. ? Of whom do you speak? 

(b) ¿Cuál? plur. ¿cuáles? never takes the article, 
and thus diflfers from the relative pronoun el cual Thus : 

¿ Cuál es él más rico ? Who is the richest ? Whereas : 
Es una ciudad en la cual no he estado, it is a town 
where (in which) I have not been. 

(c) ¿Cuyo? fem. ¿cuya? plur. ¿cuyos? f. ¿cuyas? 
corresponds with the English whose, and agrees in gender 
and number with the noun to tvhich it refers. However, 
the pupil should be cautioned against the use of this 
interrogative pronoun, which very rarely occurs, and 
advised to replace it by: ¿de quién? plur. ¿de quiénes? 

¿De quién es este libro? rather than ¿ Cuyo libro es este? 
¿ De quién es esta carta ? rather than ¿ Cuya carta es esta ? 
¿ De quiénes son estos libros ? r. th. ¿ Cuyos libros sen estos ? 
¿ De quiénes son estas cartas ? r. th. ¿ Cuyas cartels son estas ? 

Whose book is this? 

Whose letter is this? 

Whose books are these? 

Whose letters are these? 
N,B. — ¿Quién? (on anyone knocking at a door), who 
is there? ¿Qué? what? 


El vicio, vice. la virtud, virtue. 

el carpintero, the joiner. pernicioso, dangerous. 

el extranjero, the foreigner. degradar, to degrade. 
las señas, the address. elevar, to elevate. 

dudar, hesitate. 

Reading Exercise. 40. 

¿Quién se lo ha dicho á V.? ¿Cuál es el enemigo más 
pernicioso del hombre ? El vicio. ¿ De quién (whose) es esta 
casa, y de quiénes (whose) son esos jardines? ¿Cuáles son 
los señores que han venido? Vendrán (will come) unas mujeres. 
¿Quiénes? — La del jardinero y la del carpintero? ¿Á quién 
hablaba V? Á un extranjero? ¿Á cuál? Á un muchacho 
que está en casa. ¿Tiene V. mis sefias y las de mi amigo? 

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Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns. 107 

go solo las de V. Tenia un bnen amigo, pero ese se 
murió (died), ¿Quién duda entre el vicio y la virtud?; aquél 
degrada, ésta eleva. ¿ Quién ? (on anyone knocking at a door). 
No he hallado lo que buscaba. Hemos hablado de esto y de 
aquello. ¿Son esos sus hermanos de V.? No, señor, estos 
son mis primos, aquellos son mis hermanos. 

Traducción. 41. 

Who V7as (tr, has been) there ? Who is there (on anyone 
Imocking at a door)? Which of these men has done it? 
Whose dog is this? That of our neighbour. To whom do these 
flowers belong (use pertenecer)^ Which is the finest of 
them? To whom have you given the bill? I do not know 
the gentleman to whom I have given it. Who (plur.) has 
come? The children whose father was here yesterday. Of 
which girls do you speak? Who has seen the foreigner? 
Have you my address and that of my friend? I have yours 
only. These are they (do not translate they). Who hesitates 
between vice and virtue?; the former degrades, the latter 
elevates. I have bought (comprado) something. — What? 


¿Quién está ahí? No sé (I do not know) quien. 

¿Á quién ha hablado V.? He hablado á un amigo, que 

ha venido ayer. 
¿Tiene Y. mi libro ó el de Tengo el de su hermano de V. 

mi hermano? 
¿De quién es esta casa? No sé de quien es. 

¿De quién son esos vestidos? Son los de los niños. 
¿De quién son esas flores? ¿Cuáles? 

¿Son esos sus niños de V.? Si, lo son. 
¿De quién hablaba V.? De un amigo. — ¿De cuál? 

Beading Exercises. 

Geografía de España. (Continuación.) 
Producciones, Industria, Comercio. 

Las principales producciones de España son: granos 
(Castilla), legumbres y frutas, principalmente naranjas (Ara- 
gón, Valencia y Andalucía), arroz (Valencia), vinos y aceites 
(Andalucía) ; azafrán, esparto, cáñamo y seda. En las regiones 
meridionales se ha aclimatado el café, el tabaco, la caña de 
azúcar y el algodón. 

La producción animal consiste principalmente en bueyes 
(Galicia, Castilla y Andalucía), caballos (Andalucía), mulos 
(Estremadnra y Ai-agón), ovejas (Castilla, Aragón y Anda- 
lucía) y cerdos (Estremadura, Asturias é Islas Baleares). 

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108 LesBon 26. 

La producción mineral es rica y variada: hierro (Pro- 
vincias Vascongadas), carbón (Asturias), cobre (Rio Tinto), 
plomo (Linares), mercurio (Almadén) y sal (Cardona). 

La industria está poco desarrollada, aunque progresa: 
maquinaria y metalurgia en las Provincias Vascongadas y 
Cataluña, hilados y tejidos en Catalnfia y Valencia, salazones 
en Galicia y Asturias, molinería en Castilla y Cataluña, vinos 
y azúcares en Andalucía, y papel en las Provincias Vascon- 
gadas y Cataluña. 

El comercio español progresa, y se verifica principal- 
mente con Francia ó Inglaterra, la América del Sud, Portu- 
gal, Bélgica y las antiguas posesiones españolas de las An- 
tillas y Filipinas. 

Twenty-sixth Lesson. — Lección veintiséis. 

Possessive and Relative Prononns. — Pronombres 
posesivos y relativos. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

The rules given in Lesson 15 on the possessive 
adjectives are also applicable to the possessive pronouns. 
We have only to add here one observation, reserving 
full particulars on this part of speech for the Second Part. 

If two sentences have the same substantive for a 
predicate, the repetition of which is avoided by the use 
of a possessive pronoun, the Spanish language requires 
the neuter indefinite article before the verb of the fol- 
lowing sentence, thus: 

Charles is my friend, and I am his (friend). 
Carlos es mi amigo, y yo lo soy suyo. 

Relative Pronouns. 

As was said ia Lesson 25, these pronouns differ 
from the interrogative pronouns in their use, except 
cual, which, when a relative pronoun, commonly takes 
the article. They are: 

que (el que, la que, los que, las que), which, who. 
quien, who, pi. quienes, 

el cuál, f. la cual ; pi. los cuales, f. las cuales, who, which. 
cuyo, f, cuya; pi. cuyos, f. cuyas, whose. 
cual, m. & f., pi. cuales (without article, mostly with 
tal, tales, preceding), which, as, like, etc. 

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Possessive and Relative Pronouns. 109 

1. These pronouns are varied with con^ de, and á, 
but the relative que only takes á when preceded by 
the definite article (al que, á la que, á los que, á las 
que); without the article it can also be used to express 
the accusative of the person, but then it does not take á. 
Qué is aUke in singular and plural, and used both of 
persons and things, as: 

Un libro que he comprado, a book which I have bought. 
V, es el honibre que yo buscaba (or á quien yo buscaba). 
You are the man whom I sought (was seeking). 
Los muebles de que está adornada la casa que habitamos, 
The furniture with which the house in which we live 
is adorned. 

2. Qkiietiy plur. quienes, is used oí persons only, 
irrespective of gender, as: 

El hombre á quien Y, debe la vida, 
The man to whom you owe your life. 
Las niñas á quienes vi. 

The girls whom I saw. 

If a particular stress is laid on a personal pronoun 
(where in French with the phrases c^est toi, &est lui, etc., 
qui is used), the pronoun in conjunction with el que, 
h que or quiefi, in their corresponding cases are used, as : 

To soy quien (or el que) lo dice. 

It is 1 who say it. 

To him you owe your life. 

Á H es {or Es á él) á quien le debe V, la vida, 

3. Cual, plur. cuales, when relative pronouns, 
are preceded by the article, as: 

El herm^ano* de mi madre, el cual. 

My mother's brother, who .... 
Notes,— (a) Que adds to the preceding sentence one of 
secondary importance, whereas cual joins to the foregoing 
thonght a new one of equal weight. For this reason el cual 
is always preceded by a comma, and que is not**. 

(b) If cual introduces an indirect interrogative sentence, 
it is used without the article, as : 

Es difícil determinar cuál de los dos ha hablado mejor. 

It is difficult to decide which of the two has spoken better. 

* Hermano; Latin, germanus. 

** In English, the relative pronouns, though understood, are 
often omitted after the noun. In Spanish, they must be added. 
Ex.: The letter you have written. La carta que V, ha escrito. 


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lio Lesson 26. 

4. Cuál is likewise used without the article when 
expressing a comparison, in which case the English 
employ as, like, etc. Ex.: 

Era una mujer cual la podía desear. 
She wa8 such a woman as he could wish for. 
Cual furioso león, like a furious lion. 
La vida hay que aceptarla tal cual es*. 
One must take life such as it is. 

5. If the relative prououn refers, not to a single 
word, but to a whole sentence preceding, to que, to cual, 
(French: ce qui; It. il che, locche) replace que, as: 

Los reos fueron ahsusltos, lo que (or lo cual) causó 

un sentimiento general, 
The criminals were discharged which {i,e,, their being 

discharged) caused a general sensation. 

6. If the relative pronoun que is preceded by several 
substantives, so that it might become doubtful to which 
it refers, the definite article is added to que, Ex.: 

La relación de las aventuras de Bon Quijote en la que 
los lectores vulgares sólo ven un asunto de entreteni- 
miento, etc. 
The narration of Don Quixote's adventures, in which 
superficial readers only see a matter of amuse- 
ment, etc. 

7. Cuyo, -a, plur. cuyos, -as, when a relative pro- 
noun, means whose, and does not differ in its form from 
the interrogative pronoun (see the preceding Less.), as: 

El padre á cuyos niños he visto. 
The father whose children I saw. 

N,B,—B\it here, too, as with the interrogative pronoun 
cuyo, the cases of quien or el cuál, etc., may be used: 
El padre de quien he visto á los niños, or 
El padre á los niños del cual he visto. 

As to the further use of cuyo, see Part 11., Lesson 9. 


La circunstancia, the circum- el puesto, the place, situation. 

stance. el favor, the favour, kindness. 

el deudor, the debtor. la amistad, the friendship. 

ser deudor, to be indebted, la estación, the season. 

to owe. el olor, the smell. 

* Tal, cuál; Latin, talis, qudlis. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Possessive and Relative Pronouns. Ill 

¡a modestia, modesty. quería, loved, wished. 

d literato, the literary man. matar, to kill. 

la primavera, the Spring. gastar, to spoil, to spend, to 

suave, soft, lovely. waste. 

brusco, harsh. desconfiar, to distrust, 

digno, worthy. alentar, to encourage. 

verdadero, true. lograr, to ohtain. 

respetable, respectable. andar, to have intercourse 

admirable, admirable, wonder- with, to associate with. 

ful. podemos, we can. 

locamente, in a foolish way. desear, to wish, to desire. 

prudentemente, prudently. es preciso, it is necessary, one 
reluce, shines. must. 

Beading Exercise. 42. 

Él era quien lo quería. Él fué quien le mató. Quien 
gasta locamente su dinero, no conoce su valor. De sí mismo 
es de quien uno debe desconfiar. Hay circunstancias en que 
es preciso obrar prudentemente. La casa que V. ha comprado 
vale más que aquella. El joven de quien he hablado á V. 
es digno de ser alentado. ¿Sabe V. á quien es deudor del 
puesto que ha logrado? Dime con quien andas y te diré 
quien eres. Me ha hecho un favor cual lo esperaba de su 
amistad. Estas son frutas cuales las podemos desear en la 
estación en que estamos. Tengo aquí flores cuyo olor es muy 
suave. Fulano es un literato cuya modestia es admirable. 
Ellos son quienes lo han hecho. No es oro todo lo que reluce. 
Los niños cuyo padre ha muerto están en la casa de mi 
vecino. Yo soy quien lo he hecho todo por mis amigos. Lo 
que agrada (pleases), seduce (seduces). Su hermano de V. me 
dijo unas palabras bruscas, lo que me afligió mucho. 

Tradneeión. 43. 

I have done it {tr. It is I who . . .). Thou hast not 
said so. To her we owe (debemos) (everything) all. I do not 
know which of these gentlemen (has) said so. The man who 
(has) wasted his money in such a foolish way is not worthy 
of being assisted. The friends of my father who were here, 
have gone (se — ido) to France. Do you know which of the 
two has done it? Is it you who spoke (has spoken), or is it 
she who spoke? On the contrary, I have never (nunca) 
spoken, it is Miss So-and-so who is always speaking. The 
flowers whose smell is so sweet are the children of (the) Spring. 
Be my friend, and I shall be yours (thine). The generous 
prince to whom I owe my situation, encourages me where 
(ever) he can. The soldiers (that) we have seen on (en) the 
road (camino), were very tired. The circumstances in which 


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112 Lesson 27. 

I found him, were very sad. We cannot expect favours of 
these strangers as we expect them of our friends. We are 
those to whom you owe your life. What (tr, that which) is 
true is also estimable. The young man obtained the situation, 
which (see 5) delighted (fr, alegrar) his mother. 


¿Quién es aquel señor? Es mi amigo, de quien he ha- 

blado á V. 
¿De quién son estas tijeras Son las de la niña. 

(scissors) ? 
¿De quién es ese perro? Es mío. 

¿Cuál es su opinión de V.? No tengo opinión en esa 

¿Quién ha escrito esta carta? El capitán cuya hermana ha 

venido ayer. 
¿Cuál de esos señores ha Es difícil decir cuál de los 

hablado mejor? dos ha hablado mejor. 

¿Á quién debo (mmt I) ba- Á Pedro es á quien debe V. 

blar? hablar. 

¿Quiénes son aquellos hom- Los hombres de quienes le 

bres? hablé á V. 

¿De quién debe uno descon- De si mismo es de quien uno 

fiar? debe desconfiar. 

¿Quién es digno de ser alen- El joven de quien le he ba- 
tado? blado á V. 

Beadingr Exercise. 

¡Despedida de mi casa 
bien te he recordado siempre! 
Mi padre exclamó: "Sé honrado"; 
mi madre decía: ¡"Vuelve"! 

[F. de Arteaga, "Quinientos Cantares," 76.] 

La muñeca hace á la niña, 
y la niña á la mujer: 
¡Madres las que tenéis niñas, 
edacad muñecas bien! 

[F. de Arteaga, "Quinientos Cantares," 405.] 

Twenty-seventh Lesson. — Lección 

The Passive Voice. — De la yoz pasiva. 

The passive voice is formed in Spanish by joining 
to the auxiliary ser^ to be, the past participle of the 


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The Passive Voice. IIS 

active verb. This past participle, when coupled v\^ith 
ser, is always considered an adjective, and consequently 
agrees in gender and number with the noun or pronoun 
to which it refers. 

Ser amado, -a; Plur. ser amados, ^as, to be loved. 


Sing, Plur. 

Soy amado, -a, I am loved. somos amados, -as, we are loved. 

eres amado, -a, thou art loved, sois amados, -as, you are loved. 

es amado, he is loved. son amados, they are loved (m,). 

es amada, she is loved. son amadas, they are loved (f.). 

Era amado, -a, I was loved, etc. 

Fui amado, -a, I was loved, etc. 

Seré amado, -a, I shall be loved. 

Seria amado, -a, I should be loved. 

Sing. Sé amado, -a, be (thou) Plur. Sed amados, -as, be (you) 
loved. loved. 


Sea amado, -a, I (may) be loved. 

Fílese amado, -a, I was loved. 

Fuere amado, -a, that I shall be loved. 

Fuera amado, -a, that I should be loved. 

Siendo amado, -a, being loved. 

Spanish Cony.-Grammar. S 


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lU Lesson 27. 

Compound Tenses. 


Haber sido amado, to have been loved. 



He sido amado, -a, I have been loved. 

Hahia sido amado, -a, I had been loved. 

2nd Pluperfect. 
Hube sido amado, -a, I had been loved. 

Compound Future, 
Habré sido amado, -a, I shall have been loved. 

Compound Conditional. 
Habría sido amado, -a, I should have been loved. 


Haya sido amado, -a, I have been loved. 

Hubiese sido amado, -a, (that) I had been loved. 

Compound Future. 
Hubiere sido amado, -a, (that) I shall have been loved^ 

Compound Conditional. 
Hubiera sido amado, -a, (that) I should have been loved^ 

1. It is a peculiarity of the Spanish language to render 
almost always the passive voice by the active form with the- 
pronoun se — i.e. reflectively. Thus: 

Estas mercancías se venden (literally : these goods seU 
themselves), rather than estas mercancías son vendi- 
das, these goods are sold. 
Fm prometida u/na recompensa, a reward was promised ;. 

or reflectively: 
JPrometiase una recompensa, they promised a reward^ 
lit. a reward promised itself^. 

* Se with the verb commonly precedes the subject of the^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Passiye Voice. 115 

In English snch sentences are translated with the words : 
people, they, one, etc., or with the passive voice, thus: 

Se cree, one believes, they believe, people believe, etc., 

it is believed. 
8e asegura, one affirms, they, people, etc., affirm. 

2. The construction with se is frequently impersonal, 
as in the above sentences, se cree, se asegura, where no accusa- 
tive follows the verb. In this case se is used with the sin- 
gular of the verb, as in the preceding examples. But whenever 
an accusative follows in English, as in the sentence: One 
sells (people sell) these goods, the verb, in Spanish, agrees 
with its nominative; thus: 

Estas mercancías se venden, or se venden (véndense) 
estas mercancías. 

3. Where the reflective form might seem ambiguous^ as 
in the sentence: One loves the children, reflectively: The 
children love themselves = Los niños se aman, this mode of 
expression should be avoided, and the sentence rendered by 
the passive voice, as: 

Los niños son amados; 
or a convenient nominative may be used with the active verb, 
as in English; thus: 

Amamos á los niños, we love the children. 

Aman á los niños, they love the children. 

Uno ama á los niños, one loves children. 
N.B,— The same idea may be expressed in the follow- 
ing way: 

se ama á los niños, 

á los niños se les ama. 

This is also the case, when the English one, people, etc., 
is nsed with a reflective verb. Thus a mode of speaking like 
se se ama, one loves oneself, is quite inadmissible, because 
bere the sentence would have no nominative case, but in its 
stead a double accusative. Sentences like: One flatters oneself 
should, therefore, be rendered : 

(Nosotros) nos lisonjeamos, we flatter ourselves, or: 

(Vosotros) os lisonjeáis, you flatter yourselves, or: 

Los hombres se lisonjean, men flatter themselves, or: 

Alguno se lisonjea, somebody flatters himself, or: 

7. se lisonjea, you flatter yourself. 

4. If in English the object is a personal pronoun, the 
subject being one, people, etc., the passive voice should be 
prefered in Spanish, as: 

One loves him, él es amado; 

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116 Lesson 27. 

or one of the above nominatives may be chosen, as: 
Alguno (V.) la ama, etc., also le aman. 

5. Dative cases of the personal pronouns likewise occur 
with this reflective form, as: 

Se me cree, one believes me, or : I am believed, people 

believe me, etc. 
Se le quiere, one loves him. 
8e me contestó negativamente, I was answered in the 


6. Whenever the subject is omitted, as in sentences oí 
a, vague character, such as: "they say," "people will talk," 
"it is whispered about," "it is generally believed," "he is 
generally beloved," etc., the 3rd pers. plur. without the per- 
sonal pronoun (a nominative like los hombres, people, being 
understood) is employed. Ex.: Creen, it is believed; aseguran, 
people affirm ; se lisonjean, they flatter themselves ; prometieron 
una recompensa, a reward was offered ; le aman, he is liked ; 
venden estas mercancías, these goods are being sold; me han 
robado, I have been robbed. 

N,B,—l\iQ Passive voice, rather than the reflective, is, 
however, preferred in narratives and statements, to express 
what is considered as an accomplished fact: 

Tin niño ha sido atropellado por un coche, 

A child has been run over by a carriage. 

El herido fué llevado al hospital, 

The wounded person was taken to the hospital. 
The English by with passive verbs is rendered by por 
if the agent is a living being, or considered as such, or in 
expressing material actions; and by cíe with verbs of feeling 
or emotion, or used figuratively: 

Tin hornbre ha sido muerto por otro, 

A man has been killed by another. 

Era muy querido de todos. 

He was most beloved by all. 

N,B, — Fué muerto de un balazo, he was killed by 
a shot. 

Neuter Verbs. 

They denote either a state of rest, as dormir, to 
sleep, or an intransitive action, such as morir, to die, 
llegar, to arrive, caer, to fall, etc. Their use is very 
simple, the compound tenses being almost always 
formed with the auxiliary haber; thus: 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

The Passive Voice. 117 

Hube llegado y I had arrived. 

Ha muerto^ he has died. 

He dormido, I have slept, etc. 


Los preliminares y the preli- el compañero, the companion. 

la paz y the peace, [minaries. soberbio, -a, proud. 

d embustero, the liar, hypo- herido, -a, wounded, 

crite, cheat. feroz, ferocious, wild. 

la lana, the wool. matar, to kill, slaughter. 

d cuerOy the leather. asesinar, to murder. 

d asunto, the object, matter, derrotar, to put to flight, to 

la memoria, the report, the rout (an army). 

memoir, memory. asegurar, to assure. 

d dueño, \ ., . firmar, to sign, 

ei amoy f ' quejarse, to complam. 

la felicidad, the happiness. pedir, to ask, to demand. 

d volumen^ the volume, cir- ser muy solicitado, to be in 

cumference, extent. (great) demand. 

d nombre, the name. encumbrar, to raise. 

d apuro, the want, necessity, buscar, to seek. 

la fortuna, the fortune. acabar, to finish, to terminate. 

d poder, the power, might. corregir, to correct, to mend. 

el ladrón, the thief, robber. invitar, to invite. 

el imperiOy the empire. maltratary to ill-treat. 

d viajerOy the traveller. concluir, to conclude. 

sostener, to maintain, to sustain. 

mucho tiempo ha, it is a good while. 

Beading Exercise. 44. 

Dicen que los alemanes (Germans) han sido derrotados 
por los rusos (Bussians). Aseguran que se han firmado los 
preliminares de la paz. Se quejan de V. Somos amados de 
todos nuestros amigos. El embustero es aborrecido. La lana 
de España es muy solicitada. Los cueros son muy buscados. 
Gustavo Adolfo, rey de Suecia (Sweden), fué muerto en la 
batalla de Lützen. El militar que ha sido herido por un 
paisano*' (civilian), ha muerto esta noche. Cuando nuestras 
traducciones se acaben, serán corregidas por el maestro. Fui 
invitado por el ministro á escribir una memoria sobre ese 
asunto. ¿Han llegado esos señores de Madrid? Este perro 
es muy maltratado por su dueño. La operación fué concluida 
con toda felicidad. El libro que he dado á mi prima está 
escrito (written) por un hombre muy docto (learned). El 
imperio de los Césares se ha sostenido mucho tiempo sólo por 
8u extensión y su nombre. Si su padre no hubiera muerto, 
no se vería (he would not see [find] himself) en tanto apuro. 

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118 Lesson 27. 

El soberbio y feroz Atila fué vencido por los francos y los 
godos. Julio César, encumbrado por la fortuna al más alto 
grado del poder, fué asesinado por Bruto y sus compañeros. 
Traducción. 45. 
Wallenstein was murdered by two of his officers. The 
hypocrite is despised by all, and is loved by none. Leather 
and wool were much in demand. By whom has the letter 
been signed ? We were invited a long time ago, but we had 
no time to come. The traveller and his companions were 
murdered by the robbers. (The) king Gustavus Adolphus of 
Sweden was killed at Liitzen. They say that a 'great many 
(muchos) soldiers have been wounded in the battle. Do they 
think (believe) that the preliminaries of (the) peace have been 
signed? They assure that these goods are selling well. One 
is mistaken, if one flatters oneself. My father (has) said 
that all the goods have been sold {tr, have sold themselves). 
When did the gentleman arrive? The friends of the mer- 
chant had all been invited. By whom have the Goths been 
conquered? This book has been written by one of the first 
Spanish poets. Frequently one does not believe what one 
affirms (before) to others. The pupils would have been praised 
by their masters if they had done their translations without 
any mistakes (falta). 


¿Por quién fué asesinado Julio Por Bruto y sus compañeros. 

¿Ha llegado ayer su amigo No, ha llegado hoy. 

de V.? 
¿ Cuándo ha muerto ? Ha muerto ayer ; fué muerto 

por otro en una riña (in a 
¿Por quiénes fué vencido Atila? El soberbio y feroz Atila fué 

vencido por los francos y los 
¿Cómo se concluyó la ope- Fué concluida con toda feli- 

ración? cidad. 

¿Por quién está escrito ese Está escrito por un hombre 

libro? muy docto. 

¿Cuándo murió Gustavo Fué muerto en la batalla de 

Adolfo? Lützen. 

¿ Ha muerto el militar que ha No ha muerto ; al contrario, 

sido herido? está mejor hoy que ayer. 

¿Por quién serán corregidas Serán corregidas por nuestro 

nuestras traducciones? maestro. 

¿ Quién es aborrecido ? El embustero es aborrecido de 

todo el mundo. 

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Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 119 

¿Cuándo se ha celebrado (taken Se ha celebrado hoj. 

place) la boda (the wedding)^ 

¿Qaé se dice de nuevo en la Dicen que Su Majestad el em- 

ciadad? perador ha llegado. 

Beading Exercise. 

Geografía de España. (Continuación.) 

El gobierno de España es monárquico, constitucional, 
hereditario; el heredero del trono tiene el titulo de Principe 
de Asturias. El poder legislativo reside en las Cortes, com- 
puestas del Congreso de Diputados y del Senado; el poder 
ejecutivo reside en el Rey y en el Ministerio, compuesto de 
un Presidente del Consejo de Ministros y ocho ministros que 
son, el ministro de Estado, el ministro de Gracia y Justicia, 
el ministro de Hacienda, el ministro de la Gobernación, el 
ministro de Instrucción Pública, el ministro de Agricultura, 
el ministro de la Guerra y el ministro de Marina. España 
está dividida en cuarenta y nueve provincias y tie^e por 
capital Madrid. — El gobierno local de cada provincia depende 
de un Gobernador y de la Diputación Provincial; el gobierno 
local de cada término municipal depende de un Alcalde y del 
Ayuntamiento ó Municipio. Del gobernador dependen los 
guardias civiles y los polizontes, del Alcalde dependen los 

La Administración de Justicia tiene en cada término 
municipal un juez municipal para las faltas menores, y en 
cada provincia varios partidos judiciales con jueces de primera 
instancia para las causas civiles y criminales; cierto número 
de partidos judiciales forman una Audiencia Territorial con 
sus Magistrados, y en Madrid reside el Tribunal Supremo, 
para la tercera y última apelación. 

Twenty-eighth Lesson. — Lección veinti- 

Pronominal or Beflective Verbs. — Verbos pro- 
nominales ó reflexivos. 

These verbs are called pronominal or reflective, 
because their object is a personal pronoun, referring to 
and identical T\dth the subject. In the simple tenses this 
pronoun, with very few exceptions, may either precede 
or follow the verb. In the latter case it is subjoined 
to the verb. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

120 Lesson 28. 

Reflective verbs are very frequent in Spanish, a 
great many of them being rendered in English by 
neuter verbs — that is to say, by a verb without a direct 
object. Example : 

Me alegro (or alegróme), I rejoice. 

Alegrarse, to rejoice. 

Sing. Me alegro (alegróme), I rejoice. 

te alegras (alegraste), thou rejoicest. 
se alegra (alégrale), he rejoices. 
Plur. Nos alegramos (alegrámosnos), we rejoice. 
OS alegráis, you rejoice. 
se alegran (aUgranse), they rejoice. 

Sing. Me alegraba (alegrábame), I rejoiced. 

te alegrabas (alegrábaste), thou rejoicedst. 

se alegraba (alegrábase), he rejoiced. 
Plur. Nos alegrábamos (alegrábamosnos), we rejoiced. 

OS alegrabais, you rejoiced. 

se alegraban (alegrábanse), they rejoiced. 

Sing. Me alegré (alégreme), I rejoiced. 

te alegraste, thou rejoicedst. 

se alegró (alegróse), he rejoiced. 
Plur. Nos alegramos (alegrámosnos), we rejoiced. 

OS alegrasteis, you rejoiced. 

se alegraron (alegráronse), they rejoiced. 

Me alegraré, I shall rejoice. 
te alegrarás, thou wilt rejoice. 
se alegrará, he will rejoice, etc. 

Me alegraría, I thould rejoice. 
te alegrarías, ihou wouldst rejoice, etc. 

Alégrate, rejoice (thou)! 
alegraos, rejoice (you plur.)l 
alegrémonos, let us rejoice ! (See Less. 24, page 101.) 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 121 

Polite form: 
Sing, alégrese F., rejoice (you)! 
Plur. alégrense Vds., rejoice (you) I 

Me alegre, T rejoice. 
te alegres, thou rejoice, etc. 

Me alegrase, I might rejoice. 
te alegrases, thou mightest rejoice, etc. 

Me alegrare, (that) I shall rejoice, etc. 

Me alegrara^ (that) I should rejoice. 

Alegrándose, rejoicing. 

Compound Tenses. 
Me he alegrado, I have rejoiced. 
te has alegrado, thou hast rejoiced, etc. 

Me haUa alegrado, I had rejoiced, etc. 

2nd Pluperfect. 
Me hube alegrado, I had rejoiced, etc. 

Compound Future, 
Me habré alegrado, I shall have rejoiced, etc. 

Compound Conditional. 
Me habria alegrado, I should have rejoiced, etc. 

Me haga alegrado, I have rejoiced, etc. 

Me hubiese alegrado, (that) I had rejoiced, etc. 

Compound Future. 
Me hubiere alegrado, (that) I shall have rejoiced. 

Compound Conditional. 
Me hubiera alegrado, (that) I should have rejoiced. 

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122 Lesson 28. 


1. Very often the Spanish reflective form of the ver"b 
implies separation or isolation. Thus: estar is "to be," estarse^ 
**to be alone"; ir "to go," irse, "to go away."* 

2. Likewise, verbs denoting a state of transition are 
very frequently rendered by the Spanish reflective verb. 
Thus: dormir J to sleep, dormirse, to fall asleep; morir y to die, 
morirse, to die away (French: "se mourir"); ahogarse, to be 
drowned; quemarse^ to be burned down, etc. 

3. Again, the Spanish reflective form is either redundant 
or modifies the meaning of the verb in a way which, in Eng- 
lish, must be rendered by an adverb or in some other mode ; 

beber, to drink, beberse, to drink (out). 
comer, to eat, comerse, to eat up. 
jugar, to gamble, jugarse, to gamble away. 
Sometimes the meaning of the verb is rendered more 
emphatic by the reflective form. Thus: 

Estarse sin hacer nada, to be doing nothing. 
Pasarse el dia leyendo, to read the whole day. 

4. At others the reflective form is used in conjunxition 
with the article to translate the English possessive: 

Quemarse la mano, to burn one's hand. 
Cortarse un dedo, to cut one's finger. 

5. Finally, in the plural, the Spanish reflective verb 
expresses reciprocity; thas: se aman means "they love them- 
selves" and also "they love each other," or "one another." 
Where a misconception might arise, the word mismx), -a, should 
be added to correspond with "self," and el uno al otro, etc.; 
for "one another, each other," etc. 

N,B, — In English a great many verbs are neuter or 
passive, which in Spanish require the reflective form. Such 
verbs are: 

llamarse, to be called or named (French: s^appeler). 

enojarse, to grow angry. 

levantarse, to rise. 

acostarse, to go to bed. 

pasearse, to take a walk. 

sentarse, to sit down, to take a seat. 

* In narratives, the Imperfect of ser, to be, used reflectively, 
corresponds with the English there was in days of yore, there 
was in olden times, etc. Ex.: Érase un rey, etc. There was in 
olden times a king, etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 123 


La orden, the order. incomodarse^ to take pains, to 

la razón^ the reason. trouble oneself. 

la marcha^ the march. ordenar, to order. 

c26oísiíío, the pocket, the purse, retirar, to draw (or go) back, 

d jefe, the chief. retire. 

la mesa, the table. divertirse, to amuse oneself. 

hs naipes, the cards. apartarse, to stand away, to 

k bondad, the goodness. keep back. 

d camino real (or la carre- acomodarse, to conform one- 
cerá), the main-road. self to ... . 

el juego, the game (French yeíí). sacar, to take out .... 

engañarse, to be mistaken. saber, to know. 

jugar (á los naipes or á las dio (3rd sing, def.), gave. 

cartas), to play (cards). mui/ de mañana, very early 

St juega, one plays, they play, (early in the morning), 

etc. á orillas, at the side, brink, 

sentarse, to sit down. border, edge, etc. 

luego que, as soon as. 

Beading Exercise. 46. 

V. se engaña. Los hombres se han engañado siempre 
unos á otros. Unas veces se juega á los naipes y otras 
veces se habla sobre alguna cosa. ¡Tenga V. la bondad de 
sentarse ! No se incomode V. ¿ Se ha divertido mucho V. ayer 
en el baile (ball, dance)? Me alegro mucho que se haya di- 
vertido V. tanto (so well). V. se ha acostado tarde, pero yo 
me he levantado muy de mañana. Dióse la orden y todos se 
dispusieron (pr^ared themselves) á retirarse. Se ordenó á los 
soldados que se apartasen del camino real. Sentéme al pié 
de un árbol que estaba á orillas del camino, y para diver- 
tirme saqué (see Lesson 22, 1) un libro que tenia en el bolsillo. 
Si no se acomodare V. á la vida que hago (I lead), será 
dueño (to be at liberty) de retirarse. Sábete que no te he 
traído (brought) aquí para que (that) te mueras de hambre. 
Luego que nos levantamos (Def,) de la mesa, el criado me 
dio la carta. 

Tradnceión. 47. 

My mother was (transí, has been) mistaken, when she 
gave (tr. dando . . . giving . . .) you the letter. If I had been 
mistaken, I should have told (you so) it you. Get up, child ! 
Rise, sir! I gave myself much trouble to pull the book out 
of my pocket. We did not deviate from the main-road. Leave 
(from apartarse de . , ,) this society ! Shall we sit down at 
the foot of that tree? We should draw back if the chief 
(gave the order) ordered it. Did they not state (tr, was not 
given [fr. darse]) the reason of this order? Do they play at 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

124 Lesson 28. 

cards (fr. jugarse) every night at your cousin's?* Cards are 
seldom played (¿.e., they seldom play) there, but they (talk 
about) speak of (a great) many things. Do not trouble (your- 
self), sir, I have already {ya, prec.) taken [a] seat (fr. sentarse). 
Yesterday I rose at 4 o'clock, and to-morrow I shall likewise 
(tambiérí) rise at 4 o'clock. Are you not afraid to abuse 
(abusar de , , ,) my goodness? I was alone (see 1) in my 
room when the footman gave me the letter. There was once 
a king who had a daughter. Alas (¡Ay demi!)\ the unhappy 
man will be drowned! We love ourselves and we love one 
another. How can you laugh at (de) ih^ misfortune of others? 

¿Se ha engañado V.? Perdone V., no me he engañado. 

¿Á qué hora se levanta V. Me levanto á las cinco ó seis 

cada día? de la mañana. 

¿ Cuándo se acuesta** V. (go Me acuesto tarde (late) y á las 

to bed) ? diez ú*** once, y me levanto 

temprano (early). 
¿Quiere V. pasearse conmigo? Gracias, no tengo tiempo 

¿ No se ha divertido V. ayer Al contrarío, me he divertido 

en el teatro? muchísimo. 

¿ Que se ordenó á los sóida- Se les ordenó que se apartasen 

dos? del camino real. 

¿ Cuándo le dio á V. la carta Luego que nos levantamos de 

el criado? la mesa. 

¿Dónde se sentó V.? Me senté al pié de un árbol. 

¿ Por qué no juega V. á los Porque no me gusta (I da 

naipes? not like) el juego (playing 


Reading Exercise. 

Los padres y los hijos. 

Un enjambre de pájaros metidos 
en jaula de metal guardó un cabrero, 
y á cuidarlos voló desde el otero 
la pareja de padres afligidos. 

Si aquí, dijo el pastor, vienen unidos 
sus hijos á cuidar con tanto esmero, 
ver como cuidan á los padres quiero, 
los hijos por amor y agradecidos. 

* En casa de su primo. The English phrase with the Saxon 
genitive: at my brother's, cousin's, butcher's, tailor's, etc., should 
be rendered with en casa de, at the house of 

** See Lesson 36. — *** See Lesson 33, 2. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Impersonal Yerbe. 125 

Deja entra redes la pareja envuelta, 
la puerta abre el pastor del dnro alambre, 
cierra á los padres y á los hijos suelta. 

Huyó de los hijuelos el enjambre, 
y como en vano se esperó su vuelta, 
mató á los padres el dolor y el hambre. 


Twenty-ninth Lesson. — Lección veinti- 

Impersonal Verbs. — Verbos unipersonales. 

1. These verbs are either really impersonal, i.e., 
they are only used iu the third person singular, as 
Uueve — - it rains, or they are used as impersonal verbs, 
as parece, it seems, etc. 

True impersonal verbs are: 

Llover, to rain — llueve^ it rains. 

helar, to freeze — Mela, it freezes. 

nevar, to snow — nieva, it snows. 

tronar, to thunder — truena, it thunders. 

escarchar, to be a hoar frost — escarcha, it is a hoar frost. 

relampaguear, to lighten — relampaguea, it lightens. 

llovizfMr, to drizzle — llovizna, it drizzles. 

granizar, to hail — graniza, it hails. 

amanecer*, to dawn, to grow — - amanece, it dawns. 


anochecer, to grow dark — awocAcce, it is growing dark. 

2. Many others are coupled with hacer, to make, 
ser, to be, haber, to have, valer, to be worth, etc., as: 

Es preciso, it is necessary, one must (see 4). 

es justo, it is just. 

es verdad, it is true. 

es cierto, it is certain, sure. 

hace calor, it is hot (il fait chaud). 

hace frió, it is cold (il fait froid). 

hace luna, the moon shines. 

ocho dias hace, it is a week ago. 

mucho tiempo hace, it is a long while. 

hay un año, it is a year ago. 

* Amanecer and anochecer are also personally used as: 
Amanecí en Paris, I arrived in Paris at daybreak. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

126 Lesson 29. 

hay muchos hombres^ there are many persons. 
más vale tarde qus nunca, better late than never. 
más valdría, it would be better. 

3. As already stated (Lesson 8, 5), there is, plur. 
there are^ is rendered by hay. In all the tenses of this 
impersonal verb, the 3rd pers. sing, of haber is used, 
whether followed by a singular or by a plural, as; 

Huho tin hombre, there was a man. (II y avait un 

Hubo hombres, there were men. (II y avait des 

(When speaking of time, hay is almost always replaced 
by hdce, which corresponds with ago; thus : hace dos años^ 
two years ago.) 

If some, or any, joined to "there is" or "there are", 
refers to a foregoing substantive (where the French use 
en, and the Italians ne), the Spanish language requires 
the personal pronoun, which then agrees with the preced- 
ing substantive in gender and number. Thus: 

If there are cowards, he is one. 

Es cobarde si los hay, 

I shall give you some books, if there be any. 

Te daré libros, si los hay. 

We shall eat cherries, if there be any. 

Comeremos guindas, si las hay, 

4. The English verbs must, to be obliged, etc., are 
commonly rendered by deber, as: 

Se debe escribir, one must write. 
Very often their meaning is expressed by haber 
de , . ., tener que , . . (see Lesson 8, 6) or es precisOy 
es necesario, es menester with que and the subjunctive 
mood, thus: 

You must expect my brother. 
Se ha de esperar á mi hermano, or: 
Se tiene que esperar á mi hermano, or: 
Es preciso (menester, necesario) esperar (or que se 
espere) á mi hermano (= It is necessary to , , .). 

If the nominative is the indefinite pronoun one, 
as: One must wait, etc., the infinitive is used, as in 
English; thus: 

Es menester esperar, one must wait. 


by Google 

Impersonal Verbs. 127 


El remedio y the remedy. la tronadüy the thunderstorm. 

la puerta^ the door*. callar y to be silent. 

ti nombre, the name. aprender ^ to learn. 

d color, the heat. creer, to believe. 

tl cuarto, the room. enseñar, to teach. 

to ciencia, the science. adivinar, to guess, 

c/ almacén, the shop. demasiado, too, too much. 

pronto, quick, swift, prompt. 

Reading Exercise. 48. 

¿Llueve? No, graniza. Hace an mes que estuve en su 
casa. No hay otro remedio que esperar. Jamás hubo rey 
tan bueno como él. ¿Hay alguno á la puerta? Más vale el 
buen nomhre que muchas riquezas. Más vale callar que hablar 
mal. Hace demasiado calor en su cuarto de V. Este pobre 
muchacho tiene hambre y frío. Es preciso estudiar mucho 
para aprender hien una lengua. Te daré dinero, si lo hay. 
Hay hombres que creen que había una ciencia que enseñaba 
á adivinar lo futuro. Hacía buen tiempo ayer cuando llegó 
mi hermano. Ha helado hoy, y ayer ha escarchado. Hace 
un año que no he visto á mi hermana. Ocho días hace que 
estuvimos en Viena. ¿Qué debemos hacer? Debemos ir al 
mercado para comprar pan y frutas. Es preciso que la criada 
me llame temprano. Ha de venir V. pronto para ir al al- 

Tradnceión. 49. 

Did it rain yesterday? No, it snowed. I think (creo) 
(that) it will snow. It thunders and lightens. It has 
thundered and lightened. Does it rain? No, it does not 
rain, it drizzles. 1 arrived at night (anochecer) at Madrid. 
It was daybreak when we arrived (amanecer) at Toledo. 
There are many friends who are no {tr, not) better than 
enemies. Was there much money in that purse? I think 
there were 10 dollars in it. It is too hot {tr. warm) to-day ; 
we shall have a thunderstorm. It is too cold in this room. 
I should give you some money, if I had some (any). He has 
given him no money, because he had none. I mast write a 
few letters to-day; yesterday I was obliged to write six. It 
is necessary to work if one wishes to learn something. My 
brother must wait till (hasta que) my sister comes. Where 
were you last year? A year ago I was at Seville, and two 
years ago I was at Rome. Is it true (verdad) that you have 
written this letter? I have written it a long time ago. 

* el puerto, the harbour; French: le port 

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128 Lesson 29. 


¿Hace frío hoy? Al contrario, hace mucho calor. 

¿Tiene V. hambre? No tengo hambre, pero ten^o 


¿Es verdad que su hermano No ha llegado esta mañana; 

de V. ha llegado esta ma- llegará esta noche. 


¿Es cierto que el rey ha Todavía no (wo¿ ye() ha muerto, 

muerto? pero está malísimo. 

¿Hay alguno en este cuarto? No, no hay ninguno. 

¿ Cuánto tiempo hace que es- Dos años hace que estuve allí. 

tuvo V. en París? 

¿Es preciso que espere yo á No es menester esperarle. 

su padre de V.? 

¿Debe V. ir al mercado? Debo ir allá. 

¿ Es verdad que ha comprado No, señor, no es verdad, no 

V. algunos libros? he comprado nada. 

¿Cuántos años hace que está Hace tres años y algunos meses. 

V. en esta ciudad? 

Beading Exercise. 

Geografía de España. (Continuación.) 
Instrucción Pública. 
La Instrucción Pública se dá en España en las Escuelas 
Públicas (ó en las escuelas y colegios particulares), en las 
Escuelas Normales, en los Institutos, y en las Universidades. 
Las Escuelas Públicas están sostenidas por los Ayuntamientos, 
los Institutos por las Diputaciones Provinciales, y las Univer- 
sidades por el Estado. En las Escuelas Públicas se dá la 
enseñanza elemental, en las Escuelas Normales la enseñanza 
superior, ó sea la preparación para maestros y maestras; en 
los Institutos se estudia la segunda enseñanza, que termina con 
el grado de bachiller, y en las Universidades se estudia fa- 
cultad, que termina con el grado de Licenciado : los Institutos 
y las Universidades están abiertos á las mujeres. En los 
colegios particulares se dá también la segunda enseñanza. El 
curso académico empieza el prímero de octubre y termina el 
31 de mayo. En España hay diez Universidades (Barcelona, 
Granada, Madrid, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santiago, Sevilla, Valencia, 
Valladolid y Zaragoza) y 59 Institutos, de los cuales hay uno 
en cada capital de Provincia. — La enseñanza primaría es 
obligatoria y gratuita, pero á pesar de eso solo un 30 por 
100 de la población sabe leer y escríbir. 

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Adverbs. 129 

Thirtieth Lesson. — Lección treinta. 

Adyerbs. — Adverbios. 

Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. 
They denote manner, time, place, motiony order, quantity, 
Q^ity^ etc. 

They are either proper adverbs (see next Lesson), 
as bien, ^well; demasiado, too, too much, etc., or formed 
from adjectives or participles by the addition of the 
termination -mente, under the following Rules. 


1 . If the adjective ends in -o, the adverb is formed 
by adding -mente to the feminine form in -a, thus: 

docto, learned, fern, docta, adv. doctamente, 
diestro, dexteroas, » diestra, » diestramente. 

2. If the adjective does not end in -o, -mente is 
simply added to the termination, thus: 

fácil, easy, adv. fácilmente. 

constante, constant, » constantemente. 

Note.— A. peculiarity of the Spanish language is that 
when several adverbs ending in -mente follow each other, this 
termination is, for the sake of euphony, added to the last 
only. Thus : 

Cicerón escribió clara, concisa y elegantemente. 

Cicero wrote distinctly, concisely, and elegantly. 
(Instead of: claramente, concisamente y elegantemente,) 
An adverb in -mente, not derived from an adjective end- 
ing in -0, may not come between adverbs derived from 
adjectives in -o, but should, for the sake of euphony, be 
placed at the end. Thus the sentence: 

Cicero wrote learnedly, elegantly, concisely, and distinctly, 
may not be translated: 

Cicerón escribió docta, elegantemente, concisa y claramente, 
but only: 

Cicerón escribió docta, concisa, clara y elegantemente,'^ 

* Likewise, if two or more adverbs in -mente, not derived 
from adjectives in -o, follow each other, the termination -mente 
of all the adverbs, except the last, may be dropped: thus, instead 
of prudentemente y lealfnente we may also say prudente y 
lealmente (prudently and loyally). 

Spanish Cony.-Grammar. 9 

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130 Lesson 30. 

3. The Spanish adverb in general takes its place 
after the verb; thus: 

El discípulo estudia siempre su lección. 
The pupil always studies his lesson. 

In compound tenses the adverb cannot be placed 
between the verb and the auxiliary, as in English, but 
it must always follow the past participle, thus: 

El discípulo ha estudiado siempre su lección. 
The pupil has always studied his lesson. 
N.B. — Adverbs of negation are excepted: 
El discípulo no estudia, (See page 136, § 5.) 

4. Adverbs form their comparative like adjectives 
(see Lesson 20), as: 

Doctamente^ más doctamente que, 
míenos doctamente que, 
tan doctamente como. 

The superlative^ used to express comparison, does 
not dififer in form from the comparative, and thus has 
no article; it can always be gathered from the context,, 
whether the comparative or superlative of the adverb 
is to be put in English; e.g.: 

Manuelito lee el francés peor que su hermana. 

The little Emanuel reads French worse than his sister. 
But: De todos los discípulos tú eres el que te portaste peor. 

Of all the pupils, you are the one who behaved the worst. 

Adverbs are also derived from the absolute superl. 

of the adjectives, by changing isimo in isimamente, as: 

Doctísimo, adv. doctisimamente, in a very learned manner. 
(We need not add that here also the termination -mente 
is affixed to the feminine form in a.) 

5. Irregular are: 

Men, well, mejor, better, lo mejor, the best. 

maly badly, peor, worse, lo peor, the worst. 

mucho, very, más, more, lo más, the most. 

poco, little, menos, less, lo menos, the least. 

Absolute Sup. of mal, pésimamente. 

The following are both adjectives and adverbs: 

Bastante, enough, but also adv. bastantemente; 
cierto, certain, » » » ciertamente, certainly; 

demasiado, too, too much, etc., but also adv. demasiadamente; 

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Adverbs. 151 

derecJw, right, but also adv. derechamente, rightly; 

solo*, alone, > » » solamente, only, solely; 

temprano, early » » » tempranamente. 
The signification of the following adverbs differs 
from that of the corresponding adjectives : 
ÁUo, high, aloud — altamente, magnificently, proudly. 

Inyo, low, in a low voice — bajamente, basely, vilely. 
(o,ro, dear, beloved — caramente, dearly. 

primero, first, before — primeramente, firstly. [promptly. 
pronto, direct, forthwith — prontamente, (also = pronto), 


El orador, the orator. digno, -a, worthy. 

ei verano, the summer. ancho, -a, broad, large. 

d embajador, the ambassador, estrecho, -a, narrow. 

d actor, the actor. constante, constant. 

d deseo, the desire. generoso, -a, generous. 

d gozo, the pleasure. raro, -a, rare, seldom. 

d lugar, the village. perdonar, to pardon. 

ia raisón, the reason. levantarse, to get up. 

tener razón**, to be right. ver (irr.), to see. 

CÍ consejo, the advice. llenar, to fill. 

ifl voZww^ae?, the will. siga, subj. pres. of seguir, to 

¿Í honradez, the honesty, de- follow. 

^ o6ra, the work. [cency. vestir, to clothe, to dress. 

d inventor, the inventor. conservar, to preserve. 

ia lota, the boot. tratar, to treat. 

i?ydici«io, -a, near, next. continuar, to continue. 

propio, -a, proper. incomodar, to molest, incom- 

capaz, capable. venir bien, to fit. [mode. 

Beading Exercise. 50. 

Este hombre habla muy elocuentemente. Éabla mejor 
que el otro orador. Me ha dado V. demasiado dinero. Yo 
no tengo bastante. En verano me levanto cada dia temprano. 
El actor no habla bastante alto. ¡ Hable V. bajo ! El autor 
ha escrito clara, concisa y elegantemente. El deseo de ver 
la ciudad y principalmente el palacio real (royal —) me llenó 
de gozo.. Los lugares próximos á una gran ciudad venden 
bien sus frutos. La razón quiere que el hombre siga más los 
prudentes consejos que no (than) su propia voluntad. El rey 
dio órdenes para vestir ricamente á los pobres. La honradez 

* solo, alone (adjective) without accent, sólo, only (adverb) 
with accent. 

** Tener razón, French: Avoir raison. 



by Google 

182 Lesson 80. 

se conserva tratando siempre derechamente con los hombres. 
Cervantes hizo ver (showed, proved; lit. made see) que nin- 
guna pluma era capaz de continuar dignamente su obra, 
sino la de su inventor. Este vestido me incomoda mucho; 
no es bastante ancho. Las botas me son demasiado estrechas ; 
no me vienen bien. Cuando uno quiere hablar de una obra, 
es menester que la vea primero. 

Tradnoción. 51. 

This author writes well. The orator has spoken distinctly, 
concisely, and elegantly. He has sent me too much money. 
He writes too much; if he wrote less he would write more 
elegantly and more distinctly. This actor speaks too low. 
Do speak loud, sir! I rose (have risen) very earlj to-day. 
He has certainly done it. The lawyer spoke very learnedly, 
but not distinctly enough. Your coat is better made than 
mine; it fits you very well. I gave (have given) money 
enough to my son. Why have you followed your own will 
more than (qvs no) the wise advice of your friends? The am- 
bassadors were all very richly dressed. I always learn my 
lesson, and I have always learned it well. He spoke of a 
work which he had never seen before. Nobody is always 
happy in this world. The king has generously pardoned his 
enemies. Which man has always spoken well? We (have) 
arrived to-day very early. (The) rich people are seldom happy. 


¿Cómo ha hablado este hom- Ha hablado elocuentisima- 

bre ? mente. 

¿ Cómo escribió Cicerón ? Cicerón escribió concisa, clara 

y elegantemente. 
¿Ha estudiado V. la lección? He estudiado siempre mi8 

¿Quién es siempre feliz en Nadie. 

este mundo? 
¿Ha dado V. bastante dinero Le he dado demasiado. 

á su hijo? 
¿Que quiere la razón? Que el hombre siga los pru- 

dentes consejos. 
¿Cómo su conserva la hon- Tratando siempre derecha- 

radez? mente con los otros. 

¿ Qué hizo ver Cervantes ? Que otra pluma no era capaz 

de continuar dignamente su 
¿ Por qué le incomoda á V. Porque no es bastante ancho. 

su vestido? 
¿No le vienen bien á V. sus No, son demasiado estrechas. 

botas ? 

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The Adverbe continued. 138 

Readbiir Exercise* 

Las Hijos y los Padres. 

Ni arrastrada nn pastor llevar podía 
Á una cabra infeliz que ola amante 
Balar detrás al hijo, que, inconstante 
Marchar junto á la madre no quería. 
— ¡Necio! — al pastor un sabio le decía, 
-7- Al qne llevas detrás, ponle delante; 
Échate el hijo al hombro, y al instante 
La madre verás ir tras de la cria. — 

Tal consejo el pastor creyó sencillo, 
C!ogió la cría y se marchó corriendo 
Llevando al animal sobre el hatillo. 

La cabra sin ramal los fué siguiendo, 
Mas siguiendo tan cerca al cabrítillo, 
Que los pies por detrás le iba lamiendo. 


Thirty-first Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y nna. 

The Ádyerbs eontinued. 

In the foregoing Lesson we observed that besides 
the adverbs derived from adjectives or participles by 
addition of the termination -mente, there are* a great 
many proper adverbs denoting place, time, order, manner, 
etc. Thus we have 1. Adverbs of place. 2. Adverbs of 
time. 3. Adverbs of manner. 4. Adverbs of quantity. 
5. Adverbs of affirmation, negation, and doubt. 

There are also adverbial expressions— i.e., compounds 
of substantives, adjectives, etc., with prepositions, as: 
por fuerza, on compulsion, en poco tiempo, soon, etc. 

1. Adverbs of Place. 

Aqui, here. arriba, up, above. 

ahi, there. cerca, near, about. 

áttá, there f= thither). abajo, down, below. 

acá, here (= hither). debajo, beneath. 

donde, where. enfrente, opposite. 

5^, }•""■»• fc,}-»^- 

de donde, whence. dela/nte, in front. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

134 Lesson 31. 

adelantty forward, on. encimay upon, on. 

detrás, behind. lejos, far. 

atrás, backward, behind. dentro, within, inside. 

junto, near, next to . . . adentro, towards the interior. 

^.^.— Adverbs of place answer the question ¿dártele? 

Aqui, alii, are used with verbs of rest; acá, allá, with 
verbs of motion; ahí, with either. 

Aqui, acá, refer to the place where the, speaker is; 

ahi, to the place where the person addressed is; 

alii, allá, to any other place more or less distant from 

2. Adverbs of Time. 
Cuando, when. aún, yet. 

ayer, yesterday. á menudo, often. 

hoy, to-day. entonces, then, afterwards. 

mañana, to-morrow. después, after. 

luego, directly, immediately. ya, already. 
tarde, late. pues, then, afterwards. 

temprano, early. todama, still. 

siempre, always. aprisa, quickly. 

despacio, slowly. ahora, now. 

^. ] "«'^'y 

Ínterin, meanwhile. 

-A^.^.— Adverbs of time answer the question ¿cuantió? 

Cuando is followed by the Indicative in speaking of 
customary actions or positive facts, and by the Subjunctive 
if denoting possibility, contingency, or futurity: 
Cuando voy á paseo voy solo. 
Whenever I go for a walk, I go alone. 
Cuando venga se lo diré, 
I will tell him when he comes. 

The adverb recientemente, recently, drop3 its last three 
syllables before participles and adjectives used instead of par- 
ticiples, as: 

Un niño recién (^= recientemente) nacido, 

A new-born child. 

Los recién llegados. 

The new comers. 

Se embarcaron con cuatro personas de las recién libres 

(= libradas), Cerv, 
They embarked with four persons of the recently rescued 
(from among those who had been recently rescued). 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

The Adverbs continued. 135 

8. Adrerbs of Manner. 
Como, how. redo (reciamente), violently, 

lien, vrell. severely. 

mcU, badly. aparte, separately. 

asiy so, thus. quedo, quietly. 

alto, aloud. medianamente, middling, tole- 

%*o, low, softly, gently. casi, almost, nearly, [rably. 

^.-B.~ Adverbs of manner answer the question ¿eómo? 

Adverbs in -nviewte (Lesson 30) belong to this class, as: 

dulcemente, sweetly; lealmente, loyally. 
The same meaning may be expressed in the two following 
ways : 

CJon dulzn/ra, or de un modo (de una manera) 
dulce, in a sweet manner. 

é. Adverbs of Quantity. 

Cuanto, how much. demasiado, too, too much. 

mucho, much. además, besides. 

muy, very, much. tan, tanto, so much. 

más, more. cuan, cuanto, how much. 

bastante, enough. harto, enough. 

poco, little. apenas, scarcely. 

^.^.— Adverbs of quantity answer the question ¿ci^íínfo.^ 
how much? 

3Iucho means great in quantity, price, also long in 
duration, and is equivalent to much, very much, too much; 
a great deal; long, a long time. It is used before m^ds (more), 
and menos (less), antes (before), and después (after), with 
comparatives, and with active verbs, and substantives. Finally, 
it may stand by itself; Le.: 

mucho más (míenos), much more (less). 

mucho mejor (peor), much better (worse). 

mucho antes (después), much before (after). 

¿ Cornee mucho ? — Mucho. Does he eat much ? — 

Very much. 
Muy is an abbreviation of mucho, it means high degree, 
and is generally translated by very, great. It is used before 
adjectives^ participles, and adverbs; as an exception be- 
fore the comparatives anterior (earlier), posterior (later), 
superior (superior), and inferior (inferior); with ser and 
estar and their equivalents, and before almost all adverbial 
phrases. Finally, it never stands by itself: 

muy grande (pequeño), very large (small). 

muy ainado (aborrecido), very much loved (hated). 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

136 Lesson 31. 

muy temprano (tarde), 'very early (late). 

muy anterior (posterior), much earlier O^ter). 

es muy hueno, he is very good. 

está muy contento, he is very pleased. 

muy de tarde en tarde, very seldom. 

¿ Está enfermo ? — y mucho (not muy). — Is he ill ? 

Very ill indeed. 
Tan and tanto follow the same rules as mu^ and 
mucho, thus: 

Le he estimado tanto, I have esteemed him so much! 
Whereas : 

Él es tan estimado como . . ., he is no less esteemed 

than . . . (lit, qaite as much as . . . .). 

5. Adverbs of Áíñrmation, Negation^ and Doubt. 

Si, yes. quizá, \ 

siempre, always. quizás, I ^^Vi&m 

cierto (ciertamente), certainly, tal vez, ( ^ '^ ' 

no, no. acaso, ) 

nunca, never. ya no, \ ^^ ^^^^ 

# / no more. 

jamás, ever, never. no , , , ya, f 

nunca jamás * never. 

^.jB.— The negative terms nunca, jamás, nada (nothing), 

ninguno, and nadie (nobody) require no, if they follow the 

verb, but not if they precede it, as: 

Ko hay ninguno, there is none; but: Ninguno hay» 

JVb se dice nada, nothing is said; but: Nada se dice. 

No lo crei jamás, I never believed it; hnt: jamás lo eré. 

With ni — ni (neither — nor) the case is much the same: 

No tengo ni amigos ni dinero, 

I have neither friends nor money. 

Ni amigos, ni dinero tengo. 

Sometimes, however, the first ni may be omitted, as: 

No es bueno ni malo. 

He is neither good nor bad. 

6* Adverbial Expressions. 

Por fuerza, on compulsion. por delante, in front. 

por extenso, in detail, amply, sin falta, surely, assuredly. 

fully. por desgracia, unfortunately. 

por la mañana, in the mom- á pierna suelta, carelessly. 

ing. en voz alta, aloud. 

* Most emphatic. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Adverbs continued. 187 

en poco tiempo, soon, in a short cuanto antes, as soon as possible. 

time. de buena gana, willingly. 

sobremanera, immensely, im- cUpié de la letra, literally, etc. 

moderately. ahora mismo, at once, ihis 
de repente, suddenly. very moment. 

de día, in daytime. á veces, sometimes. 

de día en día, daily. á la derecha, on (to) the right. 

de tarde en tarde, now and á menudo, often. 

then, seldom. á oscuras, in the dark. 


La gloria, the glory. aborrecer, to abhor, to detest. 

d subdito, the subject. atreverse, to dare. 

d temor, the fear. venir á las manos, to come to 

d correo, the post. blows. 

d trabajo, the labour, work. arncs^ar,tobeatstake,torisk. 

lo8 víveres, the victuals. dudar de, to doubt about. 

campestre, rural. vino, he (she, it) came (Fr. venir). 

o^raííecwío, -a, thankful, grate- lograr, to obtain, to eam, to 

coronar, to crown. [ful. gain, to win. 

agradar, to please. muestra, shows, proves. 

conceder, to allow, to concede, demás j other. 

vivir, to live. voy, I go. 

Beading Exercise. 52. 

Vivo aqui cerca, alii en aquella casa. No voy allá 
porque está muy lejos. América está cerca de Asia, y lejos 
de Europa. De buena gana viviría en Madrid, porque allí 
tengo muchos amigos. Los enemigos se coronaron de gloria, 
donde pocos dias antes habían sido derrotados. No me agrada 
la mucha libertad que V. concede á su hijo, ün escritor tan 
celebrado como Calderón. El discípulo se muestra agradecido 
á su maestro estudiando mucho. Un rey tiránico es muy 
aborrecido de todos sus subditos. Siempre he amado mucho 
la vida campestre. Ni el uno ni el otro se atrevieron á venir 
á las manos por el temor de no arriesgarlo todo. ¿De dónde '^ 
viene V.? Aun no llegado el correo; ni ayer tampoco vino. 
Apenas hubo llegado mi amigo, cuando recibí las cartas. El 
fruto de su trabajo no pudo lograrlo (or no lo pudo lograr) 
jamás. La carne y demás víveres eran demasiado caros. 

* Donde, where, sometimes prefixes the prepositions á, en, 
de, and por, and thus forms the adverbs : adonde (also written á 
donde), whither; endonde (en donde), wherein; dedonde (de donde), 
whence; pordonde (por donde), where through (French: par ou). 
Occasionally another preposition may be added, as: 

Si vuelves presto de á donde pienso enviarte (Cero.). 
If you soon come back from where I have a mind to send 
you (to). 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Lesson 81. 

Tradnecióii. 53. 

I am very fond of (tr, I love much) my parents. You. 
speak too loud; speak lower! Cervantes is a very celebrated 
Spanish writer (escritor). He will never h^ve seen so manj- 
towns as I have (seen). Why have you come so soon? 
I have written this letter in a hurry. Perhaps you have not 
received my letter. This man is so despised that nobody 
will speak to him. I have always esteemed you so much 
that I shall never doubt (of) your word. He has already sent 
me twelve dollars, and now he sends me twenty more. Your 
son studies too much; six hours a (por) day are more than 
enough. Unfortunately I have neither friends nor money; 
how can you expect me to be (tr. will you that I be) satis- 
fied with (contento con) my situation ? it is now almost two 
years that (since) I am in this town. Yesterday I came (vine, 
from venir) too late ; to-day I come (vengo) sooner. Sometimes 
we are quite as unjust towards ourselves as towards (the) 
others. I have given you enough money; you have received 
the price of your work. A town where {tr, in which) the 
victuals (provisions) are too dear cannot please a foreigner. 
8 So 4 learned la 2 man must have studied much. 


¿Por quo quiere V. vivir en 

¿Quién es Calderón? 

¿Cómo se muestra un discípulo 
agradecido á su maestro? 

¿Por qué es aborrecido este 

¿No ha llegado hoy el co- 

¿No te ha pagado aún? 

¿Vendrá V. (Will you come) 
mafiana á mi casa á comer 
(dine) conmigo? 

¿Es verdad qne su amigo de 

V. ha muerto? 
¿Cómo, todavía está V, en 

cama (hed)^ 
¿ Qué se dice en la ciudad ? 

Porque tengo allí muchos ami- 

ün escritor español muy céle- 

Se muestra agradecido estu- 
diando mucho. 

Porque es muy tiránico. 

No ha llegado hoy, ni tampoco 
llegó ayer. 

Me ha prometido frecuente- 
mente darme el dinero, pero 
hasta hoy no me ha cumplido 
(kept) la palabra (word). 

Gracias; lo siento (I am very 
sorry)^ pero tengo compro- 
miso (I am engaged) con 
unos amigos para mañana. 

Por desgracia es cierto. 

Perdone V., me acosté (went 
to bed) ayer muy tarde. 

No se oye (hears) nada de 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Prepositions. 139 

¿Ha recibido V. mi carta? He recibido sa carta de V, á las 

ocho 7 luego la de su her- 
¿Cuánto tiempo hay (or hace) Aun no hace dos meses, 
que aprende V. el caste- 

Keadingr Exercise. 
La Opinión. 
i Pobre Carolina mía! 
¡Nunca la podré olvidar! 
Ved lo que el mundo decía 
Viendo el féretro pasar: 

Un clérigo. — Empiece el canto. 
El doctor. -- I Cesó el sufrir! 
El padre. — \ Me ahoga el llanto ! 
La madre. — ¡Quiero morir! 

Un muchacho. — ¡Qué adornada! 
Un joven, — ¡Era muy bella! 
Una moza. — ¡Desgraciada! 
Una vieja. — ¡Feliz ella! 

— ¡Duerme en paz! dicen los buenos. 

— ¡Adiós! dicen los demás. 
Un filósofo. — ¡Uno menos! 
Un poeta. — \ Un ángel más ! 

[Campoamor, "Doloras."] 

Thirty second Lesson. — Lección treinta 

y dos. 

Prepositions. — Preposiciones. 

In Lesson 4 we have enumerated the prepositions 
most in use. The Spanish prepositions are either simply 
placed before the noun [see page 19), as: con el padre; 
para el hermano; en la ciudad; or they require one of 
the prepositions de and á following, as: 

Junto d la casa, near the bouse. 
Encima de la cama, on (upon) the bed. 
Está delante de mi, he stands before me. 

They are either adjectives, like junto, or compounds 
of prepositions with other words like encima = en cima 
(on the top). Reserving all particulars for the Second 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Lesson 32. 

Part, we now give the prepositions and prepositional 
locutions which are most in use. 

(a) Followed by de: 

Acerca de, for, because of, by 

reason of. 
además de, besides. 
al l4JLdo de, aside. 
al cabo de, at the end. 
antes de, before. 
á espaldas de, behind. 
á pesar de, notwithstanding. 
debajo de, under. 
delante de, before, in front. 

dentro de, within. 

fuera de, except, outside. 

después de, after. 

detrás de, behind. 

en casa de, at the house,at — 's. 

encima de, on, upon. 

enfrente de, opposite. 

por medio de, through, across. 

respecto de, concerning. 

(b) Followed by á: 

En cuanto á, \ as for, con- conforme á, conformably to, 
en orden á, ] ceming. according to. 

tocante á, concerning. respecto á, with respect to. 

junto á, near, next to . . . «¿wafcwcidwá, without regard to. 


El pueblo, the people. 

la fuerza, the force. 

el temor, the fear. 

la hacienda, the fortune. 

el espacio, the space. 

la potencia, the power. 

la criatura, the creature. 

el conciudadano, the citizen. 

el cumplimiento, the compli- 

el vencedor, the conqueror. 


la seguridad, the safety, 

la Casa Ayuntamiento, 

la costa, the coast. 
Undo, lovely, sweet. 
valiente, brave, gallant. 
desear, to desire. 
enojarse, to become angry. 
premiar, to reward. 
es excusado, is superfluous, 



Beading Exercise. 54. 

El pueblo deseaba que premiaran á los vencedores y á 
los sabios. Han llegado dos batallones que estaban de guar- 
nición en Madrid. Los padres y las madres trabajan para 
sus hijos. El hombre valiente no hace nada por fuerza ó por 
temor. ¿Quién soy yo para con (in comparison) él? El 
vino (carne) antes de mí á la iglesia, y se puso (sat down) 
delante de mi. Además de sus libros tenían todo lo que es 
necesario para escribir. El capitán me llamó por mi nombre. 
Detrás de la casa hay un jardín muy ameno. Dentro de una 
hora estaremos en seguridad. Los malos se enojan siempre 
contra los buenos. ¿ Qué tal (What) es este hombre para con 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^ Prepositions. 141 

sns conciudadanos? Desde el dia en que los demás (the others) 
86 fueron (went away), se faé también él. La lámpara está 
encima de la mesa. El perro durmió debajo de la cama. 
Para entre amigos son excusados los cumplimientos. 

Traducción. 55. 
Near the town-hall there are some beautiful palaces. 
Shall you come (Vendrá Y.) (still) before night? I shall come 
ifter sunset (ponerse el sol). The world was created (hecho) 
by God. What ((¿uUn or Qué) is the creature in com- 
parison with the Creator? We speak about the affairs (las 
cosas) of our nation. There might he (Habrá) above two 
hundred persons. Concerning this matter (asunto), I do not 
know (sé) anything certain. Opposite the church there were 
three very high trees. (The) man was (ha) not born (nacido) 
for himself alone. I am not ashamed to speak the truth 
always. I was occupied from (the) morning till (to the) evening. 
The father distributed (def. of repartir) all his fortune among 
his children. (The) war is (está) declared (use declarar) be- 
tween the two Powers. The whole honour of the victory is 
for the general. The thief hid himself behind the door. The 
«hip was wrecked (use naufragar) near (cerca de) the coast 
tf Spain. (The) Mount Pico rises (use levantarse) above the 
other mountains. The king did not wish (quiso) that his 
sons should reign (Imperf. Subj. of reinar) after him. 


iQiüé deseaba el pueblo? Que premiaran á los vencedores. 

¿Ha partido su amigo de V. ? Si, ha partido ayer sin despe- 
dirse (saying good bye), 

¿Qué no quiso el rey? Que sus hijos reinasen después 

de él. 

¿Por quiénes trabajan los pa- Trabajan por sus hijos. 

¿Qué ha publicado ese autor? Ha publicado muchas novelas 

muy buenas; ha publicado 
¿Dónde se escondió el perro? Debajo de la cama. 
¿Cuál virtud está sobre todas La caridad. 

las virtudes? 
¿Cuántos años tendrá su Ahora tendrá sobre cuarenta 

amigo de V.? afios. 

¿Iremos por vapor (steamer) Creo que haremos mejor en 

ó por ferro-carril (train) ? tomar (if we take) el tren. 

¿Qué no hace el hombre va- No hace nada por fuerza ó por 

liente? temor. 

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142 Lesson. 38. 

Beading Exercise, 

El traidor despreciado'^'. 

Fué rogado un noble español por Carlos quinto para que 
cediese su palacio, el más hermoso de Toledo, al condestable 
de Borbón. Viendo el Emperador que resistía, le dijo que 
debía mirar como un honor el alojar en su casa á tan gran 
capitán. El español respondió que eran muy conocidas las 
altas prendas de aquel príncipe; pero que su traidora con- 
ducta para con Francia su patria las había borrado todas. 
«Le cederé mi palacio por obediencia», añadió, «mas suplico 
á Vuestra Majestad (que) me permita darle fuego en cuanto 
el duque haya salido de él. No podré yo resolverme á ocupar 
la misma casa en que ha vivido un traidor.» 

Despreciar, to despise. para con . . ., towards, against . . . 

rogar, to request. horrar, to efface, to expunge. 

ceder, to cede. la obediencia, the obedience. 

el Condestable, the Constable. mas, but. 

viendo, seein^j. permitir, to permit. 

resistir, to resist. el capitán, the general. 

debia, he must; he ought to. añadir, to add. 

mirar, to regard. suplicar, to beg. 

alojar, to lodge. dar fuego á . , ., to set on fire. 

conocido, known. en cuanto, as soon as. 

las altas prendas, the eminent salir de , , ., to leave, 

qualities. resolverse, to resolve. 

traidor, traitor, treacherous. ocupar, to live in . . 

la conducta, the conduct. vivir, to live. 

TMrty-tliird Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y tres. 

Coignnctlons. — Conjunciones. 

(a) Simple Conjunctions: 

Y (é), and. mas**, but. 

ó (ú), or. pero, but, yet. 

ni — ni, neither — nor. cuando, when, if. 

que, that. si, if. 

ya — ya, now — now. pues, as, because. 

mientras, whilst. 

* See the poetical treatment of the same subject in "i^w 
Castellano Leal'' por el Duque de Bivas, in the "Spanish Reader . 
** mas, but, without accent; más, more, with accent. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Conjunctions. 143 

(b) Compound Gonjiiiietions. 

Aunque, although, though. asi que, so that, as soon as. 

jwr qué, i^hy. con tal que, provided, on con- 
porque, because, as. dition that. 

hien quCy though, although. por más que, in spite of. 

supuesto que, \ pj.Q^¿g¿ 4.jja,4- entretanto que, whilst. 

piesto que, / ^ ' á menos que, unless. 

W(^ Que, in order to, so that, hasta que, until. 

pues que, as, since. 

Some of these conjunctions govern always the 
Subjunctive mood, such as antes que, before; con tal que, 
provided; á menos que, unless; para que, in order to. 
Others govern the Subjunctive only when the idea 
expressed by the verb appears uncertain, dubious, or 
merely possible: such are aunque, though; hasta que, 
until ; asi que, so that, etc. For further particulars see 
Part n., Lesson 14: Conjunctions. 


1. For the sake of euphony, t/ (and) is replaced by é 
before words beginning with i or hi (but not hie), as: 

Padre é hijo, father and son. 
Acero y hierro, steel and iron. 

2. In a similar way, ó is replaced by ü before words 
beginning with o, as: 

Siete ü ocho, seven or eight. 

3. Porque means both why ? and because, as : 

¿ Por qué no habla Y, ? why do you not speak ? 
Porque no quiero, because I do not choose. 
In order to mark the difference, por qué, why ? is written 
in two words and with the accent, and porque, because, in 
one word and without the accent. 


El ministro, the minister. sujeto, subject. 

el embajador, the ambassador, perseguir, to persecute. 
el juez, the judge. velar, to wiatch. 

el amo, the master. recompensar, to reward. 

la ignorancia, the ignorance. ganar, to earn, to gain. 
la sabiduría, wisdom. cansar, to tire; cansarse, to 

el discípulo, the pupil, scholar. get tired. 

afable, kind, friendly. descansar, to repose. 

dichoso, happy. no tener ningún inconveniente, 

severo, severe, strict. to have no objection. 

dormir, to sleep. 

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144 Lesson 88. 

Traducción. 56. 

The ministers and the ambassadors thought that the 
proposal of (tr, what proposed [tr. proponer]) the emperor 
would please (convenia) neither the king nor the people. 
Peter or [an]other shall do (hará) it. I should be glad 
(Quisiera) to reward him, but* I cannot. I earn money 
enough, but I am not satisfied. I cannot walk so far, because 
I get tired. Provided they are (se muestren) kind, I have 
no objection to pay them a visit (en ir á verles). Money 
makes (hace) rich, but not happy. (The) virtue, although 
persecuted, is amiable. If I get (Si me llegare or llega) my 
money, I shall pay you. I waked (Imperf,), whilst be slept. 
If it brought (importara) me a kingdom, I would not commit 
(haría) an injustice. The judge, though severe, is just. (The) 
virtue renders men happy (felices) in this world and blessed 
(bienaventurados) in heaven. I say (digo) it now, that (para 
que) he may hear (sienta) it himself. Wait (espere V.) in this 
room, sir, until my master comes (venga)l (The) men often 
say (dicen) that they do not wish for (apetecen) riches. 
Science and ignorance are opposed things. The girl under- 
stands (sabe) sewing (coser) and spinning (hilar). He rests 
neither by (de) day nor by night. Men or women, we are 
all liable to passions. One should not (No se ha de) live in 
order to eat, but one should eat in order to live. The master 
takes pains (se afana) that he may bring forward (Subj. 
pres. of adelantar) his pupils. 


¿Quién ha llegado hoy? El conde de Aguilar y su 

señora (lady), 

i Qué vende este comerciante Vende plomo (lead) y hierro. 

(merchant) ? 

¿ Cuánto dinero le ha dado V. Le he dado siete ú ocho duros 

al criado? (dollar). 

¿Por qué no ha escrito V. á Porque no tengo tiempo. 

su padre? 

¿ Cuándo recibió V. la res- Después de haber escrito esta 

puesta (answer)^ carta (letter). 

¿ No ha querido (did not like) Ni mi tío ni mi tía han que- 

venir aquí su tío de V.? rido venir. 

¿Qué dice un poeta de la Dice que la imitación es como 

imitación (imitation)^ el alma de la poesía. 

¿Por qué no pudo el capitán Porque estaba ausente. 

asistir (assist) á la función 

(solemnity) ? 

* But is pero^ seldom mas. After a negative sentence hut 
is sino. 

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Conjunctions. 145 

¿Irá V. conmigo? Iré con usted pues lo quiere. 

¿EavistoV. en verdad CrcaWy^ Cuando le aseguro á V. que 

á mi hermano? le he visto, puede creerme 

(believe me), 
¿Quiere V. á ese hombre ? Aunque no me ha hecho (done) 

nada, no le quiero. 
¿Cuándo me pagará V.? Le pagaré á Y. si me llega 

(if I get) el dinero. 
Beading Exercise. 
Canción de la Primavera. 

Ya vuelve la primavera: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

tiende sobre la pradera 
el verde manto — de la esperanza. 

Sopla caliente la brisa: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

las nubes pasan aprisa, 
y el azur muestran — de la esperanza. 

La flor ríe en su capullo: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

canta el agua en su murmullo 
el poder santo — de la esperanza. 

¿La oís que en los aires trina? 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

— «Abrid á la golondrina, 
que vuelve en alas — de la esperanza.* — 

Nifia, la niña modesta: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

el mayo trae tu fiesta 
que el logro trae — de la esperanza. 

Cubre la tierra el amor: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

el perfume engendrador 
al seno sube — de la esperanza. 

Todo zumba y reverdece: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

cuanto el son y el verdor crece, 
tanto más crece — toda esperanza. 

Sonido, aroma y color 
(suene la gaita, — ruede la danza) 

úñense en himnos de amor, 
que engendra el himno — de la esperanza. 

Morirá la primavera: 
suene la gaita, — ruede la danza: 

mas cada año en la pradera 
tornará el manto — de la esperanza. 

Spanish Conv.-Grammar. 10 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

146 Lesson 84. 

La inocencia dé la vida 
(calle la gaita, — pare la danza) 

no toma nna vez perdida: 
I oh mi inocencia! — ¡ay mi esperanza! 

Fablo Viferrer. 

Tliirty-fourth Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y cuatro. 

Interjections. — Interjecciones. 

Interjectionis aré used to express some emotions of 
the speaker, as Joy, surprise, gnef, etc. Those most in 
use are: 

/ Ah ! I eh I ¡ hala I to denote joy. 

¡Ah! ¡ay! ¡ay de mi! ¡ó! to denote grief. 

¡Oh! to denote silrprise. 

/ Eh ! ¡ hola ! to attract attention. 

/ Chito ! ¡ quedo! ¡ silencio ! to command silence. 

/ Ea ! / Sus! ! Animo ! to encourage. 

/ Ta ! ¡ tate! to threaten. 

Besides these there are many other expressions, as: 
Ojalá, Would that . . . 
¡Válgame Dios! Good gracious! 
¡Caramba! Oh, dear me I etc. 

which are also used a« interjections. The Spanisl> 
language abounds in such interjectional locutions. 

Beading Exercise. 57. 

I Ah, qué desgracia (misfortune) \ ¡Ay, quo jpens, (pain) -y: 
oh, desdichado de mi (how unhappy I am) I i Oh, cielos! I Eh, 
quo es lo que decías (saidst)\ ¿Hola, muchacho, vendrás^ 
luego (soon)? i Hola, quién lo hubiera creído (thought, believed) t 
¡Chito, ninguno hable, y todos oigan (let all listen) \ ¡Ea, hijo- 
mío, buen ánimo! ¡Ta^ ta; qué es lo que veo! ¡Vaya (Up)j- 
que ya es tiempo de levantarse! ¡Ay, qué gozo (pleasure)l 
¡Ah, desventurada mujer! ¡Oh, dolor! ¡Mira (look), que in- 
famia! ¡Gracias á Dios! ¡Bendito (praised) sea Dios! 

Beading Exercise. 

España, — Diversidad de lenguas. 
Subsiste en España no sólo la diversidad de leyes, sino* 
también la de lenguas. Se habla todavía en gallego, en bable^ 
en vasco, en catalán, en mallorquín, en valenciano. Tienen» 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

The Irregular Verbs. 147 

estas lenguas, á excepción de la vasca, el mismo origen que 
la de Castilla; y ninguna, sin embargo, ha caldo en desuso. 
Lejos de borrarse, pasan hace afios por una especie de renaci- 
miento. Eran ayer vulgares, y hoy toman el carácter de 
literarias. Se escriben ahora en todas esas lenguas, principal- 
mente en las latinas, poesías brillantes de especial índole y 
tendencia, donde predomina sobre todos los sentimientos el de 
^ antigna patria. Se desentierran los cantos y aún los libros 
a prosa que en ellas compusieron hombres de otros siglos ; y 
00 bien se los publica, se los lee y devora. En catalán hasta 
se escriben y se ponen en escena comedias y dramas de no 
escaso mérito. 

[Pí y Margall, "Las Nacionalidades," Cap. XIÍ.] 

Thirty-fiftli Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y cinco. 

The irregular Verbs. — De los verbos in*egulares. 

Irregular verbs are those which deviate in their 
conjugation from the regular verbs, unless this deviation 
^ a merely orthographical one, as with the verbs 
enumerated in Lesson 22, where the anomaly is only 
seeming, as the alterations in the spelling are necessary 
in order to maintain the original pronunciation of 
the verb. 

A very considerable number of Spanish verbs are 
only so far irregular as to undergo an alteration of the 
radical vowel in certain persons of the present indicative 
and subjunctive, and in the imperative, all the other 
persons and tenses being perfectly regular. 

This alteration is originated by the stress being 
laid on the radical vowel', which is, as it were, not 
strong enough to support alone the full weight of the 
accent, and is, therefore, changed into a diphthong; 
whilst in the cases where the stress is not laid on the 
radical vowel, it remains unaltered. Thus, in the verb 
alentar, to breathe, the 1. sing. pres. indie, ought pro- 
perly to be alentó*. Now, this e (the radical vowel) 
cannot support by itself the weight of the accent, and 
is therefore changed into ie. Thus aliento*, instead 

* The accent is only used here to indicate the vowel on 
which the stress is laid, and must not be written. 


Digitized b 

d by Google 


Lesson 35. 

of alentó. The 1st pers. plur. of the same tense, however, 
is alentamos, and not alientamos^ because here the stress 
is laid on the a (alentamos), and not on the e of 
the root. 

Observation.— Yqí this transition of the radical vowel 
into the diphthongs ie and ue is not confined to the aforesaid 
forms, but also occurs in the infinitive mood of some verbs. 
Hence we have double forms, like diezmar, and dezmar, to 
decimate; adiestrar, and adestrar, to instruct; amueblar, and 
amoblar, to furnish (a room), etc. The conjugation of such 
verbs with diphthongs for their radical vowel is regular. The 
Spanish Academy recognises both forms, yet prefers the form 
with the diphthong. 

As the aforesaid deviation is found equally with 
verbs of the first, second, and third conjugations, we 
may bring them all under the 

First Class. 

Character : The radical e, i is 

changed into ie. 





to breathe. 

Encender, to set 
on fire, to light. 


Adquirir, to ac- 
quire, to obtain. 

Aliento, I breathe 





Enciendo, I light 






















Alienta (tú) 
aliente (Y.). 

Enciende (tú), 
encienda (V.). 

Adquiere (tú) 
adquiera (Y.). 

Thus: inquirir. 

to inquire. 

Digitized by Google 

The Irregular Verbs. 


Alphabetical list of the yerbs liable to the same deriations: 

Memarh—In this and the following lists there are many 
verbs which are not so important for the beginner. It would 
therefore be better to learn first those marked with an asterisk. 

Verbs in -ar. 

Abnegar, to deny oneself. 
^acertar, to guess. 

acrecentar, to increase. 

adestrar, to instruct. 

aferrar, to grapple. 

ailebrarse, to crouch. 
*alentar, to breathe. 

aliquebrar, to break a wing. 

aneblar, to get foggy. 

apacentar, to graze, to pasture. 

apernar, to seize by the leg. 
*apretar, to press together. 

arrendar, to lease, to rent. 

asentar, to set, to note down. 

aserrar, to saw. 

asestar, to point (a gun). 

atentar, to grope, to fumble ^. 

aterrar, to fling, to knock 
down ^. 

atestar, to fill with . . .^. 

^atravesar, to perforate, to 

bar, to block, to cross. 

aventar, to fan, to kindle; 
-se, to run away. 

* Calentar, to warm. 

* cegar, to blind, to dazzle. 
*cerrar, to shut. 

cimentar, to cement, to lay 

the foundation. 
*comenzar, to begin, to com- 
mence, [concert. 
concertar, to arrange ; se, to 
^confesar, to confess. 
^confesarse con, to confess to. 
Decentar, to cut, to get bad 

denegar, to deny. 

dentar, to indent, to teeth. 

derrenegar, to abjure, to de- 

derrengar, to lame. 

desacertar, to mistake. 

desaferrar, to unfurl, to un- 

desalentar, to discourage. 

desapretar, to loosen. 

desarrendar, to unbridle. 

desasentar, to disagree with. 

desasosegar, to trouble. 

desatentar, to perplex the 

desaterrar, to deposit scoriae. 

desatravesar, to cross back. 

desconcertar, to confuse. 

desdentar, to draw teeth. 

desempedrar, to unpave (a 
street, etc.). 

desencerrar, to free, to set 
at liberty. 
*desenterrar, to disinter, to 
dig out. 

desgobernar, to disturb. 

deshelar, to thaw [helar, to 

desherrar, to unfetter, to take 
off a horse-shoe. 

desmembrar, to dismember. 

desnegar, to contradict, to 

desnevar, to thaw. 

despernar, to cut off a leg, 

to lame a leg. 
^despertar (dispertar) , to 

1 Regular in the signification "to attempt the life of somebody." 

2 » » » » . "to terrify." 

3 » » » » '*to testify." 


by Google 


Lesson 35. 

* desplegar \ to unfold. 
desterrar, to banish, to exile. 
dezmar, to decimate. 
JEmparentar, to be related 

by marriage. 
*empedrar, to pave. 
*einpezar, to begin. 

encensar, to perfume. 

encentar, to mutilate. 

* encerrar, to imprison, to com- 

*encomendar, to recommend, 
to entrust. 
encubertar, to cover with 

cloth (horses). 
endentar, to join with a mor- 
enhambrentary to starve. 
enhestar, to raise, to put up- 
^enmendar (emendar), to cor- 
rect, to mend. 
ensangrentar, to stain with 

^enterrar, to bury. 
*errar, to be mistaken (Pres, 

yerro, etc.). 
^escarmentar, to sharpen one's 
wits, to take warning. 
estercar, to manure. 
estregar, to rub. 

* Fregar, to rub, to wash up. 

* Gobernar, to govern. 

* Helar y to freeze [French : 

herrar, to shoe a horse [f err er]. 

Incensar, to incense, to per- 
infernar, to vex, to make 

invernar, to pass the winter. 
*Manifestar, to manifest. 
mentar^, to mention. 
*merendar, to take one's after- 
noon collation. 
*Negar^, to deny. 
*nevar, to snow. 
*Pewsar^ to think. [legs. 
perniquebrar, to break (the) 
'''plegar^, to fold. 
*0Me6rar, to break. 
Recalentar, to warm again. 
^recomendar, to recommend. 
refregar, to rub hard. 
*regar, to water. 
regimentar, to organize. 
remendar, to mend, to patch. 
remesar, to pull out the hair. 
renegar, to abjure, to for- 
replegar, to fold often, to 

fall back. 
requebrar, to break into little 
pieces, to flirt, to woo, to 
resegar, to reap again. 
resembrar, to resow. 
restregar, to rub, to scrub. 
^retemblar, to tremble re- 
retentar, to threaten with a 
fresh attack (of illness, etc.). 

^ Deitplegar forms desplego and despliego; as well as desple- 
garse, to retire in good order (milit). Replegar, to fold again, 
follows plegar, 

^ The compounds, like comentar, dewcniar, etc., are regular. 
Paramentar, to adorn, is not derived from mentar, but from pa- 

3 Anegar, to drown, is not derived from negar, and is regular, 
although in America spurious forms like aniego, aniegas may 

^ Compensar, recompensar, etc., are regular. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Irregular Verbs. 


^reventar, to burst. 
Salpimefitar, to season with 

salt and pepper. 
sarmentar, to gather (cut off) 
* segar, to mow, to cut. 
sembrar, to sow. 
sementar, to sow. 
^sentar, to seat, to fit ; -5e, to 

sit down^ 
"^serrar, to saw. 
sosegar, to tranquillize. 
soterrar, to bury. 
"* Temblar, to tremble. 
tentar, to touch, to try, to 

grope; to tempt. 
trasegar, to pour over, to 

transfuse, to rack wine. 
^tropezar, to stumble. 

Verbs in -cr. 

Ascender, to ascend, to be 

atender, to attend, to pay 

attention to. 
bienquerer, to esteem. 
Oerner^y to bolt (meal). 
coextender, to coextend. 

contender, to fight. 
*I>efender, to defend. 
desatender, to disregard. 

* descender, to descend, to come 


desentenderse, to feign ig- 

distender, to distend, [fire. 

* Encender, to light, to set on 
*entender, to understand. 

extender, to stretch out. 
Heder, to stink. 
hender, to split. 
Malquerer, to hate. 
*Berder, to lose. 

* Querer, to like, to wish, to 

want, will. 
Mequerer, to love intensely. 
Tender^, to tend, to stretch. 
trascender, to mount over, 

to pass. 
Verter, to shed, to spill. 

Verbs in -Ir, 

Adquirir, to acquire, to obtain. 
Diferir, to differ. 
Inquirir, to inquire. 
JPerquü^r, to search for. 


To be right, tener razón, 

to be wrong, wo tener razón, 

the bet, wager, la apuesta, 

the cigar, ei cigarro, 

the rampart, ?a i;a?Za. 

the sea, el mar, 

the family, la familia. 

the cow, la vaca, 

the fault, mistake, la falta. 

likewise, también, igualmente. 

to read, leer, 

I say, digo. 

not yet, aww — no, 

., ji Í la l^na, 

the wood, J ;^ ^^^^^^ 

the blow, el golpe [Ft, le coup], 
the valley, el valle, 
the noi^e, el ruido. 

Traducción* 58. 
What do you think of this matter, sir? I think that 
you are wrong, and that your friend is right. Think what 

^ Presentar and representar, not being compounds of sentar, 
are regular. 

"* Discernir, to distinguish, formerly discerner, follows the 
conjug. of cerner, — Concernir, to concern, is a defective verb. 

3 Pretender is regular. The other compounds, like tender. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

152 Lesson 35. 

you please ! I know (se) that my friend will lose this wager. 
We lose our time, and you (Vds,), too, lose yours. I confess 
my faults; why do you not confess yours? We confess that 
you were right. I awake every morning at six o'clock. He 
eats his afternoon collation at 5 o'clock. The child is teething 
(pres.). When do we begin? I shall begin directly, and my 
brother also begins. The poor soldier still breathes. I am not 
mistaken when I say that he does not understand me. Light 
your cigar; there is a match (fósforo, m.). The ramparts 
defend the town against the enemies. We now (ahora) begin 
to read; dost thou also begin? I do not yet begin. I do 
not deny that you have given me the money. The sun 
dazzles me. The river falls (desenibocar) into the sea. He 
descends from an old Castilian family. I lose too much money 
with [at] this game. We lose 10 dollars (duro, m.), and 
that gentleman loses 15 dollars. The sun warms the earth. 
I split this wood with one blow. The cows graze in the 
valley. Correct the mistakes in your translation! Thou dost 
not know what thou sayest (dices). I understand everything. 
This noise troubles (disturbs) me. A young man acquires 
friends if he is diligent and honest. We seldom acquire 
anything in this world without pains (Sing,). 


¿Piensa V. en su tarea (tasJc)^ Pienso siempre en mis tareas. 

¿Pierde V. mucho dinero? He perdido 5 daros, pero mi 

hermano pierde más. 

¿No quiebra V. el vaso f^Za55^? No quiebro nada. 

¿Niegan Vds. que tengamos No negamos que Vds. tengan 
razón? razón, pero negamos que ha- 

gan bien (do well) en este 
caso (case). 

¿Por qué no empieza V.? No empiezo, porque no tengo 

gana de hacer lo que V, 

¿Á quién defiende V.? Defiendo á la pobre viuda (wi- 

dow) que no tiene protección 

¿Está enfermo el nifio? ün poco; dienta. 

¿ Por qué no despierta V. á sus Porque aún no es tiempo. 
compafSeros (companion)^ 

¡Siéntese V. Mi ama llegará No me siento, porque no tengo 
en un instante! tiempo. 

I Cierre V. la puerta del cuarto! Ya está cerrada. 

Mi primo niega lo que V. Aunque lo niegue, es verdad 
ha dicho. lo que he dicho. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 


Reading Exercise. 

España. — Diversidad de costumbres. 

No hablaré ahora de las costumbres. Su variedad es in- 
finita. Cambian de provincia á provincia y aún de pueblo á 
pueblo. Las de la ciudad difieren generalmente de las del 
campo; las de la montaña de las del valle. Difieren sobre 
todo las que se observan en los tres grandes momentos de la 
vida: el nacimiento, el matrimonio y la muerte. Son en todas 
partes diversos los trajes, diversos los juegos y las fiestas, 
diversas las aficiones y las preocupaciones religiosas. Cada 
comarca tiene su Cristo y su Virgen, y en cada una se les 
presta distinto culto. 

[Pí y Margall, *'La8 Nacionalidades," Cap. XII.] 

Thirty-sixth Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y seis. 

The Irregular Yerbs continued. 

A great many partly irregular verbs of the first 
and the second conjugations change the radical vowel 
into ue. To these Jugar (Latin jocare) may be 
added. They form the 

Second Class. 


: o, u, is changed 

into ue. 




acordar, to agree. 

Morder, to bite. 


Jugar, to play. 

Acuerdo, 1 agree 





Muerdo, I bite 





Juego, I play 








Digitized by Google 






Acuerda (tú) f2^greQ Muerde (tú), bite 
(thou). (thou). 

acordad^ agree morded, bite 

(you). (you). 

Acuerde Y,, do Muerda Y, ,áo\Áie, 


All the other tenses are regular, 

Juega (ttt), plaj 
jugad, play (you). 

Juegue F., do play. 

Alphabetical list of the verbs 

Verbs in -ar. 

Abuñolar, to puff out. 
aclocar, to brood. 
acollar, to earth up. 
*acordar, to agree; -se, to 

recollect ^ 
acornar, to gore. 
*acostar, to convey to bed; 

'Se, to go to bed. 
afollar, to blow against, to 

breathe at . . . 
aforar, to enfeoff, to rent, 
to farm*. [phesy. 

agorar, tb foretell, to pro- 
*álmorzar, to breakfast. 
* amoblar, to funiish, see : Mo- 
amolar, to grind, to sharpen. 
aporcar, to cover with earth. 
'''aportar, to go ashore, to land. 
*apostar^, to bet. 
*aprobar, to approve. 
asolar, to waste, to desolate. 

that follow this irregularity: 

asoldar, to hire. 
asonar, to accord, to chime in. 
atronar, to make a great noise. 
avergonzar, to shame (aver- 
azotar, to work with the axe. 
Clocar, to cluck. 
colar^, to filter, to wash ; co- 
larse, to slip in (coll.). 
^colgar, to hang, to suspend. 
comprobar, to prove. 
concordar, to accord, to agree. 
'''consolar, to console, to com- 
consonar, to accord (see sonar), 
'''contar, to count, to tell. 
'''costar^ to cost. 
Degollar, to behead. 
demostrar, to prove. 
'''denostar, to offend, to injure. 
derrocar^, to fling down, to 

render downcast. 
desacordar, to disagree, to 
put out of tune. 

^ Acordar, to tune (instruments), is regular. 

* Aforar, to gauge, is regular; also in all the other signi- 
fications (to adjust [weights, etc.]). 

* Apostar, to place, to station, is regular. 

* Verbs not derived from colar, but from cola, tail, glae, 
like descolar, to cut the tail off; encolar, to glue together, are 

* Derrocar forms derroco and derrueco. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 


desaforar^ to deprive of a 

right, etc.^ 
desamoblar, to unfumisb. 
*desaprobar, to disapprove. 
descolgar, to take down (from 

a hook, etc.). 
descollar, to overtop, to tower 

desconsolar, to afflict deeply, 

to render disconsolate. 
*descorUar, to discount. 
descordar, to uncord. 
descornar, to break off the 

desencordar, to unstring. 
desengrosar, to thin. 
desflocar, to unravel. 
desmajoJ-ar, to pull up vines 

by the roots. 
*desolar, to desolate, to waste. 
desoldar, to unsolder. 
desollar, to flay, to excoriate. 
desosar, to take the bone out 

(of the meat). 
desovar, to lay eggs, to spawn. 
*despohlar, to depopulate. 
destrocar, to break off a barter, 

a bargain. 
* desvergonzarse, to behave in 

a shameless manner. 
discordar, to be discordant. 
disonar, to be dissonant. 
Emporcar, to soil. 
enclocar, to fish with a hook, 

to cluck (like a hen). 
encoclar (better cloquear), see : 

^encontrar, to encounter, to 

meet, to find. 

encorar, to cover with leather; 
'Se, to heal, to cicatrize. 

encorda/r, to string, to chord. 

encornar, to grow horns. 

encovar^ to put in the cellar. 

engorar, to addle. 
*engrosar, to become stout. 

enrodar, to break upon the 

ensalmorar, to brine (pickle). 

ensoñar, to dream. 

entortar, to render tortuous. 

escolar, to strain. 
^esforzar, to encourage. 
'*' esforzarse, to take pains. 

Foliar^, to blow with the 

* for zar, to force, to compel, 

to oblige. 

* Holgar, to repose. 

hollar, to tread upon, to 

trample on. 
Improbar, to disapprove: 
*Jugar^, to play. 
Malsonar, to offend one's ears. 
mancornar, to tie by the 

moblar^, to furnish. 
*mostrar, to show. 

* Poblar, to populate. 
*probar, to prove, to try. 

Mecolar, to strain a second 

recontar, to count again. 
*recordar, to remind, to awake, 

-se, to recollect. 
recostarse, to lie down on one 

side, to recline. 
*reforzar, to reinforce. 

1 Meaning to redeem a mortgage is regular. 

2 Foliar (afollar), when meaning "to put in sheetei," is re- 

* Conjugar, to conjugate, and enjugar, to dry up, are not 
derived from jugar, and are regular, 

* Besides moblar, and amoblar, there are also the regular 
forms mueblar, and amueblar (see Lesson 35, Observation), 


by Google 


Lesson 36. 

regoldar, to eruct. 
rehollar, to tread upon. 
remolar, to load dice. 
*renovar, to renew. 
repoblar, to repeople. 

* reprobar, to reprobate, to scold. 
rescontrar, to balance (an 

account), to compare. 
resollar, to breathe, to fan. 
resonar, to resound. 
retostar, to toast again, to 

toast brown. 
retronar, to thunder again. 
revolar, to flee, to flee again. 
*revolcarse, to welter, to roll, 

to wallow. 
*rodar, to roll. 

* rogar, to beg, to pray^. 
Sobresolar, to pave anew. 
solar^, to sole. 

soldar, to solder. 

* soltar, to loosen. 

sollar, to blow with bellows. 
*sonar^, to sound; -se, to 

blow one's nose. 
sonrodarse, to stick in the 

mud (a carriage). 

* soñar, to dream. 

* Tostar, to roast. 
trascolar, to bolt, to strain. 
trascordarse, to forget. 
trasoñar, to see a vision, to 

trastrocar, to invert the order 

of things. 
trasvolar, to fly across. 
trocar, to exchange [Fr. tro- 

Hronar, to thunder^. 

* Volar, to fly. 

*volcar, to upset (a carriage, 
etc.); -56, to welter. 

Verbs in -6r. 

* Absolver, to absolve. 
amover, to remove. 

* Cocer, to cook ('cwe^o). 
condoler, to condole, to pity. 
conmover, to touch, to stir. 
contorcer, to distort. 

*I>emoler, to demolish, to 

. desenvolver, to develop. 

destorcer, to untwist. 

desvolver, to unfold. 
^devolver, to give back. 
^disolver, to dissolve. 
*doler, to ache, to give pain. 

Entrevolver, to pack between. 
^envolver, to envelop, to wrap 
up, to involve. 

escocer, to smart. 
*Llover, to rain. 

* Moler, to grind, to bother. 
*morder, to bite. 

*mover, to move. 

*'Oler, to smell (pres. huele, 

etc., olemos, etc.). 
*JPoder, to be able, can. 
promover, to promote. 
Mecocer, to boil again. 
redoler, to cause great pain. 
remoler, to regrind. 
remorder, to cause remorse. 
remoi;er, to remove. 
*resolver, to resolve. 
retorcer, to re-wrap, to crook, 
to curse, to render tortuous 
(pres. retuerzo). 

^ The compounds of ro^ar are regular, 

2 Like 5o2ar the verb consolar, to console, though not 
derived from so2ar. 

^ Sonar and its compounds are irregular. Verbs derived 
from persona, like apersonarse, to behave with dignity, are regular. 

* Verbs derived from irowo, throne, like entronizar, destronar, 
etc., are regular. 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 157 

revolver, to stir, to disar- *Torccr, to come, to wring, to 

range, wrest (pres. tuerzo), 

* Soler, to use (be wont). * Volver, to turn back. 

solver^, to loosen, to untie. * volver á (with the Inf.), to do 
somover, to remove (earth). a thing once more. 


The intention, la intención. to dine, comer, 

the place, el lugar. to doubt, dudar, 

the bill of exchange, la letra blunt, embotado, -da, or hoto, 

de cambio, -a, 

the behaviour, la conducta, furious, enfurecido. 

the farrier, el herrador'^, the pipe, la pipa, 

the movement, el ejercicio, the tobacco, el tabasco, 

the promise, la promesa, to smoke, fumar, 

Tradncoión. 59. 

I bet (that) I guess (adivinar) what (lo que) you are think- 
ing, and that you do not guess what I think. This man 
shows good intentions. I breakfast at eight o'clock, I dine 
at one, and go to bed at eleven. (The) war depopulates the 
countries, and stains with blood the places which are its 
theatre. Do discount me this bill of exchange! I fear that 
you will not approve of my conduct. I do not think that these 
gentlemen will agree to it. I doubt whether (si) you remem- 
ber me (Gen,), He wishes me to (que yo) exchange my watch 
for his. I doubt whether it (will) also rain(s) in the afternoon. 
I do not think (that) this farrier shoes my horse well. Take 
(Haga usted) more exercise, lest you {transí, that you do not) 
become too stout. I approve of all (cuanto) he has done. Do 
not forget {tr, recollect) your promises, my friend! Go to 
bed ; you are very tired. We breakfast at the same (mismo, -a) 
hour as (que) my father breakfasts. Do grind this knife, it 
is too blunt. How much does this book cost ? My book costs 
seven pesetas. The furious soldiers destroyed the whole house. 
Do not be afraid, sir, the dog does not bite. We disapprove 
of your sister's conduct; why do not you disapprove of it? 
Why do you not play with us? Pray, sir, tell me whether 
(tr. que me diga) we return at eight o'clock or at half past 
eight? Come back (return) at half past eight o'clock. This 
flower smells (fr. oler) very nice {tr, agreeably). In the 
morning I (use to) smoke a pipe of tobacco, and in the evening 
a couple of (un par de) cigars. 

1 Obsolete. 

^ From ferrum (Latin), French: le fer; maréchal-ferrant. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Lesson 86. 


¿Acuéstate, amigo mió? 

¿Cuánto cuesta ese chaleco? 
¿No desaprueba V. la con- 
ducta de ese hombre ? 

¿Cuál es el efecto de la 
guerra ? 

¿Qué espera V.? 

¡Yo no tengo la culpa! ¿Por 
qué me reprueba V.? 

¿Muerde ese perro? 


¿No se acuerda V. de mi 
criado Juan? 

¿Á qué hora se acuesta V.? 

¿Qué le ha contado á Y. el 
criado ? 

¿Cuánto cuestan esos guan- 

¿Uuégole á Y., me diga que 
hora es? 

¿Á que hora almuerza V.? 

¡Gracias! No tengo gana de 

Cuesta dos duros. 

Yerdad es que (certainly) la 
desapruebo ; pero ¿qué puedo 
hacer ? 

La guerra demuele las ciudades 
y despuebla los estados 

Espero que encuentre él á mi 
deudor (debtor). 

No te repruebo á ti, sino á tu 
primo que ha cometido (com- 
mitted) la boberia (stupi-^ 

¡ Cuidado I (Take care I) El perro 
es muy furioso (sava^ge). 

No he oído (heard) tronar. 

Me acuerdo muy bien de él; 
está ahora en casa del ge- 
neral Nufiez. 

Ordinariamente me acuesto á 
las once y media. 

Nada. Jamás me cuenta cosa 

Me cuestan dos pesetas y al- 
gunos céntimos. 

Han dado las cinco. 

Yo almuerzo á las once, y mi 
padre almuerza á las once 
y media. 

Reading Exercise. 

M caer de la tarde. 

Cuan plácido el río brilla! 
En ondas de azul y plata 
Luengamente se dilata 
Con murmurante rumor: 

Y los sauces de la orilla 
Se miran en la corriente 
Y mezclan confusamente 
Su -verde y albo color. 

* Who has made a fool of himself. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 159 

El caminante cansado 
Reposa al dulce sombrío, 

Y el bochorno del estío 
Templa en el fresco raudal: 

Por el herboso collado 
Pastando van las ovejas, 

Y tafie cantigas viejas 
El descuidado zagal. 

Ni en los nidos cantan aves, 
Ni en las granjas las palomas; 
El valle destila aromas. 
Bulle céfiro sutil; 

Voces lánguidas, suaves 
En redor vuelan perdidas 
Como tiernas despedidas 
De las flores del pensil. 

El sol, hiriendo á soslayo 
Por la frondosa enramada, 
La selva deja bañada 
De rojo y áureo esplendor: 

Y amortecido su rayo 
Desciende tranquilo y puro, 

Y en el cielo azul, oscuro 
Perdido vaga un fulgor. 

[José Ma de Arteaga, "Rimas Libres."] 

Thirty-seventh Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y siete. 

Tbe Irregular Yerbs continued. 

The Third Class is composed of verbs ending in 
acevy ecevy ocer^ and acir. With this class* c is 
changed into zcy whenever a or o follows. 


I. II. III. IV. 

WaceVf Crecer, Conocer, Lucir, 

to be born. to grow. to know. to shine. 

* Exceptions are hacer ^ to make, to do (see page 177), and 
cocer, to cook (see page 156). Again mecer, to rock, and empecer, 
to damage, to hurt, which form mezo and empezó. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Lesson 37. 






















































Crece (tú) 








crezca F. 

conozca Y. 

luzca V. 

NB, — A further peculiar anomaly is presented by the 
definite, and its derived forms, of verbs in ducir, which 
change the c of their stem into j. Here e is added for the 
first pers. sing, instead of i, o instead of id for the third pars, 
sing., and eron in lieu of ieron for the third pers. plur. of 
the definite, w^hilst the i of the forms in iese, iere, iera is 

Conducir, to lead. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Conduzco, I lead Conduzca, I lead. 

conduces conduzcas 

conduce conduzca 







Conduce (tú), lead (thou). conducid, lead (you). 

Conduzca Y., do lead. 


Conduje (and not i) I led. condujimos 

condujiste condujisteis 

condujo (and not i6) condujeron (and not ieron). 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

The Irregular Verbs con tinned. 


condujese, that 

condtijeses, etc. 

condujere, that 

shall lead 
condujeres, etc. 

condujeray that I 

should lead 
condujeras, etc. 

Terbs conjugated like those in cicer, ecevy ocer, ucir*: 

Abastecer, to supply with pro- 
visions, to victual (a ship). 
*aborrecer, to abhor. 

acaecer, to happen. 

acontecer, to happen. 

acrecer, to increase. 

adolecer, to fall ill. 

adormecer, to lull to sleep; 

'Se, to fall asleep. [ful. 

* agradecer, to owe, to be grate- 

alhorecer, to dawn. 

amanecer, to dawn, to be or 
to arrive somewhere in the 

amarillecer, to get yellow. 

amortecer, to benumb. 

anochecer, to grow dark. 
^aparecer, to appear. 
*apetecer, to wish, to desire. 

aterecerse, to grow stiff with 

Blanquecer, to blanch coin. 

Canecer, to grow grey. 
*carecer de, to want, to be in 

want of. 
^compadecer, to pity. 
*comparecer, to appear. 
^complaxier, to please. 

conocer, to know. 

convalecer, tobe convalescent. 

I>ecrecer, to diminish. 

denegrecer, to blacken. 

desadormecer, to wake. 

desaperecer, to disappear. 

desbastecer, to plane. 

desbravecer, to tame. 

desconocer, not to know, to 

know badly, 
ciesemftrarecer, to tame. 
dc5Ctn5ru<ecer, to lose one*s 


* desencarecer, to get cheaper. 

* desenfurecer, to soften anger. 
desenmohecer, to free from 

desenmudecer, tohresksiience. 
desentorpecer, to recover from 

desentumecer, to recover from 

desentristecer, to free from 

desfallecer, to faint. 
deshumedecer, to desiccate. 
*desobedecer, to disobey. 
desplacer, to displease. 
éZe^vaweccr, to vanish. 
displacer, to displease. 
Embebecer, to astonish. 
embellecer, to embellish. 
ew6rat?6ccr, to become furious, 
emftrw^ccer, to become brutal, 
eiwpe^'ttcííecer, to lessen. 
empobrecer, to become poor. 
empoltronecerse, to grow lazy. 
enaltecer, to elevate, to praise. 
enardecer, to inflame, 
encalvecer, to grow bald. 
encallecer, to grow corns (on 

the hands, feet). 
encandecer, to heat to a white 


* Of pacer, to pasture, and repacer, to pasture again, the 
^8t pare. sing. Ind. Present is not in use. 

Spanish Conv. -Grammar. 11 


by Google 


Lesson 37. 

encanecer, to become grey. 
encarecer, to render dear ; to 

rise in price. 
encorecer, to heal the skin. 
encrudecer, to make raw. 
encruelecer, to make cruel. 
endentecer, to cut the teeth. 
endurecer, to harden. 
enflaquecer, to get thin. 

* enfurecerse, to get enraged. 
engrandecer, to enlarge. 
enmudecer, to become dumb. 
ennegrecer, to blacken. 
ennoblecer, to make noble. 

* enorgullecerse, to be proud. 
enrarecer, to rarify. 
enriquecer, to enrich. 
enrojecer, to redden. 
enronquecer, to become hoarse. 
ensoberbecer, to make proud. 
ensordecer, to deafen, to be- 
come deaf. 

enternecer, to soften. 
entorpecer, to benumb, to 

entristecer, to sadden. 
envanecer, to make vain, 
envejecer, to get old. 
envilecer, to degrade. 
escarnecer, to scoff. 
*establecer, to establish. 

Fallecer, to die. 

* favorecer, to favour. 
florecer, to blossom, bloom. 
fortalecer, to fortify. 
Guarecerse, to take shelter. 
guarnecer, to adorn. 
Humedecer, to moisten. 
Languidecer, to languish. 

*Jlferecer, to merit. 
Nacer, to be born. 

* Obedecer, to obey. 
^ofrecer, to offer. 

oscurecer, to become dark. 

JPacer, to graze. 
*padecer, to suffer. 

palidecer, to become pale. 

parecer, to seem. 

i)erecer, to perish. 
*i?erwanecer, to remain. 
*i>er<e«ecer, to belong. 

Reblandecer, to soften. 
'''reconocer, to recognize. 

recrwiiecer, to increase. 

re^Mvewecer, to grow young 

renacer, to be born, to re- 

resplandecer, to shine. 

restablecer, to re-establish. 

reyereiecer, to grow green 

*extremecer, to tremble. 

Like conííwcir are conjugated : aducir, to adduce ; ¿radtt- 
cir, to translate; producir, to produce; dedu^r, to deduct; 
eíí«*cir, to elicit; inducir, to induce; introducir, to introduce; 
reducir, to reduce ; reprodÍMCJr, to reproduce ; sedu^cir, to seduce. 

Formerly the /Jres. Jwd. and )Sm6;. of the verbs 
in ucir terminated in uzgo and uzga (traduzgo^ traduzga) 
instead of uzeo and uzea. 

The Fourth Class of irregular verbs consists en- 
tirely of verbs belonging to the third conjugation. They 
change the e of the stem into i, as will be seen by the 
following Model. All the forms not mentioned below, 
or not marked by bolder type are regular. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Irregular V^erbs continued. 


Pedir, to ask. 
Gerund. Pidiendo, asking. 




Pido, I ask 

Pedí, I asked Pide 

(tú), ask fthou). 




ask (you). 




v., do ask. 












Pida, I ask 

Pidiese, that 

Pidiere, that Pidiera, that I 

I asked 

I shall ask 

should ask 





















The following verbs are C4)iijiigated like pedir: 

-^T.^.— Verbs in -gir change g into j before a and o, as 
from colegir, to gather, colijo, colija, etc. 
* Ceñir, to gird. 
colegir, to gather. 



comedirse, to moderate one 

^competir, to emulate, 

*concebir, to conceive. 
conseguir, to succeed. 
constreñir, to constrain, 

^corregir, to correct. 
Derretir, to melt. 
desceñir, to ungird. 
* descomedirse, to act or speak 

deservir, to be disobliging. 
desleír, to dissolve. 
desmedirse, to act or speak 

*despedir, to discharge (a ser- 
■ vant, etc.). 

* despedirse, to bid farewell. 
desteñir, to lose colour, to 

*Elegir, to select. 
*ernbestir, to attack. 
engreír, to make proud; -se, 

to bloat, to swell. 
envestir, to invest (obsolete). 
estreñir, to obstruct, to con- 
'''expedir, to despatch. 
Freir, to fry. 

* Gemir, to lament, to groan. 
Henchir, to fill. 

heñir, to knead, to mould. 
Impedir, to prevent. 
inseguir, to follow. 



by Google 


Lesson 37. 

investir, to invest. 
*Medir, to measure. 
* Pedir, to ask for (things), to 

require, to order. 
^perseguir, to persecute. 

proseguir, to continue. 

receñir, to gird tight. 

recolegir, to gather (deduct). 

reelegir, so re-elect. 

refreir, to fry well. 
^*Begir, to govern (Pr. rijo). 

rehenchir, to fill up again. 
"^reir, to laugh*. [der. 

*reñir, to fight (cocks, etc.), to 

^repetir, to repeat. 
reteñir, to dye again, to sound, 

to tinkle ♦♦. 
^revestir, to clothe anew. 

* Seguir, to follow. 
*servir, to serve. 
*sonreir, to smile. 

subseguir, to immediately 

* Teñir, to dye. 

* Vestir, to clothe. 

* rendir, to render, to surren- 

^o^e.— For the sake of euphony, all the verbs in which 
the termination of the infinitive -ir is preceded by iT, Uj or 
chj drop the i, whenever one of the aforesaid consonants would 
otherwise be followed by ie or <o. Thus: 

Infinitive. Gerund. 

Beñir riñendo (and not riñiendo). 

Henchir hinchendo ( » » hinchiendo). 

riñó (and not riñió). 
hinchó ( » » hinchió). 

Future Subj. 


la caza. 

The chase, \ 

hunting, / 

the way, el camino, 

the opportunity, la ocasión. 

the position, la posición. 

the expense, el gasto, él des- 

the neighbourhood, las cer- 
canías, la vecindad. 

the payment, el pago, salario. 

the sword, la espada. 
the workman, el obrero. 
the power, el poder. 
the cloak, la capa, el abrigo. 
the glass, el vaso. 
the lie, la mentira. 
southern, meridional. 
noxious, dañoso, nocivo. 
it is cold, hace frió. 

* V'erbs in eir drop one t whenever two f s should meet, 
thus: riendo, laughing (instead of riiendo)\ riese, that he laughed 
(instead of riiese). 

** Beteñir, in the signif. "to sound, to tinkle," is also written 
retiñir (fr. tañer). The conjugation is the same. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 165 

Tradncción. 60. 

Where are you taking (use the Pres. of to lead) that 
dog? I am taking (lead) it hunting. Where do you think 
(that) this way leads (subj.), if it does not lead to Barce- 
lona? Where do you think (that) this plant grows (subj,)^ 
I do not believe it (n, creo que) grows but (más que) in South 
America. I obey my parents: obey yours! Do obey me! 
I offer you the best opportunity to remain in your situation. 
Where did you lead (I)ef.) me yesterday? The master did not 
wish (no quiso) me to translate {tr, that I translated) the 
story. I limit (tr, reduce) all my expenses. My brothers 
also limited (Bef,) theirs. I recognize the country where I 
was born (Bef.), What do you want of me? We often want 
things which would be very dangerous to us. I asked (Bef.) 
(for) my payment, and the other workmen asked (for) theirs 
likewise. Ask what (lo que) you please {tr. wish), I shall 
give it you. I bade farewell (Bef.) to (de) my friends, who 
followed (Bef.) me sighing to the (street-door) door of the 
house. (It is God's will) God wishes that we serve all men 
as much as [it] is in our power. Take {tr. clothe yourself 
with) your cloak, it is cold. The foreigner filled (Bef) his 
glass and promised (prometió)j laughing, that he would correct 
himself. I detest (the) lies! Do not laugh! Why do you 
not wish me to laugh {tr. that I laugh) if all the others 
laugh ? I serve my king ; serve (2nd pi.) yours also ! If I did 
not fear that you would laugh (fr. reirse), I should beg you 
to tell me this story once more. I wish (deseo) you to (that 
you) (tú) repeat (subj.) your lesson. The general girt on (Bef.) 
his sword. Obliging his friends to remain (quedarse) in the 
room, he found the opportunity to say a few words to me. 


¿Quo me pidió V.? Le pedí á V. un favor que 

puede muy fácilmente ha- 

¿(}uién (hinchó) llenó mi vaso? No sé, pero me parece que el 

criado lo ha llenado. 

¿Por qué se rie V.? Me rio, porque V. no entiende 

lo que digo. 

¿Á quién sigue este perro? Sigue al cazador. 

¿Es preciso {is it necessary , Hará V. bien en seguirlo. 
must I) que yo siga lo que 
su hermano de V. me ha 
aconsejado (advised)? 

¿Qué corrigió el maestro? Corrigió las faltas que sus dis- 

cípulos habían hecho (made) 
en la traducción. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

166 Lesson 38. 

¡Repita V. la lección que dio Ya la he repetido. 

V. esta mañana! 

¿Á quién expide V. estos gó- Los expido al comerciante 

ñeros (goods)? francés. 

¿Se vistieron las señoras (la- No, Señora, aun no se han 

dies) ? vestido. 

¿De qué se rió el oficial Serió áe]2imeptitxiá(awkward' 

(officer)? ness) del recluta (recruit). 

¿Quién tiñó este paño? El tintorero (dyer) es quien 

lo ha teñido. 

¿Ya (already) es tiempo de Si, es preciso que se vista V. 

irse (to go)? al instante (directly). 

Beading Exercise. 

Diversidad de las Provincias de España. 

Los Cántabros, entendiendo por este nombre todos los que 
hablan el idioma vizcaíno, son unos pueblos sencillos y de no- 
toria probidad. Fueron los primeros marineros de Europa, y 
han mantenido siempre la fama de excelentes hombres de mar. 
Su pais, aunque sumamente áspero, tiene una población nu- 
merosísima, que no parece disminuirse con las continuas Co- 
lonias que envía á la América. Aunque un vizcaíno se ausente 
de su patria, siempre se halla en ella como se encuentre un 
paisano suyo. Tienen entre sí tal unión, que la mayor re- 
comendación que puede uno tener para con otro, es el mero 
hecho de ser vizcaíno; sin más diferencia entre varios de 
ellos para alcanzar el favor del poderoso, que la mayor ó menor 
inmediación de los lugares respectivos. Ei Señorío de Vizcaya, 
Guipúzcoa, Álava y el Reino de Navarra tienen tal pacto en- 
tre sí que algunos llaman á estos países las Provincias unidas 
de España. 

Thirty-eighth Lesson. ~ Lección treinta 
y ocho. 

The Irregular Yerbs continued. 

The Fifth Class of the partly irregular verbs con- 
sists entirely of verbs belonging to the tlnrd conjugation, 
iiike those of the fourth class, they have e before the 
final consonant of the root, and change this e in some 
tenses into ie, in other tenses into i, as will be seen 
by the following example: 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 


Sentir J to feel, to hear, etc. 
Gerund. Sintiendo, feeling. 






Siento, I feel 

Sienta, I feel 

Sintiese, (thAt)líelt 



















Sentí, I felt 

Sintiere, (that) I 

Sintiera, that 1 

shall feel 

should feel 

















Siente (tú), feel (thou). Sentid, feel (you). 

Sienta Y., \ . . , 
Sientan VV., f ^^ ^^^^- 

The same is the ease with the following rerbs: 

Adherir, to adhere. 

* advertir, to inform, to advise. 

* arrepentirse, to repent. 
asentir, to consent. 
Concernir, to concern. 

*conferir, to confer. 

consentir, consent. 

controvertir, to controvert. 
*convertir, to convert, to turn 

*Deferir, to confer, to yield. 

* desmentir, to give the lie, 

to deny. 
*diferir, to diflFer, to postpone. 
*digerir, to digest. 
discernir, to distinguish. 

disentir, to be of another 

* divertir, to divert, to amuse. 
JBntregerir, to intermix. 
erguir, to raise up. 

*Herir, to wound. 

*hervir, to glow, to seethe*. 

* Inferir, .to follow, to infer. 
ingerir, to intrude, to inject. 
invertir, to turn round, to 

invert. [hood. 

* Mentir, to lie, to tell a false- 
Pervertir, to pervert. 

*preferir, to prefer. 
*presentir, to forebode. 
proferir, to proffer. 

* French: fervent, glowing. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Lesson 88. 

*Mefenr^ to refer. 
*requerir, to request. 

subvertir^ to subvert. 
sugerir, to suggest. 
resentirse, to resent, to be *Trasferir or transferir, to 
angry. [regret. transfer. 

* Sentir, to feel, to hear, to *Zaherir, to scold, to mortify. 

The Sixth and last Class of the partly irregular 
verbs comprises the verbs in uir and üiry in which 
u is not mute before i, as in the verb erguir, but where 
this vowel is pronounced. They add a y in the follow- 
ing cases: 


to flee*. 

Argüir, to argue. 

Gerund. Huyendo, fleeing. 

Ger. Arguyendo**, arguing, 





Indie. Subj. 

Huyo, I flee 

Huyüf I flee 

Arguyo, I ar- Arguya, I ar- 
gue gue 



arguyes arguyas 



arguye arguya 



argüimos arguyamos 



argüís arguyáis 



arguyen. arguyan. 



Huí, i fled 

Argüí, I argued 















Imperfect. Future. 

Huyese, (that) 

Huyere, (that) 

Arguyese, Argüyere, 

I fled 

I shall flee 

(that) I ar- (that) I shall 
gued argue 



arguyeses argüyeres 



arguyese argüyere 



arguyésemos arguyéremos 



arguyeseis argüyereis 



arguyesen. argüyeren. 

* French 


** In all the forms where ii is not followed by i, the diaeresis 

(crema), being 

superfluous, is dropped. 

Digitized by Google 

The Irregular Verbs continued. 


Huyera, (that) I should flee 





Huye (tú), flee (thou). 

Huid, flee (you). 
huya V,, do flee. 

N.B, — In comparing y 
must be born in mind that y shows simply 
change, whilst y implies irregularity. 

The same rules apply to: 

Arguyera, (that) I should argue 





Arguye (tú), argue (thou). 

Argüid, argue (you). 
arguya Y,, do argue, 
and y in the above table, it 
a euphonic 

* Atribuir, to attribute. 
Circuir, to surround. 

* concluir, to flnish, to conclude. 
confluir, to meet (of rivers). 
constituir, to constitute. 

* construir, to build. 
*contribu{r, to contribute. 

Derruir, to demolish. 

desobstruir, to clear away. 

destituir, to deprive, to dis- 

destruir, to destroy. 

diluir, to dissolve. 
*disminuir, to diminish. 
*distribuir, to distribute. 

Estatuir, to enact. 

excluir, to exclude. 

Fluir, to flow. 

Gruir, to crank. 

Imbuir, to imbue. 

imbuirse, to appropriate. 
Hncluir, to include. 
*influir, to influence. 

instituir, to institute. 
Hnstruir, to instruct. 

IJuir, to free from taxes. 

Obstruir, to obstruct. 

Prostituir, to prostitute. 

Mecluir, to seclude. 

reconstituir, to re-establish. 

reconstruir, to rebuild. 

redargüir, to retort. 

refluir, to flow back. 

rehuir, to withdraw (from 

doing a thing). 
*restituir, to restore. 
^retribuir, to reward, to pay 

* Sustituir or 5w6s¿i¿mr, to 


The picture, el cuadro. 

the engraving | la estampa, 

(copperplate), / la lámina. 
the superior, el jefe. 
the absence, la ausencia. 
the stomach, el estómago. 
the projectile, el proyectil. 

the vice, ei vicio. 
the punishment, e2 castigo. 
the knowledge, ei conoci- 
the diligence, ia diligencia. 
the condition, Za condición. 
the levity, frivolity, ?a ligereza. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

170 Lesson 38. 

the attention, la atención. contemptible, \ , . , , 

just, jtisto. despicable, / aespreciaoie. 

sage, wise, sabio. to accept, aceptar. 

lively, vivo. to escape, escapar. 

feeble, débil. 

Traducción. 61. 

I prefer these pictures to those engravings. We prefer 
(the) virtue to (the) beauty. Did (Def.) you prefer wine or 
beer? I should prefer beer if it were good. I inform my 
superior by letter that I cannot (podré) depart to-morrow. 
These gentlemen felt very well that they were wrong (to be 
wrong, no tener razón). I did not think that he would feel 
so much (from vivo, lively) the absence of his best friend. 
God distributes all his gifts justly and wisely. To whoni do 
you attribute your misfortune (desgracia), to yourself or to 
others? Many people never feel the rudeness ("/o iwcímvemewíe) 
of their behaviour. My stomach is very weak ; it digests (no — ) 
scarcely (casi) anything. A man who lies is always contemp- 
tible. We never lie; why will you not believe us? Good 
children always cling {tr. adhere) to their parents (padres). 
The new projectiles wounded (Def.) a great many soldiers. 
Restore me what yon have taken (me)l We (avoid) flee bad 
company (pi.). Flee (from, tr. the) vice, for it makes thee 
unhappy. I conclude from your letter that you will not ac- 
cept my conditions. I fled (Def.) when I saw the hostile 
(enemigo) rider come. The culprit (el reo) was well aware 
{tr. felt [Bef.l well) that, although he denied, he could (podia) 
not escape (the) punishment. We all feel that we want (haber 
menester) one another (pi.). I repent (of) my levity and 
I b^g yon to pardon me this time. Misfortune converts 
better than the best sermons {sermon, m.). We amused our- 
selves much to-day; do you also enjoy yourself? Thou liest, 
child! Do not lie, because (the) lies offend (ofender) God. We 
attain knowledge only by great diligence and great attention. 


¿Qué arguye V. de lo que he Arguyo de sus palabras deV. 

dicho? que no tiene razón. 

¿Qué hará V. con ese di- Lo distribuiré entre (among) 

ñero ? los pobres. 

¿ Por qué huye V. ? Huyo, porque tengo miedo de 

que el perro me muerda. 
¿En qué instruye V. á los En la historia y en la geo- 

nifios ? grafía. 

¿Ha restituido V. el dinero Se lo restituí ayer. 

que le ha prestado (lent) 

mi primo? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

V^erbs entirely irregular. 171 

¿Por qué destruye V. ese her- No lo destruyo; quiero sólo 

meso cuadro? limpiarlo (to clean). 

¿Se divierte V. en esta com- Me divierto mucho, pero el 

pañia? afio antes me divertí más. 

¿Siente V. mucho dolor? Ahora no siento nada. 

¿Se divirtió su hermana de Y. Se divirtió muchísimo. 

ayer en el concierto? 

¿Prefiere V. partir hoy ó ma- Prefiero partir mafiana, porque 

fiana? hoy no estoy bueno. 

¿Hierve el agua? Todavía no hierve, pero her- 
virá luego. 

¿Se quejó (complained) el mi- Sintiéndose herido, se quejó. 

litar (soldier )1 

Beading Exercise. 
Diversidad de las Provincias de España. (Continuación.) 

Los de Asturias y las Montañas hacen sumo aprecio de 
8u genealogía y de la memoria de haber sido aquel país el 
que produjo la reconquista de Espafia con la expulsión de 
nnestros abuelos. Su población demasiada para la miseria y 
estrechez de la tierra, hace que un número considerable de 
ellos se emplee continuamente en Madrid en la librea, que es 
la clase inferior de criados ; de modo que, si yo fuese natural 
de este país y me hallara con coche en la Corte, examinaría 
con mucha madurez los papeles de mis cocheros y lacayos, 
por no tener algún día la mortificación de ver á un primo 
mío echar cebada á mis muías, ó á uno de mis tíos limpiarme 
los zapatos. Sin embargo de todo esto varias familias respe- 
tables de esta Provincia se mantienen con el debido lustre, 
son acreedoras á la mayor consideración, y producen continua- 
mente Oficiales del más alto mérito en el Ejército y Marina. 

Los Gallegos en medio de la pobreza de su tierra son 
robustos ; se esparcen por toda Espafia á emprender los traba- 
jos más duros, para llevar á sus casas algún dinero á costa de 
tan penosa industria. Sus soldados, aunque carecen de aquel 
lucido exterior de otras naciones, son excelentes para la in- 
fantería por su subordinación, dureza de cuerpo y hábito de 
sufírir incomodidades de hambre, sed y cansancio. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

172 Lesson 39. 

Thirty-ninth Lesson. — Lección treinta 
y nueve. 

Verbs entirely irregular or with irregularities other- 
wise not classified. 

Besides the verbs hitherto enuraerated, there are 
others in Spanish, which must be considered alniost 
entirely irregular, as their deviations from the regular 
verbs are as a rule too manifold and too considerable 
to be comprised in classes. We therefore give them in 
their alphabetical order, as is usual in most Spanish 
grammars; still, some of these quite irregular verbs show 
a certain similarity in their conjugation, and it will be 
rather advantageous for the pupil to learn those together 
which are similarly conjugated. The order in which 
they ought to be learnt is indicated by the number in 
brackets after the English word. The forms not indi- 
cated or not distinguished by bolder type are regular. 

1. Andar^ to walk. (1.) 

Pres. Indie. Ando, etc. 

Imperf. » Andaba, etc. 

Defin. » Anduvey anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, an- 

duvisteis, anduvieron, 

Imperf. Subj. Anduviese, anduvieses, anduviese, andu- 
viésemos, etc. 

Future » Anduviere, anduvieres, etc. 

Condit. » Anduviera, anduvieras, etc. 

N,B.—lñ the same way is conjugated desandar, to go 

back the same road. 

2. Asir^ to seize. (20.) 

Pres. Indie. Asgo, ases, ase, asimos, asís, asen. 
Pres. Subj. Asga, asgas, asga, asgamos, asgáis, asgan. 
Imperative. i Ase (tú) I \asga V.I ¡asid! 
^.jB.— Like asir, desasir, to let go. 

3. Caber, to give way, to contain. (4.) 

Pres. Indie. Qaepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabéis, caben. 

Defin. » Cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cu- 


Future » Cabré, etc. 

Condit. » Cabria, etc. 

Pres. Subj. Quepa, quepas, quepa, quepamos, quepáis, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Verbs entirely irregular. 


Pres. Subj. 
Imperf. » 
Future » 
Condit. > 

Imperf. Suljj. Cupiese, cupieses, cupiese, cupiésemos, etc. 

Future » Cupiere, cupieres, etc. 

Condit. » Cupiera, cupieras, etc. 

Imperative. iCabe (tú)! \ quepa V.! i cabed! 

4. Caer, to fall. (6,) 

Pres. In die. Caigo, caes, cae, caemos, caéis, caen. 
Pres. Subj. Caiga, caigas, caiga, caigamos, caigáis, caigan. 
Gerund. Cayendo, Past part. Caído. 

jY'.JB.— Like caer y 

decaer, to decay, 

recaer, to have a relapse, fall upon. 

5. Oir, to hear. (8.) 
Pres. Indie. Oigo, oyes, oye, oímos, oís, oyen, 

Oi, oiste, oyó, oímos, oísteis, oyeron. 

Oiga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, oigáis, oigan. 

Oyese, oyeses, etc. 

Oyere, oyeres, etc. 

Oyera, oyeras, etc. 

\Oye (tú)! [Oiga V.! ¡oíd!* 

Oyendo, Past part. Oído. 
^.^.—Like oir, 
desoir, not to listen to (disobey), 
entreoír, to bear indistinctly, 
trasoír, to misunderstand. 
N,B,—y shows a euphonic change: y an irregularity. 

6. Dar, to give. (2.) 

Pres. Indie. Doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan. 

Daba, dabas, daba, dábamos, dabais, daban. 
Di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron. 
Dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den. 
Diese, dieses, diese, diésemos, dieseis, diesen. 
Diere, dieres, etc. 
Diera, dieras, etc. 
iDá (tú)! idé V.! ¡dad! 
The same desdar, to untwist a rope. 

7. Decir, to say, to tell. (9.) 

Pres. Indie. Digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen. 

Decía, decías, decía, decíamos, decíais, decían. 
Dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron. 
Diré, dirás, dirá, diremos, diréis, dirán. 
Diría, dirías, diría, diriamos, diríais, dirían. 

Defin. » 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperf. » 
Future » 
Condit. » 


í)efin. » 

Future » 

Condit. » 

* Compare the old French word Oyez, hear you, from the 
verb Ouir, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

174 Lesson 39. 

Pres. Subj. Diga, digas, diga, digamos, digáis, digan. 

Imperf. » Dijese, dijeses, dijese, etc. 

Future » Dijere, dijeres, etc. 

Condit. » Dijera, dijeras, etc. 

Imperative. [Di (tú)! \diga V.I ¡decidí 

Gerund. I>iciendo. Past part. Dicho. 

Like ííccir are conjugated its compounds as contradecir, 
to contradict; desdecir, to countermand; predecir, to predict; 
only in the 2nd Sing. Imperat. they do not form ~di but 
-dice, thus: desdice (tú). The two verbs bendecir, to bless, 
and maldecir, to curse, form the Future, Conditional, and 
Imperative regularly, as: Put. bendeciré and maldeciré ; Cond. 
bendeciría and maldecirla; Imperat. bendice (tú) and maZ- 
c?¿ce ("¿ty. They have a double form for the past parti- 
ciple—viz,, bendecido and maldecido, which, being a real par- 
ticiple, is used in the compound tenses of the verb (with 
haber); whereas the second past ]^b,yííc\^Ig maldito B,ná bendito 
is a verbal adjective, and therefore used with ser and estar. 
(See Less. 41.) 

The youth (young man), el 

the arrival I ^^ ^^^^^^ 
tne arrival, ^ ^^ ¿¿e^a^^. 

the army, el ejército. the mutton, el carnero. 

the purse, el bolsillo. the beef, Za vaca. 

the policeman, cZ municipal. the beggar, eZ mendigo. 

the word, Zo palabra. the pains, cZ trabajo. 

the thunderbolt, eZ Zri^eno. pitiful, charitable, piadoso, -a. 

the weddinff I ^^ ^^^^' respectable, honest, honrado. 

^' \ las nupcias. to keep, to fulfil, cumplir con. 

the cask, la bota. to take care, \ andar con 

the ewer, gallon, eZ cubo. to march carefully, / cuidado. 

the ear, Za oreja. to descend, bajar. 

the cook (f.), la cociHera. to order, command, mandar. 

Tradacción. 62. 

Napoleon passed (tr. went) (over) the Alps (los Alpes) 
with his army. Where did (Imperf.) you go last night ? My 
friend told me that he was going (Imperf.) to Paris. It is 
not yet (aun no . ..) sure (seguro) whether I shall go (Fut.) 
to my cousin's (f) wedding. How much did this cask hold? 
It held (Def.) six gallons of wine. I do not think (that) 
this theatre will hold 3,000 persons. How much do you think 
(that) this purse vrill hold? I fall from the tree. Do not 
fall ; there lies (hay) a stone I The child will fall, if you do 
not (take) care. Do you hear the noise? I do not hear any- 
thing {tr. I hear nothing); we also hear nothing. Do you 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Verbs entirely irregular. 


hear (Def.) what this man says? Many people have ears, 
yet they do not hear. Yesterday I heard (Def,) the news of 
the queen's arrival. Listen, my friend! Was not this (a) 
thnnder? I heard nothing. The policeman seizes the thief 
(al ladrón) in (en) the street. If I heard that you did not 
keep your word, I should be very sorry. When I heard 
(Gerund,) the thunder, I went down the mountain. What 
does the cook (f.) boil? I boil beef and mutton. What do 
you give me to (para) eat? I give you ham (jamón), bread, 
and wine. He gave (Imperf,) me thirty dollars. Last week 
I gave (Def.) you a hundred dollars. The charitable girl 
gave (Def.) the beggar some money. Do give me a cigar 
and some matches! I have given you nothing. What dost 
thou say, child? I say that my father sent (Def.) you the 
money yesterday. Tell me, sir, will you give me my salary, 
or not? We always speak (the) truth, but you have not 
spoken it. Tell me, shall you obey your master if he orders 
you [to do] something? Do not say that you are right, for 
the whole world knows (sahe) that you are wrong {tr. that 
you are [have] not right). 


¿Por dónde anduvo ayer su 
amigo de V.? 

¿Ha andado V. mucho hoy? 
¿Quo me da V.? 

¡Dé y. algo á la desdichada 
madre ! 

¿Qué le dieron á V. mis her- 

¿Qué quiere V.? 

¿Qué dice V.? 

V. dijo que yo no había 
cumplido mi deber ; ¿ es ver- 
dad ? 

¿ Qué dice V. de este tiempo ? 

¿Qué hace V. en la cocina 
(kitchen) ? 

Fué á ver (to see, to pay a 
visit) Á la marquesa de M., 
qpe llegó ayer, y nosotros 
fuimos también. 

Hoy no; pero ayer anduve 

Le doy á V. lo que V. me 
dio ayer. 

Ya le di ayer algún dinero. 

Me dieron algunos libros que 

mi hermano les dio el otro 

Le ruego á V. que me dé lo 

que me ha prometido. 
No digo nada. 
¡No es verdad! ¡No he dicho 

tal cosa! 

¿ Qué quiere V. que diga, sino 

que hace mal tiempo (it is 

bad weather) ? 
Cuezo la carne (meat) para 

la comida de mediodía 


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176 Lesson 40. 

i Oiga V.I ¿No ha oído V. el No, sefior, no oigo nada. 

trueno ? 
¿ Á quién ha bendecido Jesu- Á todos los pueblos del mundo. 


Beading Exercise. 
Diversidad de las Provincias de España. (Continuación.) 

Los Castellanos son de todos los pueblos del mundo los 
que merecen la primacía en linea de lealtad. Cuando el 
ejército del primer Rey de España de la casa de Francia 
quedó arruinado en la batalla de Zaragoza, la sola provincia 
de Soria dio á su Soberano un ejército nuevo y numeroso con 
que salir á campaña, y fué el que ganó las victorias, de que 
resultó la destrucción del ejército y bando austríaco. El ilustre 
historiador que refiere las revoluciones del principio de este siglo 
con todo el rigor y verdad que pide la historia para distinguirse 
de la fábula, pondera tanto la fidelidad de estos pueblos que 
dice será eterna en la memoria de los Beyes. Esta provincia 
aún conserva cierto orgullo nacido de su antigua grandeza, 
que hoy no se conserva sino en las ruinas de las ciudades y 
en la honradez de sus habitantes. 

Extremadura produjo los conquistadores del nuevo mundo, 
y ha continuado siendo madre de insignes guerreros. Sus pue- 
blos son poco afectos á las letras; pero los que entre ellos 
las han cultivado no han tenido menos éxito que sus com- 
patriotas en las armas. 

Fortieth Lesson. — Lección cuarenta. 

The Entirely Irregular Verbs continued. 
8. Dormir, to sleep. (11.) 

Pres. Indie. Duermo, duermeSy duerme, dormimos, dormis, 

DefiUi » Dormi, dormiste, durmió, dormimos, dormisteis, 


Pres. Subj. Duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, dur- 
máis, duerman. 

Imperf. » Durmiese, durmieses, durmiese, etc. 

Future » Durmiere, durmieres, etc. 

Condit. » Durmiera, durmieras, etc. 

Imperative, \ Duerme (tú)! ¡duerma V.I ¡dormid! 

Gerund. Durmiendo. Past part. Dormido. 

N.B,— The same, adormir, to lull. 

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The Entirely Irregular Verbs continued. 177 

9. Hacer, to do, to make, to let. (10.) 

Pres. Indie. HagOy haces, hace, hacemos, hacéis, hacen. 
Defín. » Hicej hiciste, hizo, hicimos , hicisteis, hicieron. 

Future » Haréj harás, hará, haremos, haréis, harán, 

Oondit. » Haría, harías, haría, haríamos, haríais, 

Pres. Subj. Haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hagáis, hagan. 
Imperf. » Hiciese, hicieses, hiciese, etc. 
Future » Hiciere, hicieres, hiciere, etc. 
Condit. » Hiciera, hicieras, hiciera, etc. 
Imperative. \Haz (tú) I ¡haga V.! ¡haced! 
Gerund. Haciendo. Past part. Hecho, 

All the compoands follow hacer, such as: 

contrahacer, to counterfeit, 

deshacer, to undo, 

rehacer, to do anew. 

Satisfacer (to satisfy) is also conjugated like hacer, ex- 
cept in the Imperat., which forms satisface. The Condit. Subj. 
is satisfaciera rather than satisficiera, and the Imperf. Subj. 
satisfaciese rather than satisficiese, — Liquefacer, to liquefy, 
and rarefacer, to rarify, form liquefaré, rarefaré, etc. 

10. Ir, to go; irse, to go away. (S.) 
Pres. Indie. V€yy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van, 
Imperf. » Iba, ibas, iba, Íbamos, ibais, iban. 

Defin. » Fui, fuiste, fué, fuÁnmos, ¡fuisteis, fueron. 

Future » Iré, irás, irá, iremos, iréis, irán. 

Condit. » Iría, irías, iría, iríamos, iríais, irían. 

Pres. Subj. Vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, 


Imperf. » Fuese, fueses, fúmese, etc. 

Future » Fuere, fueres, fuere, etc. 

Condit. » Fuera, fueras, fulera, etc. 

Imperative. \Vé (tú)! \vaya V.! |id! 

Gerund, Yendo. Past part. Ido. 

11. Morir, to die, like Dormir, (12,) 

Pres. Indic. muero; Pres. Subj. muera; Defin. mori, etc.; él 
murió; Futur. Subj. muriere; Condit. Subj. muriera; 
Imperf. Subj. muriese, etc. ; except the Past part., which 
is muerto. 
The same premorir, to die before another. 

12. Poder, to be able. (13.) 

Pres. Indic. Fuedo, puedes, puede, podemos, ^podéis, pueden. 
l^efin. » Pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, 


Spanish Cony.-Grammar. 12 

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Lesson 40. 

Future Indie. Podré, etc. 
Condit. » Podría, etc. 
Pres. Subj. 

Pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, podáis, 

Pudiese, etc. 
Pudiere, etc. 
Pudiera, etc. 
Pudiendo, Past part. Podido. 

13. Poner, to put, to place. (16,) 

Pres. Indic. Pongo, pones, pone, ponemos, ponéis, ponen. 

Puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pus- 

Pondré, pondrás, pondrá, etc. 

Pondría, pondrías, etc. 

Ponga, pongas, ponga, etc. 

Pusiese, pusieses, pusiese, etc. 

Pusiere, pusieres, etc. 

Pusiera, pusieras, etc. 

\Pon (tú)! ¡ponga V.! ¡poned! 


Likewise the compounds, as: componer, to compose; de- 
poner, to depose, etc. 

14. Podrir, to rot (obsolete). (14.) 

Pres. Indic. Pudro, ptidres, pudre, jyodnmos, ]poáris, pudren. 

Podrí, podriste, pudrió, podrimos, podristeis, 

Pudra, pudras, etc. 

Pudriese, etc. 

Pudriere, etc. 

Pudriera, etc. 

Pudriendo. Past part. Podrido. 
^.jB.— Some grammarians prefer the Condicional Indic. 
pudría (inst. of podría), to distinguish it from the correspond- 
ing form of pod^r. In fact, podrir is only used with the 
stem in o in the Inñnitive, and in the Past Part., podrido, 
otherwise being replaced by pudrir, which in its turn adopts 
the for its Past Participle. The derivative repudrirse, to long, 
to wish ardently, is regular. 

15. Querer, to be willing, to wish, to love. (15.) 
Pres. Indic. Quiero, quieres, quiere, queremos, queréis, 

Defin. » Quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, 

Future » Querré, querrás, querrá, etc. 



Future -» 
Condit. » 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperf. » 
Future » 
Condit. » 
Past part. 


Pres. Subj. 
Imperf. » 
Future » 
Condit. » 

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The Entirely Irregular Verbs continued. 


Condit. Indie. Querriuy querrías, etc. 
Pres. Snbj. Quiera, quieras, quiera, etc. 

Quisiese, etc. 

Quisiere, etc. 

Quisiera, etc. 

\ Quiere (tú)! ¡quiera V.! ¡quered! 

Queriendo. Past part. Querido. 

16. Saber^ to know, to be able. (5.) 
Pres. Indie. Sé, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabéis, saben. 

Supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, su- 

Sabré, sabrás, sabrá, sabremos, sabréis, sabrán. 
Sobria, sabrías, etc. 
Sepa, sepas, etc. 
Supiese, etc. 
Supiere, etc. 
Supiera, etc. 

¡Sabe (tú)! \sepa V.! ¡sabed! 
Sabiendo. Past part. Sabido. 

17. Salir, to go out; to arise. (18.) 
Pres. Indie. Salgo, sales, sale, salimos, salis, salen. 

Salí, saliste, salió, salimos, salisteis, salieron. 

Saldré, saldrás, etc. 

Saldría, saldrías, etc. 

Salga, salgas, etc. 

Saliese, etc. 

Saliere, etc. 

Saliera, etc. 

i Sal (tú)! i salga V.! ¡salid! 

18. Valer, to be worth (17), is conjugated like 
salir, as are also all the eompounds of salir and valer, as: 
sobresalir, to surpass, to be prominent; equivaler, to be 

The Imperative of valer, however, is more rarely val 
than, vale. The compounds of salir and valer form a regular 
Imperative mood. Thus: Sobresale tú ; preválete ! (avail thyself!) 

19. Traer, to bring, to feteh. (7.) 
Pres. Indie. Traigo, traes, trae, traemos, traéis, traen. 

Traia, traias, traía, traíamos, traíais, traían. 
Traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, 

Traeré, etc. 
Traería, etc. 
Traiga, traigas, etc. 


Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Futura > 
Condit. » 


Future » 
Condit. » 
Pres. Snbj. 
Imperf. » 
Future » 
Condit. » 

Future » 
Condit. f> 
Pres. Subj. 
Imperf. » 
Future » 
Condit. » 

Defin. » 

Puture » 
Condit. » 
ires. Subj. 


Lesson 40. 

Imperf. Subj. Trajese, etc. 
Future > Trajere, etc. 

Condit. » Trajera, etc. 

Imperative. I Trae (tú)! \traiga V.! ¡traed! 
Gerund. Trayendo. Past part. Traído. 

N.B.—The same retraer, to retract. 

20. Venir, to come. (18.) 

Pres. Indie. Vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen. 

Defin. » Vine, viniste, vino, vinimos*, vinisteis, vinieron. 

Future » Vendré, vendrás, vendrá, etc. 

Condit. » Vendría, etc. 

Pres. Subj. Venga, vengas, etc. 

Imperf. » Finiese, vinieses, etc. 

Future » Finiere, etc. 

Condit. » Viniera, etc. 

Imperative. \Ven (tú)! ¡vengra V.! ¡venid! 

Gerund. Viniendo. Past part. Venido. 

Likewise all the compounds of venir, os: ' convenir, to 
agree, to be convenient; revenir, to come back, etc. The Im- 
perative mood of these verbs occurs but seldom. 

21. Ver, to see. (J21.) 

Pres. Indie. Veo, ves, ve, vemos, vóis, ven. 

Imperf. » Veía**, veías, veía, veíamos, veíais, veian. 

Detín. » Vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron. 

Future » Veré, verás, etc. 

Condit. » Vería, verías, etc. 

Pres. Subj. Vea, veas, etc. 

Imperf. » Viese, vieses, etc. 

Future » Viere, etc. 

Condit. » Viera, etc. 

Imperative. ¡Ve (tú)! ¡vea V.! ¡ved! 

Gerund. Viendo. Past part. Visto. 

Likewise the compounds, as prever, to foresee; rever, to 
see again, etc.; whereas proveer, to provide, is regular. 


The straw, la paja. 

the camp, el campo. 

., r J. Í la hacienda, 

the fortune, ( ^^ ^¿^^^ 

the cage, la jaula. 
the favour, el favor. 

the asS; 

I, donkey, < 

el asno, 
el hurro. 

the flower-pot, el florero. 

the window, la ventana, 

the chair, la silla. 

the coat, el abrigo. 

f Old and rare forme: veniste, venimos, venisteis. 
** Old form: via, etc. 

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The Entirely Irregular Verbs continued. 181 

infamous, infame, to distribute, distribuir, 

sick, ill, enfermo. to order, to command, manejar. 

slowly, lentamente, despacio, to afflict, afligir, 

quickly, ligero, de prisa, to quarrel, to scold, reñir, 

willingly, with pleasure, con regañar, 

muclio gusto, to comply with (a wish), Wenar. 

too, too much, demasiado, to accept, aceptar. 

Tradnccióu. 68. 

1. Do the children sleep? They do not yet sleep, but 
I thought (that) they slept. Do you think that I sleep? Do 
not sleep the whole day ! The dog slept on the straw before 
the house. How am I to (quiere V. que) sleep if you make 
(fr. hacer) so much noise ? The soldiers slept (Imperf.), when 
the general came into the camp. I die of hunger if you do 
not give me something to eat. Napoleon died (Def.) on (en) 
the island of St. Helena the 5th of May, 1821. Leónidas and 
his gallant companions died (Def,) at Thermopylae. Die, 
infamous (man)! — He is dying. — He is dead. At his 
^eath the father distributed his fortune among (entre) his 
sons. What are you doing (Pres. Ind,) here? I am making 
a cage for the bird of my little sister. I did (Def,) all (that) 
I could (Imperf,) do for a friend. Wilt thou do what I have 
ordered thee? No, I will not do it, because I cannot do it. 
I should [like to] do it, if you would also do me a favour. 
Always do (thou) thy duty, and thou wilt be contented and 

2. My friend did (Def.) what his father wished. Where are 
you going, my friend ? — I am going, to see my brother, who 
is ill. It is (already) time ; let us go away (1st pers. plur. Im- 
perative from irse)\ You go too slowly; go more quickly. 
Sancho Panza rode (Imperf, of ir) on his donkey like a Pa- 
triarch. I went (Def) to tell him that I could not come. 
Do go home! There is nothing more to (que) (be done) do! 
I cannot tell you how much (cuanto) the behaviour of this 
Bttan afflicted me. We cannot do all (that) we like. I could 
(Def.) not come. Could not the merchant give you back the 
money which you had lent him? I put (Pres.) these books 
on the table; put yours on it, too! I put (Def) the flower- 
pots in {tr. en) the window. Where do you want me to put 
(say mil you that I put) my hat? Put it on the chair! If 
you put (Imperf.) it on the table, (papa) father would scold 
(you). Gk>d did not wish (Def.) that the desire of the poor 
man should be accomplished (reflective: that the d. etc. accom- 
plished itself, tr. cumplirse). I wish you not to go out to-day. 
if he wished us to go out, he would tell (us so) it us. 

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182 Lesson 40. 

3. The enemy will not accept our conditions. I know 
that yon have done what you could (do). Do yon know that 
the countess arrived yesterday? I did not know it, but 
the footman told me so (me lo). If I knew that you would 
go out to-night, I should not come. How much is this coat 
worth ? It may be worth (valdrá) about 20 dollars. Bring (in) 
the flowers which I (have) bought this morning! I shall bring 
them directly. Do you come at last, my friend? As you 
see, I come; but I should not have come if the tailor (el 
sastre) had not brought my coat. He did not come (Def.)^ 
because you had not invited him. Do come! I shall intro- 
duce you to my cousin (f.) Yesterday I saw a Turk or a 
Persian on the promenade. Did you see what I had written ? 
I could not see it, because I was too busy (ocupado). 1 shall 
see what I shall be able to do for you. 


¿Duerme V.? No duermo. ¿Qué tiene V. 

que decirme? 
¿Por qué está V. triste? Porque mi mejor amigo ha 

¿Á que edad (at what age) Murió á los treinta y seis 

murió su tía de V.? afios. 

¿Qué hace V. en mi cuarto? No hago nada. ¿Cómo haría 

cosa alguna en un cuarto 
que no es mío? 
¿Por qué no hace V. lo que No lo hago, porque no es 

le he dicho? justo. 

¿Qué haremos mañana? Haced lo que queráis. 

¿ Hizo frío (cold) ayer en su Sí, hizo mucho frío, pero hoy 

cuarto de V.? hace calor (it is warm). 

¿Por qué no se levanta V. No puedo levantarme, porque 

(do you rise)^ estoy enfermo. 

¿Podrá V. comenzar sus lee- Me parece que todavía no 
ciones mañana? puedo comenzarlas, porque 

no tengo tiempo. 
¿Quién puso aquí el florero? El criado lo puso en la mesa. 
¿Le gusta (pleases) á Y. la Me gusta muchísimo. 

comida (meal)^ 
¿Quieres mucho á tu her- Sí, la quiero mucho, porque 
mana? es muy afable (amiMe). 

Beading Exercise. 

Diversidad de las Provincias de España. (Continuación.) 

Las Andaluces, nacidos y criados en un pais abundante, 

delicioso y ardiente, tienen fama de ser algo arrogantes; p©ro 

si este defecto es verdadero, debe atribuirse á su clima, siendo 

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Present Participle. 188 

tan notorio el influjo de lo físico sobre lo moral Las ven- 
tajas con que natnraleza dotó aquellas Provincias hacen que 
miren con disprecio la pobreza de Galicia, la aspereza de 
Vizcaya j la sencillez de Castilla; pero como quiera que toda 
esto sea, entre ellos ha habido hombres insignes que han dado 
mucho honor á toda España, y en tiempos antiguos los Tra- 
janos, Sénecas y otros semejantes, que pueden envanecer al 
país en que nacieron. La viveza, astucia y atractivo de las 
andaluzas las hace incomparables. Te aseguro, que una de 
ellas serla bastante para llenar de confusión el Imperio de 
Marruecos, de modo que todos nos matásemos unos á otros. 
Los Murcianos participan del carácter de los Andaluces 
y Valencianos. Estos últimos están tenidos por hombres de 
sobrada ligereza, atribuyéndose este defecto al clima y suelo; 
pretendiendo algunos que hasta en los alimentos mismos falta 
aquel jugo que se halla en los de otros países. Mi imparcia- 
lidad no me permite someterme á esta preocupación por ge- 
neral que sea; antes debo observar que los valencianos de este 
siglo son ios españoles que más progresos han hecho en las 
ciencias positivas y lenguas muertas. 

Forty-first Lesson. — Lección cua- 
renta y una. 

Present Participle. — Del participio de presente. 

Verbs in -ar form their Present Participle by chang- 
ing ar into ante] those in -er^ -ir change these endings 
into 'iente. 









(living) alive 

(a) The following forms are in -ente, not -iente: 

, . expelente, ejecting. 

From verbs m -er: impelente, impelling. 

El cedente, the assigner. repelente, repelling. 

antecedente, previous, ante- ponente, reporter (of a com- 

cedent. mittee). 

excedente, exceeding. componente, con^)onent. 

precedente, preceding, exum^le. el exponente, the applicant. 

procedente, proceeding from, el imponente, the depositor. 

coming from. el proponente, the proposer. 

sohreexcedente, surpassing. ahsolvente, absolving. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Lesson 41. 

disolvente, dissolving. 
envolvente, involving. 
abstergente, detergent. 
convergente, converging. 
equivcUente, equivalent. 
incandescente, incandescent. 
transcendente, transcendent. 

Prom verbs in -in 

Coincidente, concurrent. 

reincidente, relapsed, old offen- 

concurrente, concurrent, spec- 
tator, one of the audience. 

ocurrente, witty. 

conducente, leading. 

preferente, preferent. 

referente, referring. 

adherente, adherent, follower. 

fluente, flowing, fluent. 

afluente, affluent. 

confluente, confluent. 

diluente, diluent. 

dimiténte, resigning. 

remitente, the sender. 

presidente, president, chairman. 

residente, resident. 

asistente, one of the audience, 
an orderly. 

consistente, consisting, con- 

existente, existing. 

persistente, persistent. 

resistente, resistant. 

subsistente, subsistent. 

astringente, astringent. 

restringente, restraining. 

regente, regent. 

urgente, urgent, immediate. 

suplente, substitute. 

(b) The following are altogether irregular: 


el dicente. 




cursing, the curser. 









the continent. 









following, next. 































(c) A few have two distinct 

Participles with two 


Acceder, to accede 

accedente, the one accidente, accident, 

who accedes 


ascender, to ascend 

ascendente, up 

ascendiente, ances- 

(train, etc.) 


Digitized by Google 

Present Participle. 


descender, to des- 

pertenecer, to be- 

poder, can, to be 

poner, to pat, set 

descendente, down 
(train, etc.) 

perteneciente, be- 
longing to 

potente, powerful 

descendiente, des- 

pertinente, pertin- 

pudiente, well-to- 
jjonen^, reporter (of poniente, west, set- 

conseguir, to obtain 

ting (sun). 
consecuente, conse- 
quent, consistent. 

a committee) 
consiguiente, conse- 
quent, natural 

(d) The following have no verb 

Contraproducente, producing insolvente, insolvent. 

contrary results. 
diligente, diligent. 
incesante, continual. 
solverUe, solvent. 

transeúnte, a passer-by. 
insignificante, insignificant. 
intransigente, unyielding. 
vigente, existing. 


Present Participles as such— i.e., with an active signifi- 
cation, and preserving the ruling power of the verb, exist no 
longer in the Spanish language; thus — Present Participles in 
Spanish are used: 

(a) as Adjectives— -i.e. : 

Una comida abundante, a plentiful dinner. 
Una circunstancia agravante. 
An aggravating circumstance. 
Un clima ardiente, a hot climate. 

(b) as Nouns— i.e.: 

Los creyentes, the believers. 
los protestantes, the protestants. 
un asistente, an orderly. 
un contribuyente, a taxpayer. 
los gobernantes, the rulers. 

(c) or otherwise in certain phrases — i.e. : 

En dinero contante, ready money. 

Corriente, all right. 

Le conozco bastante. 

I know him very well, or well enough. 

Tengo bastante, I have plenty. 

Eso es suficiente, that will do. 

^0 obstante, notwithstanding. 

Tocante 4 eso . . ., as to that . . . 

Mediante una cantidad. 

For the consideration of a sum. 

Dios mediante, if it please Grod. 

el declarante, witness. 

el delincuente, the culprit, 

un reincidente, an old offender. 
el demanante, the plaintiff. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

186 Lesson 41. 

El 5 deH corriente, on the 5th instant. 
Par la presente, by this letter. 
Par consiguiente, therefore. 

As most Spanish verbs have no Present Participle, it is 
replaced by an equivalent word or phrase— i.e.: 

(a) by a Past Participle with an active signification (see 
further Past Participle): 

Atrevido, daring. considerado, considerate. 

bienvenido, welcome. divertido, amusing. 

caído, fallen. los fallecidos, the deaths. 


Nacer, to be born naciente, rising nacido, born. 

entender, to under- inteligente, intelli- entendido, expe- 
stand gent rienced. 

(b) by a Verbal Adjective: 

Charlatán, chatter-box. ladrador, barking. 

llorón, weeper. merecedor, deserving. 

saltaHn, jumper. mordedor, biting. 

aflictivo, afflicting. conservador, conservative. 

(c) by a Verbal Noun: 

Un comprador, a buyer. un lector, a reader. 

un fumador, a smoker. el contraventor, the defaulter. 

el testador, the testator. el sucesor, the successor. 

el examinador, the examiner, un copista, a copyist. 

un procurador, a solicitor. los ftígitivos, the fugitives. 

Note how the English Present Participle is rendered 
in Spanish: 

By a relative clause, to specify a noun or pronoun: 

It is a child laughing, es un niño que ríe. 

That man carrying the stick, ese que lleva el bastón. 

Those passing know him, esos que pasan le conocen. 

By the Gerund, in progressive actions: 

He was crying, estaba llorando. 
He came running, vino corriendo. 

KB.— To be going, to be coming, to be leaving, iff 
venir, salir: 

We are going to the theatre, vamos aH teatro. 

He is coming as well, él viene también. 

We are leaving to-morrow, mañana nos vamos. 

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Past Participle. 


By the Infinitive depending on verbs of "seeing," 

We saw them starting, les vimos marchar. 

They heard us calling them, nos oyeron llamarles. 

Past Participle. 

iíetnar A;.— Spanish Past Participles, either regular or ir- 
regular, are treated like adjectives in — o as to inflection. 

1. Regular Past Participle. A^erbs in -ar form 
their regular Past Participle by changing -ar into 
-ado'j those in -er, ir change those endings into -ido, 

amar, amado, loved. 

beber, bebido, drunk. 

vivir, vivido, lived. 

2. Irregular Past Participles, They assume va- 
rious endings more or less closely connected with their 
Latin origin, but ending always in -o. 

(a) Yerbs having ai 

Abrir, to open; 
cubrir, to cover; 
decir, to say; 
tscr^r, to write; 
hazier, to do, make; 
imprimir, to print; 
morir, to die; 
poner, to put; 
romper, to break; 
ver, to see; 
volver, to turn, return; 

irregular Past Participle: 

ahierto, opened, open. 

cubierto, covered. 

dicho, said. 

etcrOo, written. 

hecho, done, made. 

impreso, printed. 

n^uerto, dead. 

pueeio, put. 

roto, broken. 

visto, seen. 

vuelto, turned, returned. 

Their compounds are formed in the same way, 
with the following exceptions: 

Liquefacer, liquefacto, liquefied. 

rarefacer, rarefacto, rarefied. 

tumefacer, tumefacto, swollen. 

putrefacto, putrified. 

N,B, —Yvom the obsolete solver, to solve, Past Part. 
suelto, loose: 

absolver, abeuelto, absolved. 

disolver, disuelto, dissolved. 

resolver, * resuelto, resolved. 

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Lesson 4L 

(b) Yerbs haying an irregrnlar Past Partíciple besides the 
regalar one. 

Concerning these verbs having a so-called double 
Participle, the pupil must bear in mind that the regu- 
lar forms in ado and ido are proper Participles — i.e., 
they form (with haher) the compound tenses of the 
verb, as: 

He omitido, I have omitted, 

whereas the contracted irregular forms are Adjectives^ 
which generally may only be used with ser and estar ^ as: 
Una cosa está completa, a thing is complete. 

Alphabetical list of the verbs with double participles.* 

Participle. Verbal Adjective. 

Absorber, to absorb Absorbido. Absorto 


abstraer, to abstract abstraído. abstracto. 

aceptar, to accept aceptado. acepto. 

aclarar, to make clear .... aclarado. claro, 

aficionarse^ to be fond of . . . aficionado. afecto, 

afijar^ to fix, to nail . . . . afijado O.* afijo, 

aguzar, to sharpen, to grind . aguzado, agudo, 

ahitarse, to overload one's sto- ahitado. cáiito. 


anexar, to annex anexado, anexo. 

angostar, to narrow angostado. angosto. 

asegurar, to assure, to insure . asegurado. seguro, 

astrinjir O., to astringe .... astrinjido O. astricto, 

atender, to observe, to expect . atendido. atento. 

Bendecir, to bless Bendecido. Bendito, 

bienquerer, to like, to love • . bienquerido. bienquisto. 

Cansarse, to grow tired .... Cansado. Canso O. 

ceñir, to gird, to surround . . ceñido. cinto O, 

combarse, to bend, to bow . . . combado. combo, 

campaginar, to manage to do . compaginado. compacto, 

completar, to complete .... completado, completo, 

comprimir, to compress .... comprimido. compreso. 

concluir, to conclude concluido. concluso. 

concretar, to join, to unite . . cotu:retado, concreto. 

confesar, to confess confesado. confeso. 

confundir, to confound .... confundido. confuso. 

consumirse, to consume .... consumido. consunto O, 

contentarse J to be contented with contentado. contento, 

contraer, to contract, to conclude contraido. contracto, 

contundir, to bruise . • . . . contundido. contuso, 

convelerse, to contract (of nerves) convelido. convulse, 

convencer, to convince .... convencido. convicto. 

• O. means óbsolett 

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Alphabetical list of the verbs with double participles. 189 

Participle. Verbal Adjective. 

convertir, to convert, to change convertido. converso, 

convulsarsey to convulse . . . convuUado. convulso. 

corregir^ to correct corregido. correcto. 

corromper, to corrupt corrompido. corrupto. 

corvar, to crooken, to bend . . corvado. corvo, 

crespar O., to curl, to crisp . . crespado 0. crespo. 

cultivar, to cultivate cultivado. culto. 

Densar, to condense Densado. I>enso. 

descalzar, to take off the shoes descalzado. descalzo, 

descontentar, to disappoint . . descontentado. descontento. 

desertar, to desert desei'tado. desierto. 

desnudar, to denude desnudado. desnudo. 

despertar, to awake despertado. despierto. 

desproveer, to deprive .... desproveído. desprovisto, 
desquitarse, to make up for one's 

loss (at play), to repair . . . desquitado. desquito O. 

difundir, to pour out, to shed . difundido. difuso. 

dirigir, to direct dirigido. directo. 

dispersar, to disperse .... dispersado. disperso, 

distinguir, to distinguish . . . distinguido. distinto. 

divergir, to differ divergido. diverso. 

Bfundir, to pour out Efundido. JEfuso. 

elegir, to elect elegido. electo. 

etÁestar, to set up enhestado. enhiesto. 

tif^ugar, to dry enjugado. enjuto. 

entecar, to be feeble entecado. enteco. 

erijir, to erect . erijido. erecto. 

espesar, to thicken espesado. espeso. 

estrechar, to narrow estrechado. estrecho. 

estreñir, to strain estreñido. estricto. 

exceptuar, to except exceptuado. excepto. 

excluir, to exclude excluido. excluso. 

exentar O., to free exentado. exento. 

eximir, to exempt eximido. exento. 

expedir, to send expedido. expedito. 

^pder, to expel expelido. expulso. 

experimentar, to try experimentado. experto. 

expresar, to express expresado. expreso. 

extender, to extend extendido. extenso. 

extinguir, to extinguish .... extinguido. extinto. 

extraer, to draw out extraido. extracto. 

t'alsear, to falsify Falseado. Falso. 

falsificar, to falsify falsificado. falso. 

faltar, to want faltado. falto. 

favorecer, to favour favorecido. favorito. 

ñjar, to fix fijado. fijo. 

freir, to fry freído. frito. 

Sartar, to satiate Hartado. Harto. 

fnduir, to include Incluido. Incluso. 

incurrir, to incur . incurrido. incurso. 

wforfar, to obstruct . . ,. . . infartado. infarto. 

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Lesson 41. 


infectar^ to infect infectado, 

infestar, to infest infestado. 

inficwnar, to infect inficionado. 

inflijir, to inflict inflijido O. 

infundir, to pour in infundido, 

ingerir, to meddle with .... ingerido, 

injertar, to graft injertado. 

insertar, to insert ...... insertado, 

intrusarse, to intrude intrusado, 

invertir, to invert invertido. 

juntar, to join juntado. 

Leudar, to rise, to swell (of 

dough) Leudado, 

limpiar, to clean limpiado. 

llenar, to fill ... • llenado. 

Maldecir, to curse Maldecido, 

malquistar, to disunite; to be- 
come odious malquistado, 

mancar, to be wanting .... mancado. 

manifestar, to manifest .... manifestado, 

manumitir, to manumit, to set 

free manumitido. 

marchitar, to wither marchitado. 

matar, to kill matado. 

mondar, to shear mondado. 

mutilar, to mutilate mutilctdo. 

Nacer, to be born Nacido. 

Ocultar, to hide Ocultado. 

omitir, to omit omitido. 

oprimir, to oppress oprimido, 

Pagar, to pay JPagado. 

pasar, to pass pasado. 

perfeccionar, to perfect .... perfeccionado 

pervertir, to pervert pervertido. 

prender, to take, to seize . . . prendido. 

presumir, to presume presumido. 

producir, to produce producido, 

profesar, to profess profesado. 

propender, to be inclined . . . propendido. 

proveer, to fill (a vacancy) . . . proveido. 

Quitar, to take; to impeach . . Quitado, 

Raer, and rasar, to raze . . . Raido and 


ranciarse, to become rancid . . ranciado. 

rarefacerse, to become rarefied . raref acido. 

recluir, to seclude recluido. 

recocer, to boil too much, to boil 

once more recocido. 

reflejar, to reverberate .... reflejado. 

refringir, to refract (of light) . refringido. 

remitir, to remit . remitido. 

Verbal Adjective. 
inflicto O. 














Pago (fami- 

paso. [liar). 















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Alphabetical list of the verbs with double participles. 191 

Participle. Verbal Adjective. 

repeier, to push back repelido, repulso O. 

r^eiar, to fill repletado, repleto, 

restringir^ to restrain restringido. restricto, 

romper^ to break rompido (poet.), roto. 

Salvar, to save Salvado, Salvo, 

secar, todry secado. seco. 

s^ultar, to bury sepultado. sepulto, 

situar, to situate, to place . . . situado. sito, 

soltar^ to let loose, to let go . soltado, suelto, 

subtender, to submit (to one's 

inspection) subtendido. subtenso. 

sujetar, to subdue sujetado, sujeto, 

surgir, to come forth, to rise . surgido, surto. 

mspender, to suspend suspendido. suspenso. 

sustituir, to substitute .... sustituido, sustituto. 

Tender, to extend Tendido. Tenso. 

teñir, to dye tefiido, tinto. 

torcer, to wring, to wrest, to turn torcido. tuerto. 

Saciar, to empty, to evacuate . Vaciado, Vacio. 

Juntar, to put oxen into harness Tuntado. Yunto, 

Zafarse, to avoid doing some- 
thing Zafado. Zafo. 

N.jB.—Oí these verbal adjectives, the following admit of 
tbe auxiliary haber: 

Frito, preso, 

injerto. provisto, 

opreso, roto. 

Besides their passive signification, some Past Par- 
ticiples have an active one, as: 

-agradecido, thanked, also grateful person. 

arreglado, arranged, » methodical man. 

confiado, confided, » a confident person. 

cumplido, fulfilled, » a polished or civil man. 

desocupado, unoccupied, » an idler. 

desordenado, disarranged, » a disorderly person. 

disimulado, disguised, » a sly person. 

entendido, understood, » a clever man. 

^nraclo, honoured, » an honest man. 

leido, read, » a well-read man. 

pesado, weighed, » a bore. 

porfiado, insisted, » an obstinate man. 

reconocido, recognised, * a grateful person. 

sentido, felt, » a very sensitive person. 

sufrido, suffered, » a hardy or forbearing man. 

N.B.—For the uses of the Participle, see Ba/rt II. 

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192 Lesson 41. 

Traducción. 64. 

He is a very gratefal person. I have arranged my books. 
You are a methodical man. I am tired; she is a very tire- 
some woman. He has fulfilled his duty. Spaniards are very 
civil. I have not understood anything. He is a very clever 
pei*son. To be honoured, one must be honest. I have read 
his book; he is a well-read person. Do not be a bore. I 
have insisted, but he is very obstinate. She is a very sensi- 
tive woman, because she has suffered a great deal, bat she is 
very forbearing. 

Alphabetical List of the Defective Verbs. 

AboUr, to abolish, is only used in those forms in which the 
i of the Infinitive ending is retained.* 

Acostumbrary to use to, to be in the habit of; used in all 
forms except the Compound Perfect and the Imperative. 

Antojarse^ to covet, to long for, has only the 3rd persons of 
the sing, and plur., the Gerund, and the Past Part. 

Atañer, to appertain, is only used in the 3rd persons sin- 
gular and plural and the Past Participle.** 

Colorir, to colour, is only used in the Infinitive, the other 
forms being supplemented by colorar or colorear*** 

Incoar, to begin, and 

* The following verbs of the 3rd Conj. offer the same ano- 
maly: aguerrir, to train for war, arrecirse and aterirse, to grow 
stiff (by cold); balbucir, to stutter; empedernir, to petrify; entumir, 
to benumb; manir, to render mellow (of meat), to wear oat 
(clothes, etc.), and a few others of less importance. — Formerly 
blandir, to brandish, showed the same anomaly ; but at present the 
forms blande and blanden are sometimes met with. Some of the 
above verbs have a second regular form to supplement the de- 
fective ones — i.e.: aterecerse, balbucear, empedernecerse, entumecerse. 
** Likewise usucapir, to acquire a right of property by lapse 
of time, and garantir, to guarantee, which is replaced by garantizar. 

*** The same is the case with the following verbs: 
acaecer, \ . haDoen provenir, to derive (as a conse- 

acontecer, j ^*^ ' quence). * 

consistir, to be the reason. ocurrir, \ 

concernir, to concern. pasar, > to happen. 

cumplir, to suit, to be due. suceder, J 

incumbir, to concern. 

Concernir, to concern, is, conformably to the Academy, only used 
in the 3rd persons: concierne, conciernen; concernía, concer- 
nían, and the Gerund, concerniendo. However, the forms 
concernió and concernieron; concierna, conciernan; concerniese; 
concerniera, concernieran; concerniere and concernieren are 
also met with. 

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Alphabetical List of the Defective Verbs. 1^3 

Loar J to praise, are scarcely used in the l$t sing, Pres. Indie. 

Obstar, to be an obstacle, nsed only in the 3rd persons sing, 
and pi. of the Indie, and the Subj. No obstante, never- 

Facer, to pasture, has no Ist pers. sing, of the Pres. Indie. 
and Fut SuHfj. 

Pesar, when meaning to repent and to regret, has only the 
3rd pers, sing. The verb is complete when meaning 
to weigh and to consider. 

Placer, to please, has of the Pres. and Imperf, Ind, only the 
3rd persons (place, placen, placía, etc.). The irregular 
forma plugo (Def,), plegué, and plega (also plazca) of 
the Pres, Subj,, pluguiere (Fut, Subj.), pluguiese (Imperf, 
Subj,), and pluguiera (Cond, Subj,) are met with, as 
well as the regular forms of the Fuii, and Cond, (placeré 
and placerla). Of the compounds, aplacer, to please, is 
obsolete, complacer and deplacer are in use. 

fiocr, to shave, is seldom used in the first person sing, of the 
Pres, Ind., or in any of the forms of the Pres, Subj, 

Beponer, to answer, has only the Def. repuse, etc. When 
meaning to set back, etc., it is regular. 

Boer, to nibble, offers the same anomalies as Baer, The Pres, 
is either roa, etc., or roya, but the Comp, corroer forms 
only corroa. 

Salve, God bless you, is a form used only in prayer.* 

Soler, to use, to be in the habit, has only the Pres, and Im- 
perf. Indie,: suelo, sueles, etc., solemos, etc., suelen; Im- 
perf. solía, etc., and Past Part, solido. The Def, soli is 

Tañer, to playón a stringed instrument, is almost obsolete. 

Tacer, to lie, to rest, has only yace (Pres.) and yada (Im- 
perf), the former mostly in the expression aquí yace, 
here lies (on epitaphs).** Eare forms of this verb are 
the Gerund, yaciendo, the Pres, yazgo (yago is quite 
obsolete), yaces, etc., Imperf, yada, Fut. yaceré, and a 
few others. 

Beading Exercise. 
Diversidad de las Provincias de España (Conclusión). 

Los Catalanes son los pueblos más industriosos de Es- 
paña. Manufacturas, pescas, navegación, comercio, asientos, 
son apenas conocidos en otras provincias de la península, res- 
pecto de los Catalanes. No sólo son útiles en la paz, sino 

* Like valCf keep in good health, which is only used in 
familiar correspondence. 
** In French: ci-git. 
Spanish Conv.-Grammar. IS 

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194 Lesson 41. 

del mayor servicio en la guerra. Fundición de cañones^ 
fábricas de armas, vestaario j monturas para ejércitos, con- 
ducción de artillería, municiones, víveres, formación de tropas 
ligeras de excelente calidad, todo esto sale de Cataluña. Los 
campos se cultivan, la población se aumenta, los caudales 
crecen, y en suma parece estar aquella nación mil leguas de 
la gallega, andaluza, y castellana. Pero sus genios son poco 
tratables, únicamente dedicados á su propio interés y ganancia^ 
y asi los llaman algunos los holandeses de España. 

Los Aragoneses son hombres de valor y espíritu hon- 
rados, tenaces en su dictamen, amantes de su provincia, y 
notablemente preocupados á favor de sus paisanos. En otros 
tiempos cultivaron con éxito las ciencias, y manejaron con 
mucha gloria las armas contra los franceses en Ñapóles, y 
contra nuestros abuelos en España. 

Cadahalso, «Cartas Marruecas». 

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Orthography, Accentuation, Punctuation. 

1. Orthography. 
The following letters in certain cases are mis- 

b and v, b and p; c and ;2J; c and g; d and t; g 
and j; h; m and n; r (rr); x; y. 
b and v: 
b is used — 

1. In the syllables bla, We, Wi, Wo, blu; bra, 
Ire, bri, bro, bru; bu, bur, bus; biblo—i.e.: 

hablar, cable, república, pueblo, blusa, 
brazo, breve, abrir, libro, bruto, 
buril, burla, buscar, 

2. In the ending bilidad, as derived from adjec- 
tives in ahle:, 

amabilidad, afabilidad. 

S. In the Latin particles ab, ob, stib, which enter 
into the formation of many Spanish words: 
absolver, obtener, subvencionar. 
4. In the whole conjugation of caber, haber, 
saber; beber, deber; also in the verbs with final 
sound bir, with the exception of hervir, servir, vivir: 
sabe, sabía, hubimos; beben, debemos; recibirán. 


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196 Orthography, Accentuation, Punctuation. 

5. In the sounds in 6a, being endings of the 
Imperfect of the Indicatiye of the 1st Conjugation^ 
also of the verb -ir: 

hablaba, jugaban; íbamos, iban, 

6. After m: 
ambos, cambiar. 

V is used — 

1. After any combination ےd, aZe^ cla, le, Jo, 
ob, sub: 

alevoso, clave, advenedizo; leve, joven, obvio, subven- 

2. After n: 

inveterado, invierno, invicto. 

3. In the verbs ver, hervir, venir, aervi/r; the 
Presents of the Indicatiye^ Imperatiye^ and Subjunc- 
tive of -if, and the Perfect of the Indicative of 
andar and estar, as well as the forms derived from 

veo; hierve; sirven; vengo; vivimos; 

voy, vaya, vayamos; 

anduvimos, anduviera; estuvieron, estuviese. 

4. In the labial sounds ava (not belonging to the 
Imperfect of a verb), ave, avo; eva, eve, evo; iva, 
ivo (this not being a verb): 

esclava, avecilla, clavo; mueva, leve, llevo; aflictiva, 

5. In any combination with vice, villa, villar: 

vicealmirante, villano, ViUarcaya, 
p is used before t (except in combinations with 
ob, sub): 

aptitud, optar; but obtener, subteniente, 
c and í^: 

The following are written with z: 
zend, zendavesta, zeta; zeugma; zigzag, zipizape, zizaña, 
zirigaña, zis, zas; also all endings in the soft 
sound of c, as in paz, juez, maíz, voz, luz. 
c is used in other cases, even in the plurals of 
words in «;«?, e^s?, iz, oz, u»: 
paces, jueces, voces, luces. 

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Orthography. 197 

d^ and t: 

d is used in the particle ad entering into the for- 
mation of some Spanish words; also in endings dad, 
tud, of Latin stems in taid, tut: 
admirar; caridad, virtud, 

t in all other cases. 

g and J: 
g is used — 

1. In all beginnings geo, as well as in endings, 
qélico, genaHo, géneo, etc. ; gésimál, etc. ; géinico, 
gen, gio, gia, gión; ígeno, ígero, derived either 
from Greek or Latin words: 

geografía, higiénico, religión, analogía, 

2. In all verbs in ger, gir, except tejer, bri^ir, 

j is used — 

L In the verbs tejer, brujir, c'i*ujir, also those 
in jear. 

2. In verbal endings in the sound je, ji of verbs 
not having either ^r or j in the Infinitive; also in most 
words not having originally either g ox j: 

mvjer (from mulier); 
dije, dijiste (from decir); 
traje, trajiste (from traer). 

3. In the endings je, jeria of nouns: 
carruaje, relojería, 

h is used — 

1. In words which In Latin had either h or /: 

haber (habere), harina (/arina), hijo (/"ilius), honor (^onor). 

2. In any initial combinations hidr, hiper, hipo, 
from the Greek: 

hidrografía, hipertrofia, hipocampo, 

3. In ie Initial, from Latin ge, fe; also in ue, 
either initial or in the middle of a word if forming 
a syllable by itself: 

hielo (gelu); hierro (ferrum); huelo, huevo, ahuecar 

(but muevo). 
Exceptions are yergo, yerro, yeso. 

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198 Orthography, Accentuation, Punctuation. 

4. Before initial sounds abi, abl, ebr, ibr, emci^ 
emi, onto, orr: 








m and n: 

m is used before 6, p, n: 
cambiar, cam^po, am^nistia. 

n is used before m^ sometimes before ft: 
inmortal, innato. 

r and rr are only misleading in the harsh sound 
of the r: 

r is used at the beginning of a word; also after 
I, n, 8: 

reloj, razón; malrotar, honra, Israel. 
rr is used in all other cases: 
carro, perro, prorroga, virrey. 

X is used in all words haying the same letter 
in Latin: 

Felix, examen, lexicología. 

N.B.—JJ&Q has caused many people to write s instead 
of aj in a few cases, such as estraordinari-o, estraño (as ordi- 
narily pronounced) for extraordinario, extraño; but in no 
case must such licence be permitted whenever confusion is 
likely to arise, such as in expiar, expiate, whereas espiar 
means to spy; nor must cs be written instead of cc; axioma, 
never acsioma. 

y (not i) is used — 

1. As a conjunction and as a letter: 
la y, y ; él y yo, he and I. 

2. In yo (I), ya (already), and at the beginning of 
words if followed by a vowel (provided it is not pre- 
ceded by h): 

yacer, yugo, yeso, but hielo. 

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3. At the end of words, provided the last syllable 
is not accented: 

hay y doy y soy, voy, ley, muy, buey, but benjuí, fui, huí. 

N.B, — Hierba, hiedra, may also be yerba, yedra. 

General Remark. It may be taken as a general rule, 
that Spanish words from the Latin preserve the original 
spelling ; also that the rules given above hold good as to such 
derived words. But there are, however, exceptions which must 
be learned by practice, such as: 

abogado (advocatus, solicitor), 
maravilla (mira&ilia, wonder). 

2. Accentuation. 
The written accent^ marked— 
1. On words of more than one syllable ending in 
a vowel, with the stress on the same vowel: 












2. On words of more than one syllable ending in 
n, 8, with the stress on the last vowel: 




patatús, . 






verás. Caifas, 

prevés, Moisés, 

decís, París, 


3. On words of more than one syllable ending in 
I, r, Zf with the stress on the last syllable but one: 

Cárcel, Setúbal, alcázar, César, alférez, Fernández, 
carácter. Alcacer, 
mártir. Valor, 

4. On any word of' more than two syllables having 
the stress on the antepenultimate syllable: 


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200 Orthography, AccentuatioD, Punctuation. 













5. On words ending in ai, -au (whether followed 
or not by a consonant), if having the stress on the i, ú: 

Caí, ataúd, 

país, Esaú. *• 

raíz, laúd. 


6. On words ending in -í», -mis, -le, -to; na, no 
(whether followed or not by n, s), if having the stress on 
the Í, Ú: 

Poesía, sería, falúa, continúa, decíais, 
tío, ríe, dúo, continúo, comprendíais, 


7. On final diphthongs with the stress on the last 
vowel, as well as on a, e of triphthongs -uais, -ieis: 

Veréis, Sebastián, buscapié, dio, 

parabién, rió, 

acaricié, adiós, 

después, benjuí, averiguó, 

Navascués, fui, averiguáis, 

fué, amortigüéis. 

8. OjQ the preposition á, and the conjunctions é, 
ó, ú. 

BemarJc, — Compound words (verbal forms included) follow 
the rules applied to their factors: 

Fuese, cortésmente, fácilmente. 

9. Foreign words, in the matter of accentuation, are 
treated as Spanish words: 

Déficit, ultimátum, Leicester, Amiens. 

10. Finally, the Spanish language makes use of 
the written accent in order to distinguish certain words, 
which are written alike, but differ in their signification, 
the written accent being marked upon the most emphatic 
one, as: 

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Como, as, like. 
cual, which (relat.). 

cuando, when, as. 

cuanto, -a, so much as . . . 

da, he (she) gives. 

de, of. 

di, I gave. 

donde, whereof, wherefrom 

el, the (article). 
ha, has. 
mas, but. 
mi, my. 

j}orgt«6, because, as, etc. 
que, that, which (relat.). 

¿Cómo? how? 
¿cuál? which? (interrog.). 
ctiál — ci*ál, the one — the 
¿Cíiándo? when? [other. 

¿cuánto? how much? 
¡dá! give (there)! 
dé, pres. subj. of dar, to give. 
¡di! tell (thou)! 
¿dónde? where? 

él, he (pron.). 

M, ago. 

más, more. 

mi, me. 

¿por qué? why? 

¿^wé.^ what? which? (interr.), 

¡qué . ./ what (a) . .! 

¿quién? which? 

quién — quién, the one — the 

sé, I know. 

si, yes; him- (her-, it-) self. 
sólo (adv.), only. 
/5W5/ well! go on! 
tal, so. 
té, tea. 
ii^, thou, 
/vé.' go (thou)! 

Further, the demonstrative pronouns este, esta^ ese,, 
esa, aquél, aquella, are accented when used emphatically 

¿ Cuál es el principe JDon Fernando ? — Ése, ése, ése, 
dijo Gutierre de Cárdenas á la princesa Doña IsaheL 
Which is Prince Ferdinand? — The one there, said 
Gutierre de Cardenas to Princess Isabella. 

The stress only is laid, not the written accent 
marked, upon: 

1. Words of more than one syllable ending in a 
consonant, not fiy 8, with the stress on the last syllable: 

vivac, amad, cesar, 

merced, temed, romper, 


quien, who (relat.). 

se, himself, herself, itself, etc. 

si, if. 

solo (adj.), alone. 

sus, his, her, etc. 

tal, such a one. 

te, thee. 

tu, thy. 

ve, he (she) sees. 

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:202 Orthography, Accentuation, Punctuation. 



cenitf partid, venir, Guadix^ 

carcaj, Ormuz, 


arroz, Godot/. 

2. Words of more than one syllable ending in a 
Towel, with the stress on the last syllable but one: 

Ala, ama, España, 

caballete, teme, úñate, 

casi, entiendo, Amaifi, 

obscuro, Jacobo, 


3. Words of more than one syllable ending in n^ 
.«, with the stress on the last syllable but one: 

Volumen, aman, martes, amaras, Lucas, 

canten, crisis, leyeres, Carlos, 


4. Words of more than one syllable ending in a 
Yowel or a diphthong (whether followed or not hy n, s)^ 
-with the stress on the last syllable but one: 

Fatria, sitio, deseo, canoa, agua, 

seria, trataseis, fatuo, 

lidian, amortiguan, 

3. The Signs of Punctuation. 
The most striking difference between the Spanish 
^nd other languages is the use of the note of inter- 
rogation and the note of exclamation. To the prelimi- 
nary remarks contained in Part I. we now add the 
following observations: 

1. If another part of the sentence precedes the 
actual question or exclamation, the respective signs are 
placed immediately before that part of the sentence to 
ivhich they refer, as: 

Y bien mirado, ¿valgo yo lo que ella? (Hartzenbusch) 
And well considered, — am I as worthy as she? 
Con que, ¿ bajará Y. al patio ? (Id.) 
Well then, will you come down to the courtyard? 

2. If short questions or exclamations succeed each 
other immediately, the inverted signs are used but 
once, as: 

¡Señor! mi Señor! Don Diego! (de Castro.) 

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The Signs of Punctuation. 203 

3. A comma is put— 

(a) Between the several subjects, verbs, or objects 
of a compound sentence, with the exception of the 
last two: 

El castellanOy el portugués, él francés y el italiano son 

lenguas románicas, 
Castilian, Portuguese, French, and Italian are Romance 

Escribe, dibuja, toca y canta. 
He writes, draw, plays and sings. 

(b) Between the principal^ and the accessory sen- 
tence, if the latter begins with a preposition, or if the 
subordinate clause is an apposition, as: 

Bon Fernando salió de Sevilla con un lu^cido ejército, 
en que se contaban diez mil caballos, (Id.) 

Don F. went forth from (left) Sevilla with a brilliant 
army in which there were ten thousand horse. 

Podréis convencer á aquellos hombres tímidos que, des- 
lumhrados por una supersticiosa ignorancia, condenan 
el estudio de la naturaleza. 

Yon may persuade those timid people who, blinded by 
a superstitious ignorance, condemn the study of Nature. 

4. The colon (:) is used if a sentence of general 
import is followed by various other clauses developing 
its meaning, as: 

Eran en aquella santa edad todas las cosas comunes: 
á nadie le era necesario para alcanzar su ordinario 
sustento tomar otro trabajo que alzar la mano, y 
alcanzarle de las robustas encinas que liberalmente 
les estaban convidando con su dulce y sazonado fruto. 

The colon is also used instead of a conjunction, by 
which the following sentence, containing a reason, a 
consequence, or a contradiction, ought properly to be 
joined to the preceding phrase, as: 

Por eso yo me hago á veces el remolón para pagar: 

claro es, que el que no paga es porque no puede ó 

no quiere. (Hartzenbusch.) 

This is the reason why I sometimes delay paying, for 

it is evident that he who does not pay either cannot 

or will not pay. 

Finally, the colon is employed after the initiatory 

address in a letter, unless the writer prefers writing this 

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204 Lesson 1. 

address in a separate line, which however, is only due 
to a person of higher rank. Ex. : 

Muy Señor mió: Por fin soy tan dichoso, etc. 
Dear Sir, — At length I am so happy, etc. 

First Lesson. 

The Gender of Snbstantiyes. 

(See Part I., Lesson 1.) 

§ 1. Feminine substantives beginning with a or ha 
and having the stress on the first syllable, which for 
the sake of euphony take the article el in the singular, 
as: el alma, the soul, have in the plural the article 
las, as: 

Las almaSf the souls; las habas, the beans. 

If the word beginning with a— is not a substantive, 
the article la should be used, thus: 
La alta sierra. 

Note.— The article la is but an abbreviation of the 
ancient demonstrative pronoun ela, as: 

De las buenas costumnes nasce ela paz et ela concordia, 
(Translation of Fuero Juzgo,) 

In the century of Cervantes, el was used before feminine 
nouns not accented on the first syllable, as: el alegría, the 
joy; él arena, the sand; el acémila, the beast of burden; ei 
alta sierra, the high ridge of mountains. Formerly el also 
occurred before words beginning with other vowels, as el es- 
pada, etc. 

With words beginning with al—, some authors, for 
euphony's sake, substitute á el for al in the dative, thus 
d el alma (for al alma); á el alcance (for al alcance), 

§ 2. Masculine by either their sex or significa- 
tion are: 

(a) All nouns denoting male beings, or their names, 
kindred, degree, rank, or profession, as usually ascribed 
to male persons, as: el hombre, man; Carlos, Charles; 
el padre, the father; el rey, the king; el poeta, the poet; 
el león^ the lion. 

Except. : la haca (or jaca), the nag, pony. 

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The Gender of Substantives. 205 

(b) Names of rivers, lakes, mountains, volcanoes, 
trees, winds, and cardinal points, as: el Tajo, él Gua- 
diana, el Ladoga, el Cáucaso, el Vesuvio, él naranjo, él 
levante, the east wind; él Sud [S.], el Norte [N.]. 

Except.: la EsgíAeva and la Huerva, two Spanish rivers, 
which, however, are also sometimes masculine. Again, la tra- 
montana, the north wind, and la brisa, the north-east wind. 

(c) The names of countries, towns, and villages not 
ending in —a, as: 

JEl Brasil, Brazil; el Perú, el gran Madrid, el Toboso, 
Whereas: la España meridional; la baja Andalucía, 
because these names of countries terminate in a. Names 
of towns not ending in —a may be used with the fe- 
minine gender if the word ciudad (town)* or villa is 

(d) Names of seconds, minutes, days, months, and 
years; also of numbers, musical and orthographic signs, 
colours and languages: 

Un segundo, un minuto, el día, el lunes, Monday, el 
mes, diciembre es frió, December is cold, el año. 

JEl dos, No. 2, el do, C, el punto, fall stop, el blanco, 
white, el castellano, Spanish. 

§ 3. Feminine by their signification are: 

(a) All names of female beings, or their names, 
kindred, degree, rank, or profession, as usually ascribed 
to female persons and animals, as: 

La mujer, la madre, Maria, Mary; la reina, the queen; 
la hermana, the sister; la leona, the lioness; la 
yegua, the mare, etc. 

(b) Names of marshes (lagunas), ranges, chains, 
fruits (frutas), as: 

Las lagunas de Buidera, Sierra Nevada, 

Sierra Morena, la cordillera Pirenaica; la 

Except.: El melón, el higo, etc. 

(c) Names of countries, provinces, towns, and villages 
ending in — a, as: 

La Mancha; (la encantadora) Francia, France, etc. 

* From civitas (Latin) ; cittá (Ital.), cité (French), city (Engl.). 

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206 Lesson 1. 

(d) Names of hours and seasons, also names of the 
letters of the alphabet (because here the word leira^ 
letter, is understood), as: 

Las dos, 2 o'clock. la jota, the letter J. 

la primavera, Spring. la equis, the letter X. 

Except.: El verano, Summer; el otoño. Autumn; el in- 
vierno, Winter. 

Note,— If the sex of animals is not distinguished by dif- 
ferent words or terminations, macho (male) and hembra (fe- 
male) are prefixed, as in English. Thus, müano, hawk, has 
no form for the feminine, which is therefore expressed: un 
milano hembra, a female hawk. Paloma, pigeon, on the 
other hand, has no masculine form, and thus a m^le pigeon 
is called una paloma macho, 

(e) The names of arts, sciences, and professions 
almost all terminating in -a or -ción, as: 

La jurisprudencia, jurisprudence; la lectura, reading, etc. 
Except those ending in -o, as: el derecho, law; el dibujo, 
drawing, etc. 

Gender by Termination. 

General Bule. — Nouns ending in -a, -d, -j^, and -ion 
are feminine, all others are masculine: 

Casa, house. vo0y voice. 

ciudad, town, acción, action. 

luz, light. 

Exceptions to the feminine in -a, -d, z, 

1. Those that are masculine either by sex or 

AKbacea, executor. sud, south. 

dia, day. juez, judge. 

cihad, abbot. 

2. (a) Among those in -a: 

Mapa, map. tranvía, tramway. 

(b) Those in -ma (from Greek, Arab.): 

Anagrama, anagram. enigma, riddle. 

clima, climate. poema, poem. 

dilema, dilemma. sistema, system. 

dogma, dogma. telegrama, telegram. 
drama, drama. 

(c) Those in -a (accented): 

sofá, sofa. maná, manna. 

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Gender by Termination. 


3. Among those in 
Césped, turf, 
ardid, trick. 
áspid, asp. 
alud, avalanche. 
ataúd, coffin. 
agraz, verjuice. 
antifaz, mask. 
disfraz, disguise. 
ajedrez, chess. 
fez, fez. 

d, z: 

tamiz, varnish. 

cariz, aspect. 

lápiz, pencil. 

maiz, maize. 

tapiz, tapestry. 

arroz, rice. 

tornavoz, sounding-board. 

alcuzcuz, a kind of Moorish». 

tragaluz, skylight. [bread.. 

trasluz, transverse light. 


Some among those in -a, -z admit also of a masculine- 
article— i.e.: 

(a) Having a personal signification: 

m -a: 

La alhaja, jewel. 

la atalaya, watch-tower. 

¡a ayuda, help. 

la harba, beard. 

la cabeza, head. 
la calavera, skull. 

un canalla, a rogue. 
la corneta, trumpet. 
la cura, cure. 
la gallina, hen. 

la guia, guidance. 
la máscara, mask. 
la ordenanza, regulation. 
el papa, the pope. 
la guardia, guard (body- 
la vista, sight. 

el (la) alhaja, **jewel" (iron.).. 

el atalaya, warder of a tower.. 

el ayuda, assistant. 

el barba, the old man (in 
the play). 

el cabeza, chief, the head. 

un calavera, a harum-scarum, 

la canalla, the rabble. 

el corneta, trumpeter. 

el cura, curate. 

un gallina, a chicken- 
hearted person. 

el guia, guide (man). 

el máscara, the masker. 

el ordenanza, orderly. 

una papa, a lie. 

el guardia, the guard (man).. 

el vista, custom-house officer.. 

(b) Not having a personal signification: 

m -a: 

La cólera, anger. 
la corneta, kite. 
la planeta, horoscope. 
la tema, hobby. 

el cólera, cholera. 

el cometa, comet. 

el planeta, planet. 

el tema, theme, exercise. 

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Lesson 1. 

in 'Z\ 
La dobles, duplicity. el doblez, hem. 

la haz (de la tierra), sur^ él haz, bundle. 

la pez, pitch. el pez, fish (in the water). 

Exceptions to the masculine: 
To those in -e: 

Ave, bird. 
base, basis. 
calle, street. 
came, meat, flesh. 
catástrofe, catastrophe. 
clase, class. 
costumbre, habit. 
efigie, effigy. 
especie, kind, sort. 
fase, phase. 
fe, faith, 
/ieftre, fever. 
/*rase, phrase. 
fuente, fountain, dish. 
gente, people. 
hambre, hunger. 
hélice, screw. 

indole, character. 

intemperie, weather, exposure. 

leche, milk. 

llave, key. 

muerte, death. 

nieve, snow. 

noche, night. 

nube, cloud. 

i>esie, pestilence, plague. 

plebe, populace. 

sangre, blood. 

serpiente, serpent. 

simiente, seed. 

«werie, fortune, luck. 

tarde, afternoon. 

torre, tower. 

vacante, vacancy. 

Also nouns in -icie, -aide, -umbre, derived from the 
Latin and Greek — i.e.: 

Esferoide, spheroid, 
superficie, surface, 

El breve, apostolic brief. 
el consonante, rhyme. 
el corriente (mes), current 

month (inst.). 
el corte, cut, edge. 
el (la) dote, dowry. 
el frente, front (of a building, 

el parte, telegram, report. 
el pendiente, earring. 
el secante, seccative (chem.). 
el (la) tilde, the dash. 

pesadumbre, sorrow. 

la breve, breve (music). 
la consonante, letter. 
la corriente, stream. 

la corte, court. 

las dotes, good qualities. 

la frente, forehead. 

Cal, chalk. 
cárcel, jail. 

la parte, part. 
la pendiente, slope. 
la secante, secant. 
la tilde, spot (stain). 

To those in -I: 

col, cabbage. 
credencial, credential. 

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Gender of Compound Nouns. 209 

miel, honey. saly salt. 

piel, leather, skin. señálj sign, mark. 

hie!, gall. 

El canal, canal, la canal, gutter. 

el capital, capital (money). la capital, capital (chief town). 

d moral, mulberry tree. la moral, moral. 

d vocal, voter (on a com- la vocal, vowel, 

To those in -n: 

Imagen, image. comezón, itching. 

sartén, frying-pan. desazón, affliction. 

sien, temple (of the head). razón, reason. 
din (crin), mane. 

El orden, order (regularity, la orden, order (command, 

archit. order). religious order). 

el margen, margin. la margen, bank of a river. 

To those in -r: 
Flor, flower. segur, axe. 

labor, labour, needlework. 

El mar, the sea (element). la mar, the sea (in speaking 

of states). 
el mar Bojo, the Red Sea. en alta mar, on the high seas. 

To those in -s: 

Bilis, bile. res, head of cattle. 

crisis, crisis. tos, cough. 

mies, harvest. 

And, in general, all nouns of scientific use ending 
in "is, -sis, derived from the Greek, such as: 

Hipótesis, hypothesis, tesis, thesis, conclusion. 
paráfrasis, paraphrase, 

JY".^.— -Exceptions to those in -i, -j, -o, -u, -x, -y, are: 

La diócesi, the diocese. la tribu, the tribe. 

la metrópoli, the metropolis. la onix, the onyx. 

la troj, the granary. la ley, the law. 

la mano, the hand. la grey, the flock. 
la seo, the cathedral. 

Gender of Compound Nouns. 

If the last member is an Infinitive or an in* 
variable part of speech, they are masculine: 

Spanish Conv. -Grammar. 



210 Lesson 1. 

Un correveidile, a go-between, el hazmerreír, the langhing- 
un cusotacalles, idler. stock. 

el besamanos, levee. el quehacer, work, bnúness. 

el cumpleaños, birthday. un matasiete, a bully. 

If a noun, or adjective in the singular, they come 
under the rule of gender by termination: 

Una hocacaUe, a taming, street corner. 

el portaestandarte, standard-bearer. 

una marisabidilla, blae-stocking. 
EH tranvía, the tramway. La aguachirle, the last after- 

» contrapeste, a remedy wine. 

against the plague. » aguapié, the after-wine. 

» cortaplumas, penknife. » bajamar, the lowest-ebb. 

» guardamano, the sword- » pleamar, the highest flood. 

hilt, guard. » altamar, the high sea. 

» guardavela, the sail-rope. » estrellamar, the lily of 
» pasacalle, the street-march the valley. 

(played on the guitar). 
» i^o^amano, the bannister. 
» sacabotas, bootjack. 
» tapaboca, the muffler. 
» ¿ro^mono, the after-hand (at cards). 
» trasluz, the semi-darkness. 
» I7er(^sinera2c2a, emerald-green. 

» verdemontaña, mountain-green, chrysocolla \ (both also 
» verdevejiga, sap-green. j feminine). 

Gender of Words used as Substantives. 

1. If an adjective is used substantively, we must 
distinguish whether it denotes a person, abstract idea, 
or a concrete thing. In the first case the article is, of 
course, employed conformably with the sex of the per- 
sons, as: él viejo^ the old man; la vieja, the old woman. 
If an abstract idea is intended, the article lo is used, as 
stated Lesson 1. Part I. Thus: lo bueno^ the good, lo 
ajeno, other people's property, etc. If, however, the 
adjective denotes a concrete thing, we employ the mas- 
culine article el. Thus el español, Spanish {i.e., the 
Spanish language); él azul, the azure or sky-blue. 

2. All words that are not adjectives, if substantively 
employed, require the masculine article, as: el porqué^ 
the Why; el no, the No; ei estudiar, the study(ing). 

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Formation of the Feminine. 211 

Formation of the Feminine. 

§ 1. Masculine substantives and adjectives in — o 
form their feminine in — a, as: 
El vecino, the neighbour, — la vecina. 

htAcnOf good, — huena. 

Except.: el testigo, the witness, el reo, the culprit, el 
moddo, the model, which only change the article: la testigo, 
la reo, la modelo. 

Irregular are: 
El canónigo, the dean (of a cathedral), — la canonesa. 
el diácono, the deacon, — la diaconisa. 

el gallo, the cock, — la gallina. 

§ 2. Substantives and adjectives ending in d, n, 
and r form the feminine by adding —a, as: 
Sefior, Sir, Mr., — Señora, lady, Mrs., 

el huésped, the guest (m,), — la huéspeda, the guest (f,), 
el bailarín, the dancer, — la bailarina, the (fern,) dancer. 
Exceptions: Emperador, emperor, — emperatriz, 
cantador, singer, — cantatriz.''^ 

abad, abbot, — abadesa, 

don, Mr., Sir, — doña, 

elector, elector, -— electriz. 

§ 3. Masculine substantives in —6 form their femi- 
nine in --esa, those in — a form —isa^ as: 

El duque, the duke, — la duquesa, 
el principe, the prince, — la princesa, 
él poeta, the poet, — la poetisa, 

el profeta, the prophet, — la profetisa, 
el sacerdote, the priest, — la sacerdotisa. 
Exceptions: El monje, the monk, — la monja. 

el pariente, the relation, — la parienta. 
el héroe, the hero, — la heroína, 

el elefante, the elephant, — la elefanta, 
regordete, corpulent, fat, — regordeta. 
altóte, very high, huge, — altota. 

§ 4. Invariable are the comparatives in — or, as: 
Mayor, larger, fern, mayor, 
peor, worse, » peor. 

Likewise the adjectives of one termination, like alegre, 
fdiz, etc. (See Part I., Less. 19.) 

* Cantante is most commonly used for both genders. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

212 Lesson 1. 

§ 5. Irregular are the following: 

DioSf god, fern, diosa. 

coronel, colonel, » coronela, 

rey, king, » reina, 

jabalí, wild boar, » jabalina, 
N,B,—k few nouns of pairs have a feminine derived 
from a separate root, such are: 

Varón (of persons), hembra, male, female. 

hombre, mujer, man, woman, wife. 

padre, madre, father, mother. 

marido, mujer, husband, wife. 

fray, sor, brother (friar), sister. 

fraile, monja, friar, nun. 

yerno, nuera, son-in-law, daughter-in-law. 

caballero, señora, gentleman, lady, madam. 

galán, dama, gallant, lady. 

lord, milady, Lord, Lady. 

macho (of creatures), hembra, male, female. 

caballo, yegua, horse, mare. 

carnero, oveja, ram, ewe. 

§ 6. The following have a double gender: 

El compatriota, the countryman, fem, la compatriota. 
el cómplice, the accomplice, » la cómplice. 

el indígena, the native, » la indígena, 

el persa, the Persian, » la persa. 

Likewise el testigo, the witness, mentioned § 1. 

§ 7. The following are either masculine or feminine: 

Centinela, sentinel. crisma, holy oil. 

cisma, schism (in ecclesias- espía, spy. 

tical matters). guia, guide, leader; 

and a few words of rarer occurrence, such as: hermafrodita, 
hermaphrodite; híbrida, hybrid, mongrel; nema, seal (of a 
letter); neuma, gesture; and anatema, anathema. 

§ 8. Arte (art) is in the singular commonly femi- 
nine, although for euphony's sake requiring the article 
él, thus el arte. In the plural it is always feminine: 
las artes mecánicas, etc. 

With mar (sea) the masculine gender predominates. In 
poetry, however, the singular is commonly feminine, as: Mi 
única patria la mar (Espronceda), especially if the adjective 
used with mar has only one termination, as: la mar espu- 
mante, the foaming brine. 

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Formation of the Feminine. 218 

Nada, nothing, used substantively, is masculine if no 
article precedes, nada nuevo, nothing new. Employed with 
the article, it is feminine, as: una nada, a mere nothing. 

Pro, behalf, benefit, is feminine in the expression huena 
pro! much good may it do you! In other significations it is 
masculine, as: el pro y el contra, pro and con, 

§ 9. Defectives: 

(a) Some have no feminine, others have no mas- 

Eremita, hermit. azafata, lady of honour. 

espadachín, bully. bacante, bacchante. 

evangelista. Evangelist. matrona, matron. 

ganapán, drudge. náyade, naiad. 

gañán, day labourer. nereida, nereid. 

jesuíta, Jesuit. nodriza, wet-nurse. 

negociante, business-man. niñera, nurse. 

nigromante, wizard, necro- sirena, mermaid. 

(b) In some others, either the masculine includes 
the feminine, or the feminine the mascuHne: 

JEl auditorio, audience. la canalla, rabble. 

el concurso, concourse. la clientela, customers, clients. 

el gentío, crowd. la gente, people. 

d vulgo, common people. la muchedumbre, multitude, 

el populacho, populace. crowd. 

la plebe, mob, common people. 

la multitud, multitude. 

Tradnceiéu. 1.* 

1. The village where we live during the summer has 
a beautiful situation at the foot of high mountains. The soul 
of (the) man, says Goethe, resembles {say to the) water. The 
nag you (have) bought is too dear. The west wind is cooler 
than the south wind and usually brings rain. The north wind 
and the north-east wind are very cold. Peru was formerly a 
colony of Spain. (The) old Madrid has almost disappeared. 
Eight does not need science in order to be known and prac- 
tised. This word is not spelt (no se escribe) with a G, but 
with a J. The male witness as well as the female witness 
did not know what to say definitely. My uncle is a dean, 
and the aunt of my friend is a deaconess. Have you spoken 
to the lodger or the lodger*s wife? The emperor and the 

♦ Henceforth the words of the translations are not given in 
the vocabulary at the end of this Grammar. The sign () show 
the need of the Spanish article. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

214 LesBon 1. 

empress orderecl (fr. hacer) the singer (m,) [to] come to the 
castle. The duke and the duchess dined with the prince and 
the princess. Fernán Caballero is a Spanish poetess. Prophets 
and prophetesses are rare in our age (time). Is this young 
nun a relation of yours (tr. a r. your)^ The Cid is one of 
the greatest heroes of Spain. The maid of Saragossa is cele- 
brated by the poets as a great heroine. 

2. Hero was a priestess of Venus. This female elephant 
is very strong. The ancient heathens had many gods and 
goddesses. The King of Spain signs his orders: «I, the king.» 
This gentleman is my countryman, and this lady is my 
countrywoman. The Persian woman was the accomplice of 
the native (m.). The guide was arrested by the sentinel as 
a spy. Louis XIV., King of France, was a protector of arts 
and sciences. The stream increased on the 7th inst. She 
lost an earring on coming down (al bajar) the slope. The 
pope is dead (ha muerto). That is a lie. The curate is 
entrusted with (encargado de) the care of (the) souls. The 
mechanical arts are mostly a matter of practice. The Greeks 
on their retreat greeted the foaming brine with exultation. 
Nothing is beautiful enough for the discontented (m.), k 
dream is a mere nothing. The watch-tower stands at the 
entrance of the harbour. The (help-)mate of the tower-warder 
is either a dunce or a thoughtless fellow. The boys played 
with kites. The comet of the year 1858 was beautiful. At 
the end of the present month you will receive my report. 
The order of Charles the Third is a Spinish order. The hilt 
of this sword is worked with great art. You have here a 
very fine penknife. The Better is often the enemy of the 
Good. He knows neither how nor why. The crowd [both 
w. if" f,] was numerous. There were many people. 

Beading Exercise. 

Descubrimiento de América. 

Adoptada y protegida la empresa por Isabel, pronto iba 
á saberse si el proyectista era en efecto un visionario, digno 
de lástima, ó si era el más sabio y el más calculista de los 
hombres. Seguido de un puñado de atrevidos aventureros, el 
náutico genovós se lanza en tres frágiles lefios por los desco- 
nocidos mares de Occidente. «; Pobre temerario!», quedaban 
diciendo en España y Europa. Y Colón lleno de fe en su 
Dios y en su ciencia, en sus mapas y en su brújula, no decía 
más que «i adelante!» España y Europa suponían pero igno- 
raban sus peligros y trabajos, sus conflictos y penalidades. 
¿Qué habrá sido del pobre aventurero? — Transcurridos al- 
guno meses, volvió el aventurero á España á dar la respuesta. 

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Plural of Substantives. 215 

Nada necesitó decir. La respuesta la daban por él los habi- 
tantes y los objetos que consigo traía de las regiones tras- 
atlánticas en que nadie habla creído. El testimonio no admitía 
dudas. El Nuevo Mundo había sido descubierto! El miserable 
visionario, el desdeñado de los doctos, el rechazado por los 
monarcas, el peregrino de la tierra, el mendigo del convento 
de la Bábida, era el más insigne cosmógrafo, el gran almi- 
rante de los mares de Occidente, el virrey de .Indias, el más 
envidiable y el más esclarecido de los mortales. Espafia y 
Europa se quedaron absortas, y para que en este extraordinario 
acontecimiento todo fuese singular, asombró á los sabios aún 
más que los ignorantes. 

[Lafuente, Historia de Espalia.] 


¿Qaé hizo Isabel? 

¿Qaó iba á saberse pronto? 

¿Que hace Colón? 

¿Que se decía de él, y que decía él? 

¿Cuándo se aupo la respuesta? 

¿Quién la dio por él? 

¿Qué había sido, y qué era entonces Colón? 

¿Qué efecto produjo el descubrimiento? 

Second Lesson. 

Plural of Snbstantiyes. 

The principal rules on the formation of the plural 
have been given, Lesson 2, Part I. (page 11). We repeat 
them here in a more enlarged form. 

§ 1. The following words take s in the plural 

1. Substantives terminating in a single unaccented 
vowel, y excepted, as: 

La carta (letter) Plur. las cartas, 

el padre (father) » los padres, 

la metrópoli (capital) » las metrópolis, 

la mano (hand) » las manos, 

el espíritu (spirit) » los espíritus. 
But, rey (king), reyes. 

2. Words terminating in é accented, as: 
El pié (foot) Plur. los pies. 

Except.: 'la é, las ees. 

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Lesson 2. 

§ 2. The following words take es in the plural: 

1. Words terminating in a consonant or in y^ as : 

La flor (flower) Plur. las flores, 

el ángel (angel) » los ángeles, 

el huésped (guest) > los huéspedes, 

ü corazón (heart) > los corazones, 

ruin (mean) » ruines, 

el rey (king) » los reyes, 

la ley (law) » las leyes, 
i^emarA;.— Substantives in x (if sounded like ks) and z 
change their flnal consonant into c before es^ as: 

La vez (time) Plur. las veces, 

la voz (voice) » las voces, 

la cruz (cross) » 

feliz (happy) » 

el fénix (phenix) » 

el ónix (onyx) > 

2. Word terminating in an accented vowel, e 
cepted, as: 

las cruces, 


\ fenix. 
los ónices. 


El bajá (pasha) 
el aleli (gillyflower) 
el rondó (rondeau) 
el tisú (tissue) 

El papá 
la mamá 
el sofá 
d maravedi (farthing = V»* 

part of 1 real) 
el bisturí (bistoury) 
d zaquizamí (uppermost loft) 


los. bajaes, 
los alelíes, 
los rondóes, 
los tisúes. 

Plur. papas. 
» mamas. 
> sofás. 
» maravedís (maravedíes 

or maravedises). 
» bisturis. 
» zaquizamís. 

§ 3. The following are invariable: 

Polysyllables in -es and -is unaccented ou the 
last syllable, as well as patronymics in -s, -z, and Latin 
technical words, as: 

El martes (Tuesday) 

el éxtasis (ecstasy) 

la análisis (analysis) 



El déficit 

el memorándum 


los martes. 

los éxtasis, 

las análisis, 

los Gutiérrez, 

» los Sánchez, 

Plur. los déficits, 

» los memorándums. 


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Plural of Subetantivee. 217 

§ 4. Irregular Plurals. 
El lord (lord) Plnr. los lores. 

eí/ící«»e»(Eoman priest) » [\Z%Zms. 

la testudo (testudo) » las testiídines. 

d val (sewer, drain) » los valles, 

el frac (dress-coat) » los fraques. 

Properly speaking, the plural of frac is not irre- 
gular, c being of necessity changed into qti before c, 
according to a well-known orthographical rule. 

Observation, — Sometimes the accent is displaced in the 
El carácter (character) Plur. los caracteres, 

el régimen (government, object, diet) » los regímenes. 

§ 5. Plural of Compound Substantives. 
The question whether a compound substantive is 
changed in the plural or not must be decided by 
looking at its components. 

1. Both factors are changed in the plural, if each, 
when taken separately, would undergo such an alter- 
ation, as: 

La casamata (casemate) Plur. las casasmatas, 

el gentilhombre (nobleman) » los gentilesliombres. 

d ricohombre \ (member of the / » los ricoshombrea, 

la ricahembra ] high aristocracy) \ > las ricashembras, 

la mediacaña (semi-circular tools) » las m^diascañas. 


El padrenuestro (the Lord's Prayer) Plur. las padrenuestros, 
d ferrocarril (railway) » Jos ferrocarriles, 

la vanagloria (vainglory) » las vanaglorias, 

la barbacana (barbacan) > las barbacanas, 

la bocacalle (street entrance) » las bocacalles, 

el viaducto (viaduct) » los viaductos. 

2. Only one factor is changed in the plural if the 
other, when taken separately, could not undergo such 
an alteration, as: 

Cualquiera \ ( x. \ Plur. cualesquiera, 
quienquiera / ^^ oever; ^ quienesquiera, 
el hijodalgo* » los hijosdalgo, 

* = hijo de algo, lit, the son of something — t.e., the son 
of a person "who is somebody" — viz., who holds some rank in 

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218 Lesson 2. 

3. Singular and plural are alike if both factors, 
when taken separately, could not undergo any alteration 
in the plural, or (and this case applies to the majority 
of the Spanish compound substantives) if the second 
factor is plural already, thus: 

El and los sacabotas, bootjack. 

el y> los mondadientes, toothpick. 

el » los guardapiés (or guardapieses), petticoat. 

el » los limpiabotas, shoeblack. 

el > los quitamanchas, cleaner, dyer. 

el » los besamanos, levee. 

el » los azotacalles, lounger. 

el » los catalejos, spy-glass (lit, "look-far'*). 

§ 6. Besides the words enumerated on page 12, the 
following are likewise used in the plural only: 

Los bofes, \ expensas, expense. 
los chofes, \ lungs. los esponsales, betrothal. 
los livianos, ) los pertrechos, utensils, fumi- 
gas arras, earnest(-money).* ture. 
las carnestolendas, carnival. los postres, dessert. 
los calzones, trousers. las ríspcras, vespers, 
las pinzas, pincers, nippers. 

and a few others of less importance. 

§ 7. The following words change their signification 
in the plural (see also page 12): 
El alfiler, the pin Plur. los alfileres, the pin-money. 

la baqueta, the ramrod » las baquetas, the gauntlet. 
la corte, the court > las Cortes, the Spanish Parlia- 

la mano, the hand » las manos, the handiwork.**** 

el zelo, zeal » los zelos, jealousy. 

§ 8. The following substantives denote the male 
sex in the singular, both the male and female in the 
plural (see those enumerated on page 12): 

El amo, \ ., . , Plur. los amos, los señores, xnBstQrsaiá 

el señor, f Piaster mistress. 

el conde, » los condes, count and countess. 

el marqués, the marquis » los marqueses, marquis and 


§ 9. If a geographical name is plural, as los Arcos, 

* French: les arrhes. 
** But also "the hands." 

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Plural of Substantives. 219 

las Navas, Dos Barrios, the verb remains in the singur 
lar, since the word denotes but one object, as: 

Los Arcos es una ciudad de España, 

Los Arcos is a town in Spain. 

Traducción. 2. 

1. On the sofas in the salon the different papas and 
mamas were seated, and watched the amusements of the young 
folks. The upper parts of the lofts of these houses are usu- 
ally entirely empty. How many maravedís had a real? 
Thirty-four maravedís. The flamtns of the ancient Romans 
were priests. Of how many members does the English House 
of (the) Lords consist? It is very difficult to know exactly 
the different characters of men. The principles of government 
have a great influence on the prosperity or the decay of (the) 
empires. Three consecutive Mondays we could not get our 
box at (tr. in) the theatre. You do best (had better not 
care) if you do not care for the boastings of that man. The 
casemates of this fortress are extremely strong. The noblemen 
at the court of this unhappy prince all shared the fate of 
their master. The members of the high nobility of Spain 
have all the title (of) Grandee. By foreigners the noblemen 
of inferior rank in Spain are commonly called "Hidalgos," 
contrary to the rules of the language. The outskirts of Paris 
are finer than those of Madrid. 

2. Have you given the earnest money to the merchant? 
(The) Carnival was very long this year. To what sum does 
the expense of your journey amount? In a fortnight we shall 
celebrate the betrothal of my cousin (f,). These trousers are 
very well made (bien hechos); which tailor has made them? 
Why (did) has not the footman put the dessert on the table? 
The origin of his family is lost in the obscurity (darkness) of 
history. (The) vespers were being chanted when we returned 
from our walk. The Estates of the country will not assemble 
this year, because the queen and her court are abroad. My 
master and mistress will have no reason to complain of my 
behaviour. The king and queen refused to receive the count 
and countess. Do your parents know that you are here? 
Can you tell pae in which province "Las Navas" is situated? 
Give me the toothpicks! I bought two bootjacks yesterday. 
This petticoat is finer than the petticoats which are sold in 
that shop. 

Readingr Exercise. 

Descripción dd pais mejicano. 
Esta tierra tiene cincuenta leguas de costa de la una 
parte y de la otra de este pueblo, y por la costa de la mar 

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220 Lesson 8. 

es toda llana, de muchos arenales que en algunas partes 
duran dos leguas y más. La tierra adentro j fuera de los 
dichos arenales es tierra muy llana y de muy hermosas vegas 
y riberas en ellas, tales y tan hermosas, que en toda Espafla 
no pueden ser mejores, asi de apacibles á la vista, como de 
fructíferas de cosas que en ellas siembran. Hay en esta tierra 
todo género de caza y aves y animales conforme á los de 
nuestra naturaleza, asi como ciervos, corzos, gamos, lobos, 
zorros, perdices, palomas, tórtolas de dos y tres maneras, 
codornices, liebres, conejos; por manera que en aves y ani- 
males no hay diferencia de esta tierra á España; á mas da 
una gran cordillera de sierras muy hermosas, y algunas de 
ellas son en gran manera muy altas, entre las cuales hay una 
que excede en mucha altura á todas las otras, y de ella se 
vé y descubre una gran parte del mar y de la tierra, y es 
tan alta que si el dia no es bien claro no se puede divisar 
ni ver lo alto de ella, porque de la mitad arriba está toda 
cubierta de nubes. 

[Hernán Cortés, Cartas de Relación, Carta primera.] 


¿Cuál es la extensión de esta tierra? 

¿Qué tiene por la parte del mar? 

¿Cómo es la tierra? 

¿Cómo son sus vegas? 

¿Qué tiene en caza, aves y animales? 

¿Qué tiene además, y como son sus sierras? 

¿Cómo es una de ellas? 

Third Lesson. 

Use of the Article. 

Definite Article. 

Expressed in Spanish and suppressed in English. 

1. Before plural words in sentences expressing 
general or universal characteristics, or before words in 
the singular either referring to abstract things or used 
in an abstract meaning: 

Lo8 cometas tienen cola, comets have tails. 

Las golondrinas vuelven en verano. 

Swallows return in summer. 

Lo8 árboles tienen hqjas, trees have leaves. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Definite Article. ?21 

Lo8 pájaros vuelan, y los peces nadan. 

Birds fljy fishes swim. 

Las abuelas miman á sus nietas. 

Grandmothers spoil their granddaughters. 

Los oídos son para oir, ears are made to hear with. 

La mentira es odiada^ lying is hated. 

La tórtola es el emblema de la inocencia. 

Doves are the emblems of innocence. 

La leña se saca de los bosques. 

Firewood is obtained from woods. 

La fruta verde es nociva. 

Unripe fruit is unwholesome. 

El amarillo y el azul produ>cen el verde. 

Yellow and blue produce green. 

N.B. — Thus, before the Infinitives when used as a verbal 

El saber no ocupa lugar, knowledge is no hindrance. 

El viajar es agradable, travelling is pleasant. 

Le encontré al salir, I met him on coming out. 
Bemark.— When in the above case (See 1) todos, todas 
is introduced, it precedes the article; todo or toda replaces 
the article: 

Todos los árboles tienen hojas, all trees have leaves. 

Toda fruta verde es nociva. 

Any unripe fruit is unwholesome. 


No todo libro es bueno. 
It is not every book that is good. 
Todo el libro es bueno, the whole book is good. 

2. Before the names of titles, dignities, etc., -- don, 
doña, sor, fray excepted — when speaking of the per- 
son, riot to the person: 

El rey Alfonso XIII, King Alphonse XIII. 

El general Prim, General Prim. 

El Sr. de Pérez Galdós, Mr. Perez Galdos. 

Bon Juan, Bona Maria, 

Sor Ju^na, Sister Joan. 

Fray Lope, Brother Lope. 

3. Before the proper names of certain countries, 
provinces, towns, and most of the volcanoes: 

El Brasil, Brazil. el Ferrol, Ferrol. 

el Canadá, Canada. el Japón, Japan. 

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222 Lesson 3. 

él Perú, Peru. la Florida, Florida. 

d VesuviOy Mount Vesuvius. la Habana, Havana. 
la Coruña, Corunna. la Argentina, the Argentine. 

KB. —Castilla la Nueva (la Vieja), New (Old) Castile, 
iíewiarA;.— Indifferent are: 
África, or el Africa, Africa. Asia, or el Asia, Asia. 
Argelia, or la Argelia, Algeria. Egipto, or el Egipto, Egypt 
^.jB.— Proper names of countries, towns, etc., when re- 
ferred to in a restricted meaning require the article: 
La España de los Beyes Católicos, 
Spain of the time of the Catholic Monarchs. 
El Madrid de entonces, the Madrid of those days. 

4. With the names of the days of the week and 
the hours of the day, except in dates and time in a 
letter or telegram: 

Le veré á usted el domingo, I shall see you on Sunday. 

Hasta el lunes, until Monday. 

El año pasado, last year. 

El mes que viene, next month. 

La semana próxima, next week. 

Son las tres, it is three o'clock. 

El sol se pone á las cinco, the sun sets at five. 


Lunes, 12 diciembre, Monday, December 12. 
Madrid, 2. 40 tarde, Madrid, 2.40. p. m. 

5. After nosotros and vosotros, if followed by a noun 
collectively used, as: 

Nosotros los españoles. We Spaniards. 
Vosotros los actores. You actors. 

6. After the verb dar, when meaning "to wish" in 
certain locutions, as: 

Bar lo8 buenos dias, to wish a good morning (day). 
Bar las buenas tardes. 
To wish a good evening, good night. 
Likewise: dar el parabién, to congratulate, dar el pé' 
same,^ to condole. 

7. With certain words, phrases, or idioms: 
Voy á la iglesia, I am going to church. 

Se prohibe la entrada, no admittance. 
Creer en el cielo, to believe in heaven. 

* pésame = me yesa, it afflicts me. 

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Definite Article. 228 

Se ha proclamado ¡a ley marcial. 

Martial law has been proclaimed. 

La luna brilla en el espado. 

The moon shines in space. 

Me voy al extranjero, I am going abroad. 

Los reclutas son llevados al cuartel. 

Recruits are taken to bariracks. 

La Cámara de los Lores, the House of Lords. 

La Cámara de los Comunes, the House of Commons. 

La gente va á la iglesia, people go to church. 

Irse á la cama, to go to bed. 

JEJl monopolio del tabaco, the monopoly of tobacco. 

El ministro de la Guerra, the Minister of War. 

Competido de la necesidad, compelled by necessity. ; 

Todo el mundo, everybody. 

ÁI parecer, apparently. 

Es á la vez una ciencia y un arte. 

It is at once an art and a science. 

Señores viajeros, al tren, gentlemen, take your seats. 

Pronunciar eZ si, to say "I will". 

Hemos estado en el Real. 

We have been to the Opera House (Madrid). 

8. After todo, all, if the following word has a con- 
crete signification, as: todo el dinero, all the money. If, 
however, the following words express an abstract idea, 
without any further attribute, the article is omitted after 
todo^ as: 

Con toda consideración, with all consideration. 

9. With the names of languages (note the con- 
trast), speaking of languages: 

Mi hermano lee y escribe el español. 
My brother reads and writes Spanish. 
Whereas: Esas señoras hablan italiano (or en italiano). 

Those ladies speak Italian— i.e., just now, and not 
English, etc. 

10. To render the English possessives — 's, my, 
thy, etc., mine, his, etc.; the correlatives he who^ 
whoeyer, and the demonstratives that, those — ie.: 

La casa de Jtuin, John's house. 

Me he cortado el dedo, I have cut my finger. 

Aquel libro es el de F., that is your book. 

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224 Lesson 8. 

El que vive aprende^ he who lives, learns. 
El hueno de mi hermano, that good brother of mine. 
Observation,-'\t must be well understood that the pre- 
positions de and á cannot be contracted with the article, if 
this precedes a word which is taken as a title or a name 
of a book, opera, or a similar work. Thus: 

Bodrigo Diaz de Vivar es generalmente conocido con et 

sobrenombre de él Cid (and not del Cid). 
R. etc. is commonly known by the surname of the Cid. 
Pocas comedias de Calderón aventajan á El alcalde de 

There are but few comedies of Calderón superior to 
"The Justice of Zalamea." 

Definite Article omitted in Spanish and expressed 
in English. 

1. With the apposition, as: 

Bernardo Taso, padre de Torcuato. 

Bernard Tasso, the father of Torquato. 

Isabel, reina de España. Isabel, the Queen of Spain. 

Exception. — The article should be used with the 

(a) If the apposition is quahfied by a superlative; as : 
Shakespeare, el poeta dramático más famoso de Ingla- 

Shakespeare, the most celebrated dramatic poet of 

Dante, él tnaytM* poeta de Italia. 
Dante, the greatest poet of Italy. 

(b) If a characteristic surname (not a numeral) is 
added to an historical name, as: 

Luis el grande, Louis the Great. 

Carlos el temerario, Charles the Dauntless. 

2. With the ordinals with the names of kings, 
popes, etc., both in writing and in speaking: 

Alfonso XIII (trece, not el trece). 
Eduardo Vil (séptimo). 
Carlos V (quinto) y Felipe II (segundo). 
Fio IX (nono). 

3. With titles of books: 

Vida de Cristobal Colófi. 

The life of Christopher Columbus. 

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I>efinite Article. 225 

4. With the names of the months, and in the 
dating of letters: 

Efnero y febi^ero son meses muy fríos, 
January and February are very cold months. 
Miércoles diez y ocho de octubre, 
Wednesday, the 18th of October. 
Note.— The article should always be used otherwise: 
JSl doce de enero y the 12 th of January. 
Le veré á Y, el lunes, I will see you on Monday. 

5. The article is omitted after the verbs to he, to 
become, to seem, to name, to call, etc., if these verbs are 
followed by a word denoting rank, dignity, office, nation- 
ality, etc., as: 

Es hijo de un principe ruso. 
He is the son of a Russian prince. 
La reina nombró al general por ministro, 
The queen appointed the general her minister. 
Likewise, with fines (end), mediados (half, middle), 
principios (beginning), if denoting a certain period, as: 
A fines de abril, at (towards) the end of April. 
Á mediados del año pasado. 
Towards the middle of last year. 

6. In a great many adverbial locutions and idioms, as : 
Morir á hierro, to perish by the sword. 

-A porfía, in emulation. 

Morir de fiebre (de calentura), to die of (a) fever. 

Por desdicha, unfortunately. 

Estar en ascuas, to be in great anxiety. 

Fin, The end (in books). 

En primer lugar, en segundo lugar. 

In the first place, in the second place. 

Comida hecha, compañía deshecha. 

The end of a feast is the parting of company. 
Note, —With some expressions, however, the article is not 
totally excluded. Thus we may as well say: ir en socorro, 
as ir al socorro, to hasten to some one's assistance ; traducir 
en francés, as al francés, to translate into French. 

Further cases of the omission of the Indefinite 
Article in Spanish. 
1. In such locutions as: 
Tener costumbre, to use (to have the habit), 
tener sed, to be thirsty, 
tener intención, to have the intention. 

Spanish Cony.-Grammar. 16 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

226 Lesson 8. 

Likewise: mudar de semblante, to change colour (of the 
face); hacer número, to make up a sum, etc. 

Note.— Very often the idea is essentially modified by the 
omission or the use of the article. Thus: 
Dar alma, means: to give life, and dar el alma, means: to expire. 
diade juicio, > law- day, day » dia del juicio, » doomsday. 

of trial, 
?iacer cama, » to be confined» hacer la cama, » to make 
to one's bed, the bed. 

iamar estado, » to marry » tomar el estado » to become 

eclesiástico, a priest. 

2. With the words ca^a and palacio (the latter in 
the signification of the Boyal Palace), used in quite a 
general sense, after the prepositions de, á, and en, as : 

Toy á casa de mi tio, I am going to my uncle's. 
Viene de Palacio, he comes from the Royal Palace. 
Mi hermana vive en casa de mi prima. 
My sister lives at my cousin's. 

Otherwise, the article should be added, as: 

El militar salió de la casa del aldeano. 
The soldier left the house of the peasant. 

3. In famiUar style, before the words papá, mamá, as : 
Fapá no está (i.e., en casa), papa is not at home. 

4. If several words connected by y, ó, etc., follow 
each other, no particular stress being laid on any of 
them, the article may be omitted after the first, even if 
they are of different genders. The same is the case 

.if a substantive is qualified by two or more ad- 
jectives, as: 

Las lenguas* alemana y francesa. 

The German and French languages. 

El primero y segundo canto. 

The first and second canto. 

Los palacios, aldeas y castillos. 

The palaces, villages, and castles. 

N.£. — But the article should be added in speaking of 
Uving beings of different sexes, as: 

Los hombres y las mujeres, the men and women. 

La^ hermanas y los hermanos, the sisters and brothers. 

* If the substantive precedes, as in this sentence, it should 
be plural. 

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Indefinite Article. 227 

Indefinite Article. 

The Indefinite Article omitted in Spanish and 
expressed in English. 

1. Before nouns used in connection with ser, ha- 
cerse^ meterse, to denote class, profession, etc., in a 
general sense, also in speaking of qualities, as: 

Es liubil músico, he is a clever musician. 

Es general, be is a general. 

8e metió soldado, be became a soldier. 

8e ha hecho ctira, be bas become a priest. 

Lo creían traidor, tbey believed bim (to be) a traitor. 

Esta flor da buen olor, tbis flower bas a good smell. 
Note,— In tbese sentences tbe speaker does not consider 
tbe individuality, but only tbe quality. If I say, "He is a 
clever musician,'* of course I do not mean to say tbat be is 
but one musician, but tbat be is very musical. The substan- 
tive is therefore used instead of an adjective, and tbe article 
denoting individuality, being superfluous, is omitted in Spanish. 

But the indefinite article is required, if the quality 
is represented as a particularly remarkable or striking 
one, or if the substantive used as a predicate is followed 
by an adjunct. Compare: 

Es un loco, be is a madman. Es loco, he is a fool (a foolish 

Es un hoho, he is a dunce. Es hobo, he is stupid. 
El marqués es un general de El marqués es general, the 

mérito, the marquis is a marquis is a general. 

general of great merit. 

2. With the apposition (see p. 224, § 1) and with 
words denoting office, ranJc^ social position, or any other 
particular quality, as: 

El desdén con el desdén, drama de Moreto. 
Disdain with disdain, a drama of Moreto. 
El titulo de marqués, the title of marquis. 
El nombre de padre de los pobres, tbe name of "father 
of the poor.** 

3. Before the adjectives tan (so), tal (such), otro 
(other), semejante (similar), igual (equal), medio (half), 
derto (certain), tanto, tamaño (so great), and before the 
substantives número (number), parte (part), porción 
(portion), cantidad (quantity), multitud (many), where the 

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^28 Lesson 3. 

•expression becomes more emphatic by the omission of 
the article. Examples: 

Tan noble acdon, so noble an action. 

Tamaño esfuerzo, so great an exertion. 

Gran parte de los infelices, a great number of the un- 
happy men, etc. 

Otra'^ vez, another time. 

Media hora después, half an hour afterwards. 

Tanta virtud, such (so great a) virtue. 

4. In exclamatm'y and interrogatory elliptical sen- 
tences, where the exclamation or interrogation is used 
instead of a negation, likewise in negative elliptical 
sentences, as: 

¿Hay tnyjer más arrogante? 

Is there a more arrogant woman to be found (that is to 

say: there is no woman more arrogant than . . .). 
Nunca vi hombre más impertinente. 
1 never saw a more impudent man. 

5. In elliptical sentences with the admirative 
¡qué , . ..' to render What a . . .! 

¡Qué hombre más orgulloso! what a proud man! 
/ Qué cosa tan bonita ! what a pretty thing ! 

Use of the Neuter Article, lo. 

1. With adjectives in the masculine singular; it 
gives the adjective the force of a substantive, or of a 
substantive-equivalent : 

Lo bueno y lo verdadero, good and truth. 

Todo lo barato es caro, cheap things are dear in the end. 

Eso será lo prudente, that will be the wisest thing. 

2. With adjectives, of either gender and number, 
in conjunction with ser (to he) or any of its equi- 
valents, and que (either expressed or understood), to 
translate how, how much, so, when bringing forth the 
attribute or quality: 

No sabe usted lo mal que está. 

You do not know how ill he is. 

¡Lo alta que está! how tall she has grown! 

¡ Lo atentos que son! they (m.) are so polite. 

No me gustan por lo orgullosas. 

I do not like them, because they (f) are so proud. 

* Otro is never preceded by the indefinite article. 

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Indefinite Article. 229 

3. Before comparatives, or adverbs to form a kind 
of superlative: 

Eso es lo peor, that is the worst of it. 

Lo mejor es callar, the best thing is not say anything. 

Es lo menos que puede hacer, it is the least he can do^ 

¡Lo bien que canta! how well she sings I 

Ignoraba lo cerca que vive V. 

I did not know you lived so near. 

4. With qtie, almost always with the force of a 

Eso es lo que quiero, that is what I like. 

¡Lo que es ser pobre! that shows what it is to be poor I 

The Articles Used Idiomatically. 

Its power of being used in idiomatic expressions is 
characteristic of the Spanish article, as: 

Al contado, ready money. 

Á la española, in the Spanish fashion. 

A la moda, according to the fashion. 

A la chita callando, on the sly. 

Obrar á la ligera, to act thoughtlessly. 

Al óleo, á la aguada, in oils, in water-colours. 

Al punto, al momento, at once, immediately. 

Al revés, al contrario. 

Upside down, quite the contrary, on the contrary. 

Hacerla, to put one's foot in it. 

Guardársela á uno, to nurse a grudge. 

Jugársela á uno de puño. 

To play a nasty trick on someone. 

Pegársela á uno, to take one in. 

No tenderlas todas consigo, to feel uneasy. 

No se como se las compone, 

I do not know how he manages to do it. 

Me la pagará, me las pagará. 

I will make him pay for it. 

Le ha pasado una. 

Something serious has happened to him. 

A lo militar, in a military way. 

A lo torero, in bull-fighter's fashion. 

A lo hipócrita, hypocritically. 

Comer á lo cerdo, to it like a pig. 

JPor lo común, por lo general, generally. 

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230 Lesson 3. 

Traducción. 3. 

1. O Birds fly and () fishes swim. () Ears are to hear 
with. Life is short. All () trees have leaves in summer. 
Any unripe fruit is unwholesome. Brazil has many mines. 
Canada has many pastures. Does the ship call (tr. tocar) 
at Corunna and Ferrol? Until Sunday. I wish you a good 
night. I am going abroad. Has your daughter blue or black 
eyes? The culprit answered bending his head. Has he a 
sore eye or a sore ear? His eye is bad. Heaven and earth 
proclaim the glory of God. I swear by the God of my fathers 
that I have spoken the truth. My elder brother studies 
philosophy; my younger, theology. Hatred and love are two 
powerful motives of () human actions. () Lead is heavier 
than iron, but () iron is more useful than () lead. Has 
Mr. Verguero already written to you from Paris? No, sii*, 
Mr. Verguero has not yet written, but Miss Verguero has 
written to a friend (f,) of hers in our town. You () French 
are the vainest of all () nations. We () authors have more 
to do than you () actors. We (say the) three brothers found 
ourselves in a desperate situation at our uncle's death. I have 
condoled with the captain. Go and wish the young lady 
good evening! 

2. Will you come back at nine or at ten o'clock? Last 
week I (had) received a letter from my friend at Madrid. My 
grandfather died at 85 years of age. Shall you depart [on] 
Thursday or Friday? The ship starts on Tuesdays. Why did 
you not bring (use Compound Perfect) all the cloth? With 
all respect for your word, sir, I beg leave to doubt the (say 
of the) fact. I do not know, whether the ladies spoke Spanish 
or Italian; I was too far off to be able to understand them. 
My brother speaks () French better than () English. Gre- 
gory VII., the son of a peasant, was one of the most cele- 
brated popes. Alexander, Caesar, and Napoleon were the 
three greatest generals of all () ages. Schiller, the greatest 
dramatic poet of Germany, died in the year 1805. Louis XIV. 
of France is also sometimes called Louis the Great. 

3. Charles the Dauntless was Duke of Burgundy. King 
Philip II. of Spain was the father of Don Carlos. Do you 
know this gentleman? Yes, he is the son of a rich American 
merchant. The prince appointed the lieutenant, captain. July 
and August are usually very warm months. December was 
very cold last year. We arrived at Prague (on) Tuesday the 
14th of October. The second person of the plural of () 
Spanish verbs usually ends in s, and the third person of the 
plural in n, Aristides had the surname of the Just. Un- 
happily my best friend died of () fever a few days after his 

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Indefinite Article. 231 

arrival. The awkward footman let the cup fall on the floor. 
I have never lost sight of (de vista) this gentleman. The ship 
rides at anchor in the harbour of Cadiz. I have translated 
this book into French. 

Traducción. 4. 

1. Many people have the habit to sleep an hour after 
dinner. Have you the intention to oflTend me (de ofenderme) 
with these words? Are you hungry or are you thirsty? The 
poor child has the fever (la calentura). The criminal turned 
pale when the Judge appeared. The unfortunate man expired 
at 10 o'clock in the evening. The enthusiasm for a great 
cause enlivens our endeavours. On the day of the trial (dia 
del juicio) there appeared more than thirty persons. Dooms- 
day is the day of the end of the world. Has the servant 
(f.) made the bed? I was confined to bed for a fortnight. 
The young lady will become a nun. One easily takes the 
habit of sleeping long. I go to my aunt's in order to dine 
with her. Do you live with your aunt or with your cousin 
(f) ? When we left the house of the judge, it began to thunder. 
Towards the middle of May we hope to be in London. 

2. Have you read () "Don Juan," by Lord Byron? No, 
but I have read () "Childe Harold." () Canada is a British 
colony in North America. () Corunna and () Ferrol are Spanish 
towns. There are two Castiles, Old Castile and New Castile. 
I study the English and Italian languages. The fourth and 
fifth cantos of this poem are most beautiful (superL), The 
boys and girls greeted the prince on his entering (al entrar 
en) the castle. This young man is a clever physician, but a 
bad poet. He obtained the title of Aulic Councillor for his 
merits. Such a man can never be my friend. Half an hour 
afterwards everything had disappeared. Is there a more 
distrustful man than he? I doubt if (tr, that) there is a 
good theatre in that town. Do you speak of () "Disdain with 
Disdain," by Moreto? 

3.* She buys everything that is cheap, but cheap things 
are dear in the end. That is not the wisest thing. She is an 
admirer (admiradora) of beauty, but you do not know how 
proud she is, and that is not the worst of her. When one 
cannot praise, the best thing is not to say anything. How 
well you speak! I say what I feel. I hate () things done 
on the sly, hypocriticaly. Generally () things are done in 
(se hacen de) that way. How (neut.) ill he is! How (neut,) 
proud they (f.) are for the little they have! That will be 

* For this part of the Exercise see " Use of the Neuter Ar- 
ticle lo'' and "The Articles Used Idiomatically.'' 

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282 Lesson 4. 

the best. Pay always ready money! He has played me a nasty 
trick, but I will make him pay for it. 

Reading Exercise. 

Descripción de la ciudad de Méjico, 
Estaba fundada en un plano muy espacioso, coronado por 
todas partes de altísimas sierras y montañas, de cuyos ríos 
y vertientes, rebalsadas en el valle, se formaban diferentes 
lagunas, y en lo más profundo los dos lagos mayores, que 
ocupaba, con más de cincuenta poblaciones, la nación mejicana. 
Tendría este pequeño mar treinta leguas de circunferencia, y 
los dos lagos que le formaban se unían y comunicaban entre 
sí por un dique de piedra que los dividía, reservando algunas 
aberturas, con puentes de madera, en cuyos lados tenían sus 
compuertas levadizas para cebar el lago inferior, siempre que 
necesitaban de socorrer la mengua del uno con la redundancia 
del otro. Era el más alto de agua dulce y clara, donde se 
hallaban algunos pescados de agradable mantenimiento, y el 
otro de agua salobre y oscura, semejante á la marítima, no 
porque fuesen de otra calidad las vertientes de que se ali- 
mentaba, sino por vicio natural de la misma tierra, donde se 
detenían, gruesa y salitrosa por aquel paraje, pero de grande 
utilidad para la fábrica de la sal, que beneficiaban cerca de 
sus orillas, purificando al sol y adelgazando con el fuego las 
espumas y superfluidades que despedía la resaca. 

[SoUSy Conquista de Méjico.] 

¿Dónde estaba fundada la ciudad de Méjico? 

¿De qué estaba coronado el plano? 

¿Qué se formaban de los río3 y vertientes? 

¿Cuántas poblaciones formaban la nación mejicana, y 
qué territorio ocupaban? 

¿Cómo se unían y comunicaban los dos lagos? 

¿Cómo cebaban el lago inferior? 

¿Cómo eran estos lagos, y cómo era la tierra? 

¿Para qué era útil? 

¿Cómo fabricaban la sal? 

Fourth Lesson. 

(See Part I., Lesson 15.) 


Possessive Adjectives. 

Use of the complete, postpositive forms (mío, 
tuyo, suyo, etc.). 

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Possessive Adjectives. 238 

1. Emphatically after nouns preceded either by the 
definite article, or by the indefinite article [not followed 
by de], or by que; also by the demonstratives or car- 
dinals provided they are not followed by de — i.e.: 

El libro mio está encuadernado^ my book is bound. 
Un amigo suyo lo vio, a friend of his saw it. 
¿ Qué obras suyas conoce F. ? 
What works by him do you know? 
Aquél tío nuestro murió, that uncle of ours died. 
Tres hijas suyas se casaron. 
Three of his daughters married. 
Uno de su^ amigos lo vio, tres de sus hijas se casaron. 

2. In general statements, not emphatically, as a 
predicate of 8ev, to be: 

Son unas parientas mlas, they (f.) are relatives of mine. 
N.B.—jHijo mio! my son! 
Padre nuestro que estás en los cielos. 
Our Father which art in Heaven. 
Muy Sr. mio: — Dear Sir. 
Muy Sra. mia: — Dear Madam. 

Use of the apocopated, prepositive forms (mf, 
tu^ suj etc.). 

1. Not emphatically when either the possessive be- 
gins the sentence or when no article accompanies the 
noun to which the possessive refers: 

Mi amigo lo sabe, my friend knows it. 

Su8 Ubros no se venden, his books do not sell. 

Mis padres han llegado hoy. 

My parents have arrived to-day. 

No me gusta su cara, I do not like his face. 

Le conoci en mi juventud, I knew him in my youth. 

2. After uno, una^ the relatives quien, cual^ etc., 
the cardinals, the ordinals, and the comparatives and 
superlatives, when they are followed by de: 

Uno de mis amigos, one of my friends. 
¿Cuál de sus obras? which of his works? 
Tres de sus hijas, three of his daughters. 
JEl m,ayor de mis hermanos, my eldest brother. 
N.B.— The Spanish definite article replaces the English 
Possessive Adjective in such sentences as: 

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2S4 Lesson 4. 

Me he cortado el dedo, I have cut my finger. 
8e ha roto la pierna, he has broken his leg. 
He perdido los guantes y él anillo, 
I have lost my gloves and my ring. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

Use of the forms with the article (el mío, la 
mía, etc.). 

1. When referring to a noun in the same sentence 
or in a previous one (except in answering a question 
with ¿quién?): 

Si no tiene F. paraguas llévese V. el mío. 
If you have not got an umbrella take mine. 
¿Es esta la mía ó la suya? 
Is this mine or his (pen, etc.)? 

¿ Be quién es este paraguas ? — Mío. 
Whose umbrella is this? — Mine. 

2. In answering to ¿que? ¿cuál? ¿cuántos?, 

also in elliptical sentences, as: 

¿ Qué libro este? — El mió. 

Whose book is this? — Mine. 

¿ Á cuál amigo se refiere F. ? — Al mió. 

Which friend do you mean? — My friend. 

/ Qué memoria la mia ! v^hat a memory mine is I 
§ 1. As stated in Lesson 15, § 4 (Part L), the 
possessive adjective is in Spanish, as in EngUsh, 
commonly expressed but once, if two or more nouns, 
connected by y or ó, follow each other, thus: 

Su persona y (sus) facultades, his person and qualities. 

If, however, these substantives denote persons, or 

if they are of different numbers, or if a particular stress 

is laid on each word, the possessive should be repeated; 


Sits fueros, sus hrios, sus pramáticas, su voluntad, 


His privileges, his courage, his deeds, his will. 

He perdido m^i sombrero y m,is guantes, 

I have lost my hat and my gloves. 

Mi amiga y m,i prima. 

My friend (f) and my cousin (f,). 

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Possessive Pronouns. 235 

N,B, — Mi amiga y prima would be: my friend and 
cousin (i.e., the same person). 

§ 2. If the substantive is preceded or followed by 
an adjective, either the apocopated or the complete form 
of the possessive may be used. The latter is preferred 
if a stress is laid on the adjective, or if the expression 
is exclamative; thus: 

Mi querido amigo, my dear friend. Whereas: 
¡Querido amigo mió I dear friend! 

§ 3. The complete form should be used if not 

possession, but a mere personal reference is intended, as: 

Es costumbre suya, that is his habit (a custom of his). 

§ 4. By using the indefinite article together with 

the possessive adjective, the expression is rendered more 

emphatic. Thus : 

Es amigo mio, means: he is living on friendly terms 

with me. 
Whereas : 
Es un amigo mio, means: he is a friend of mine. 

§ 5. Sometimes a demonstrative pronoun is added 
to the possessive adjective, as: this book of yours. In 
this case either the apocopated or the complete form 
may be used, as: 

Esta tu culpa or esta culpa tuya, this fault of yours. 

§ 6. Very often the possessive pronoun of the 3rd 
person is rendered by the genitive of the personal pro- 
noun, especially if a misconception might arise from the 
possessive pronoun being alike for both genders. Thus : 

My pen, his, and hers. 

Mi pluma, ¡a suya y la de ella {lit. that of her). 

This is her book, and that is his. 

Este es sti libro y aquel es el de él, 

§ 7. The possessive of the polite form (your) has 
been mentioned Part I., page 53, § 7. Note now how 
it is rendered in Spanish. 

Mi casa y la de F. (or y su casa de F.). 
My house and yours. 

Mis amigos y los de F. (or y sus amigos de F.). 
My friends and yours. 

jY".J5. — The same mode of expression should be employed 
if "yours" is preceded by the auxiliary verb "to be," as: 

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236 Le88on 4. 

j estos guantes son los de V. 
These gloves aie yours, < estos guantes son stis guantes 
\ de r. 
N.B.— Estos guantes son de F. (lit,: these gloves are of 
you). * 

Traducción. 5. 

1. A friend of his saw her and told (¡o dijo á) one of my 
friends. Her words were, my son I Do you come from her 
house or from your house? Neither from hers nor from mine. 
Which of his works do you like best? The best of his works is 
**Hamlet*\ She had always loved him for his kindness towards 
his sisters. This poet is distinguished for his profoundness and 
clearness. Have you found your knife and gloves? I have 
found them, but I have lost my pocket-handkerchief and 
my earrings. My friend and cousin (m,) has no idea how 
much he owes me. Last night my aunt and cousin (f.) har- 
rived by (the) train. Dearest sister! You (tr, thou) do 
not know how much I love you (tr, thee), or you would 
think better of your (thy) ^ brother and friend ! It is an 
arrogance on (tr, of) your part (possess, pronoun) to pronounce 
(a) judgment on a matter that does not concern you. No 
prudence on my side (mia) could have prevented (prevenido) 
that danger. So much the worse for him {tr. It is in his 
harm) if he does not follow (the) good advice. It is your 
fault if we do not succeed. It is a habit of mine to call 
everything by its right name. This gentleman is a friend 
of mine. Whose book is this? Mine. What a memory mine 
is! My friend is a writer; have you read his works? I 
have read some. Which of his works? 

2. Mr. Ferrer is a relation of mine, but he is not a friend 
of mine. (This) your levity will do you the greatest harm. 
(This) my behaviour needs not to be concealed from anybody. 
Next year my uncle and yours will (go to) visit the Exhibition 
in Paris. Your brother and his have settled the conditions 
of the sale. Our house, his, and hers will be newly painted 
this year. My uncle has always provided for his sister and 
her children like a father. This is his pen ; where (did Agnes 
leave) has Agnes hers. Whose are these beautiful steel pens? 
They are yours. Miss (N.)! My children and yours have done 
great mischief in our neighbour's garden. 

Beadingr Exercise. 
Descripción de Ta plajea del mercado de México, 
Digo esto porque á caballo nuestro capitán, con todos 
los más que tenian caballo y la más parte de nuestros snjda- 

* The English verb "to belong to" is generally translated 
by ser de. 

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Degrees of Comparison with Verbs. 237 

dos, muy apercibidos fuimos al Tatelulco, é iban muchos ca- 
ciques que el Montezuma envió para que nos acompañasen; 
7 cuando llegamos á la gran plaza que se dice el Tatelulco, 
como no habíamos visto tal cosa, quedamos admirados de la 
multitud de gente y mercaderías que en ella habla y del gran 
concierto y regimiento que en todo tenían; y los principales 
que iban con nosotros nos lo iban mostrando : cada género de 
mercaderías estaba por si, y tenían situados y señalados sus 
asientos. Comencemos por los mercaderes de oro y plata, y 
piedras ricas y plumas y mantas y cosas labradas, y otras 
mercaderías, esclavos y esclavas; digo que traían tantos á 
vender á aquella gran plaza como traen los portugueses los 
negros de Guinea; y traíanlos atados en unas varas largas, 
con collares á los pescuezos, porque no se les huyesen, y otros 
dejaban sueltos. Luego estaban otros mercaderes que vendían 
ropa más bista, y algodón, y otras cosas de hilo torcido, y 
cacagüeteros que vendían cacao; y de esta manera estaban 
cuantos géneros de mercaderías hay en toda Nueva España. 

[Bernal Diaz del Castillo, Conquista de Nueva España.] 

¿Quiénes fueron á Tatelulco? 

¿Cómo iban? 

¿Qué hizo Montezuma? 

¿Qué les sucedió al llegar á la gran plaza? 

¿ De que se quedaron admirados ? 

¿Qué hacían los principales que iban con ellos? 

¿Quiénes eran los mercaderes? 

¿Cómo llevaban á los esclavos? 

¿Cuales eran los géneros de mercaderías? 

Fifth Lesson. 

Degrees of Comparison with Verbs. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

1. Máximo, greatest, and mínimo, smallest, and ín- 
fimo, lowest, are only used in certain phrases, as: 

Un circulo máximo (mínimo), a great (small) circle. 
Un disparate máximo, the greatest nonsense. 
Binen por la cosa más minima. 
They quarrel for the slightest thing. 
A precios Ínfimos, at the lowest prices. 

2. The forms bonísimo (also buenisimo) and malísimo 
have almost the same signification as óptimo (best) and 

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Lesson 5. 

pésimo (worst), whereas el menor (the least) expresses the 
accessory idea of comparison^ el mínimo denoting a6- 
solutely the lowest degree. Of pequeño (little) there 
exists a regular superl. absol. pequeñísimo, meaning the 
*'very least," the *'most trifling," etc. Supremo corre- 
sponds with the English adjective "supreme," as: el 
consejo supremo^ the supreme council. Sumo means the 
highest — i.e., the greatest, as: 

Con sumo gustOy with the greatest pleasure. 

Formulae of Comparison with Verbs. 

1. For equality: 

lo sabe como yo. 
he andado tanto como usted, 
no sabe tanto como dicen, 
le conozco tan bien como 

lo sé no menos que él. 

tanto como, 


as much as 

tan bien como, as well as 

no tnenos que, not less than 

N.£. — Lee tanto que pierde la vista. 

gana tanto que no sabe lo que gana. 

2. For superiority: 
m,ás que, more than 

mejor que. 

better than 

paseo más que antes, 
le quiere más que él á 

le conozco mejor que usted, 
escribe mejor que Cervantes, 

3. For inferiority: 
menos que, less than 

los jóvenes saben menos 

que los viejos, 
estudia m^nos que su her- 
not— so— as no sale tanto como antes, 

no me costó tanto como á 
worse than lo hace peor que yo, 

está peor que estaba. 
not so well as no lo hace tan bien como yo. 
no duermo tan bien como 

4. If a number forras the second part af a com- 
parison, the English "than" is not rendered by que 
(see page 80) but by de [as in French], Thus: 

no— tanto— CO' 

peor que, 

no tan bien co 

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Degrees of Comparison with Verbs. 289 

Cayeron más de cincuenta hombres. 
There fell more than fifty men. 
Habia menos de veinte hombres. 
There were less than twenty men there. 

If, however, the first part of the comparison is 
negative, **than" is translated by que^ as: 

No tengo m,ás que cinco duros, 

I have only ^y% dollars. 
N,B,—No tengo m,ás de cinco duros, 

I have not more than ^\q dollars. 

5. If the second part of the comparison is an 
accessory sentence (seepage 79, §4b), "than" is rendered 
by de, as: 

Mi amigo tiene más (or menos) libros de los que puede 

My friend has more (or less) books than he can read. 

If, on the other hand, the comparative is an ad- 
verb J que lo is employed, as: 

Habla el español mejor que lo (or de lo que lo) escribe,. 
He speaks the Spanish language better than he writes it. 

6. The English "the more the more" and 

"the less the less" are rendered by cuanto más 

(menos) .... (tanto) más (menos), as : 

Cuanto, más dinero tiene^ (tanto) más quiere, 
The more money he has, the more he wants. 
Note, — The first part of the comparison may likewise be 
expressed by mientras más (menos), but then in the second 
part only más (and not tanto más) follows, whereas after 
cuanto más the corresponding tanto may, or may not be ex- 
pressed, as shown by the above sentence. 

If cuanto or tanto are followed by a substantive^ they 
become adjectives, and therefore agree with their noun, as: 
Era tanto más aplicado, cuanta más facilidad tenia 

para estudiar. 
He was the more diligent, the more talent he had for 

7. If in English a superlative immediately follows 
a numeral, as: "owe of the greatest men," etc., the 
Spanish equivalent may be rendered as follows: 

One of the most cruel kings. 
Tin rey de los más crueles. 
Uno de los reyes más crueles. 

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240 Lesson 5. 

8. The adjectives most and least are rendered as 

(a) By la mayor (menor) parte, if a substantive 
follows, as: 

Most men = La mayor parte de los hombres. 

(b) If these words are neuter — i.e., if they are them- 
selves substantives, as: *'the least," "the most," they 
are rendered lo más (lo menos) ^ as: 

That is the least you can do. 

Esto es lo menos que Y. puede hacer. 

(c) If the substantive following most or least denotes 
not persons but things, los (las) más (menos) de los 
(las) may be used, as well as la mayor (menor) parte 
de . . ., as: 

(The) most houses of this town. 

Las más de las casas de esta ciudad, 

9. The highest degree of comparison is rendered 
in Spanish: 

(a) By the relat, superl. preceded by lo más (me- 
nos), as: 

An extremely clear river, un rio lo más limpio. 

An extremely simple woman, una mujer lo m,as sencilla, 

(b) By the verb poder (to be able), sabm* (to know), 
or, less frequently, by caber, as: 

He shouted as loud as possible, gritó lo m,á8 que podia. 

He did his best, hizo cuanto supo. 

I shall do my utmost. 

Haré cuanto pueda (todo cuanto cabe en mi), 

(c) By lo (la), todo (toda) . . . posible, if a substantive 
without another adjective follows, as: 

With the utmost correctness. 

Con la posible corrección (or con la corrección posible). 

(d) By hasta no más (lit, *'till no more"), in which 
case the substantive with its adjective should precede, as: 

An extremely timid woman. 

Una mujer tímida hasta no más. 

Degrees of Comparison with Adverbs. 

1. Spanish adverbs expressing ideas which admit 
of comparison follow the rules given for the adjectives : 

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Degrees of Comparison with Verbs. 


tan lejos como, más ó menos lejos que. 

tan tarde como, más 6 menos tarde que, 

tan dulcemente como, más ó menos dulcemente que, 

muy lejos, lejisimo, 

muy tarde, tardísimo, 

muy dulcemente, dulcisimamente. 

Note the following: 

mucho antes (not muy antes), 
mucho después (not muy después), 
mucho más (not muy más), 
mucho menos (not 'tnuy menos). 

N,B,—lrí degrees of comparison acá and allá are used 
instead of aqui and alii; 

tan acá (ahi, allá) más acá (ahí, allá) muy acá (ahí, allá), 
como, que, 

Formulae of Comparison with Adverbs. 
1. For equality: 

tan — corno, as — as 

no— menos— 

not— less— than 

2. For superiority: 
tnás—gtief more— tban 

3. For inferiority: 
míenos— que, less— than 

no — tctn—conto, not— so— as 


1. To quarrel for the slightest 
sense. She is a very good woman, 
Spanish Conv.-Grammar. 

vive tan lejos como yo, 
llegué tan tarde como éL 
toca tan lien como canta, 
vive no menos lejos que yo. 
llegó no menos tarde queyo. 
toca no únenos bien que 

vive más lejos que yo. 
se levantó más tarde que 

habla más dulcemente que 

su hermana, 

se ha levantado menos tarde 

que ayer, 
le veo menos á menudo 

que le veia. 
vive menos cómodamente 

que antes, 
no le veo tan á menudo 

como le veia. 

thing is the greatest non- 
but he is very wicked ; he 

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242 Lesson 5. 

is one of the most wicked men. She had very bad taste ( — 
pésimo) when she married him. I will do it with the greatest 
pleasure. ( ) Fruit is now sold at the lowest prices. He know» 
her as I (do). You do not know him as well as I do. I know 
him as much as you do. I have read more than I read. 
He speaks better () French than () English. I walk more 
than I used to (solía). There were more than a thousand per- 
sons there. We waited more than three hours. I have seen 
that opera more than six times. They spend more than ne- 
cessary — at least, more than they ought to. () Old people have 
more experience than () young people. She does not receive sa 
much as she used to, because she is not so well as she was. 
She is worse than she was. She lives very far and retires 
very early. I knew her much before I knew (de conocerle á) 
you. You knew me much later. Come a little closer (más 
acá). Move back (Hágase V.) a little farther (más allá). 
Does he live so far as he did before? He does not live 
nearer than he did. I do not go to bed so late as when I 
was young. They do not go to the theatre so often as 
before. Lying is the worst excuse of a fault. **Wallenstein" is 
the best dramatic work of Schiller. In the whole town there 
is no worse lodging than ours. The greatest sum does not 
suffice to satisfy his wishes. I have read the new novel with 
the greatest pleasure. One hears such abominable words only 
amongst (entre) the lowest people. Did you pay more than 
200 reals for this coat ? No, sir, I did not pay more than 180, 
This lady has more whims than she can satisfy. You write 
English better than you speak it. 

2. The more wealth we possess, the more we wish to 
possess. The more faults we have, the less we are inclined 
to confess them. These people are the more presumptuous, 
the less knowledge they possess. The more talent he has for 
learning, the less diligent he is. Frederick Barbarossa was 
one of the most powerful emperors of Germany. (The) most 
young people like pleasure (better) more than work. Ten 
dollars are the least you can give. It is you, my friend, who 
always speak most and act (do) least. The greatest number 
of the trees of this garden are old and do not bear any 
fruit. Few (tr. the least) things please us long, as soon a& 
we possess them. Italy has an extremely agreeable climate. 
I said as much as I could, but he would not believe me. 
The prince promised him to do his utmost (fr. poder). Write 
this letter with the utmost care! An extremely impudent 
beggar followed me through several streets. 

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Numerals. 243 

Reading Exercise. 

Be las riquezas del Peru, 
Los que miran con otros ojos que los comunes las ri- 
quezas que el Perú ha enviado al mundo viejo y derramá- 
dolas por todo él, dicen que antes le han dafíado que aprove- 
chado, porque dicen que tas riquezas comúnmente antes son 
causa de vicios que de virtudes, porque á sus posesores los 
inclinan á la soberbia, á la ambición y á la gula, y que los 
hombres, criándose con tantos regalos como hoy tienen, salen 
afeminados, inútiles para el gobierno de la paz, y mucho 
más para el de la guen-a, y que como tales emplean todo su 
cuidado en inventar comidas y bebidas, galas y arreos ; y que 
de inventarlos cada día tantos y tan extraños, ya no saben 
que inventar, ó inventan torpezas en lugar de galas, que más 
son hábito de mujeres que de hombres, como hoy se vé; y 
que si han crecido las rentas de los ricos, para que ellos vi- 
van en abundancias y regalos, también han crecido las mi- 
serias de los pobres, para que ellos mueran de hambre y des- 
nudez, por la carestía que el mucho dinero ha causado en 
los mantenimientos y vestidos; que, aunque sea pobremente, 
ya los pobres el día de hoy no se pueden vestir ni comer por 
la mucha carestía, y que ésta es la causa de haber tantos 
pobres en la república, que mejor lo pasaban cuando no había 
tant^ moneda. 

[El Inca Garcüaso de la Vega, Comentarios Keales.] 


¿Qué se dice de las riquezas del Perú? 

¿Quiénes lo dicen? 

¿Por qué dicen que las riquezas son causa de vicios? 

¿Qué les sucede á los hombres que se crian con tantos 

regalos ? 
¿ Y cuál es la consecuencia de ello ? 
¿De haber crecido la riqueza en los ricos y la miseria 

en los pobres qué resulta? 
¿Cuál es la causa de haber tantos pobres? 
¿Cuándo lo pasaban mejor? 

Sixth Lesson. 


(See Lessons 16, 17, Part I.) 
§ 1. In colloquial language, iino^ una, are very 
much used pronominally, either with a personal or 
with an impersonal meaning: 


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244 Lesson 6. 

A veces uno no piensa en lo que hace. 

Sometimes one does not think about what he is doing. 

No sabe uno que hacer, si ir ó no ir. 

I do not know what to do, whether to go, or not. 

As an indefinite, uno, una, may be used both in 
the singular and in the plural: 

Ha estado uno á preguntar por V. 
Somebody called for you. 
Ha venido una con un niño. 
A woman with a child came. 
Pasaban unos, y lo vieron. 
Some that were passing saw it. 

As an indefinite, as well as a partitive, may be 
U3ed with the article: 

Be los dos, él uno escapó, one of the two escaped. 
Las unas decían una cosa, las otras, otra. 
Some of them (f.) were saying one thing, the others 

§ 2. AmboSj both is often expressed (see p. 59, 10), 
by uno y otro, and negatively, by ni uno ni otro. Seldom 
*'both" is rendered by el uno y él otro. Likewise, dos 
occurs with the signification "both," as: 

Sus do8 primos, both his cousins. 
¿ Tiene Y. pan y vino ? Tengo uno y otro. 
Have you (some) bread and wine? 1 have both. 
N.B.—Both used adverbially means á la vez, á un 
mismo tiempoj and may be rendered by tan(to) . . . como . . ., 
or negatively by no menos — que. Thus, he is both prudent 
and brave, is rendered by: 

Es á la vez prudente y valiente. 
Es á un mismo tiempo prudente y valiente, 
Es tan prudente como valiente, or negatively : 
No es míenos prudente que valiente. 

§ 3. Some peculiar expressions may be noted: 
Á últimos de mes, in the last days of the month. 
Á primeros de enero, in the first days of January. 
A mediados de semana, about the middle of the week. 
We need not add that in these examples the word dias 
(days) is understood. 

§ 4. Frequently primero is used adverbially with 
the signification first(ly) and sooner, or it is periphrased 
by to like better, to prefer, etc. 

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Indefinite Numerals. 245 

Primero quiero comer, first I will eat. 
Primero me quedo con el libro que venderlo tan barato, 
I would sooner keep the book (I prefer keeping the book) 
than sell it so cheaply. 

§ 5. The adverb first and last are frequently trans- 
lated primero and último, preceded by the respective 
article, as: 

Los niños se recogieron los primeros (los últimos), 
The children went away first (last). 

Indefinite Numerals. 

(See Lesson 18, Part I.) 

1. Alguno* followed by que otro means now 
and again, now and then, very few, seldom. It is 
equivalent to the plural of alguno, as: 

Leo alguna que otra novela. 

I read now and again a novel. 

Voy alguna que otra vez* 

I go now and then (seldom). 

Le veo alguno que otro día. 

I see him now and then. 

Hdbia alii alguna que otra persona. 

There were very few people there. 

2. The contrary of alguno is ninguno (none). It 
requires the negation only when follotving the verb. 

8u opinión no es de ningún valor. 
His opinion is of no importance. 
N,B,-'En ningún pais de Europa, 
In no country of Europe. 
En ningún caso, in no case. 

3. Nadie (nobody) and nada (nothing) follow the 
same rules as ninguno — i.e,: 

fji".^- ] "' ■"«" """»«■ 

In the following cases they are expressed in Eng- 
lish by the affirmative words one, anybody, anything. 

* If alguno, mucho, poco, tanto, harto are used adverbially 
before más, they beconie true adjectives, as : Alguna (mucha, poca} 
más agua, Some (much, a little) more water. 

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246 Lesson 6. 

(a) In rhetorical questions—; 

¡Denws á la nueva población el nombre de Santa Fé! 

¿ Cabe en el mundo ninguno tan glorioso ? 
Let US give to the new town the name Santa Fé! Is 

there a more renowned one in the world? 
¿Hay nada más formidable? 
Is there anything more terrible? 

(b) After a comparative — e.g.: 

F. lo sabe mejor que nadie. 

You know it better than anyone else. 

Also the preposition, sin, tvithouf, and the conjunction 
derived from it, sin que, icitliout (that) change the follow- 
ing indefinite numeral into a negative one — e.g.: 

Sin ningún amigo, without any friend. 

Sin que na^ie lo supiera, without anyone knowing it. 

4. Quienquiera is only used substantively (i.e., 
without a substantive), whereas cualquiera is either 
an adjective or a substantive, as: 

He de salir con cualquier tiempo. 
I must go out in any weather whatever. 
Dígalo F. á quienquiera. 
You may tell whom you please. 
Note,—\{ cualquiera or quienquiera introduce a relative 
accessory sentence, they should be followed by que, as: 
Cualquiera que sea el tiempo he de salir. 
Whatever the weather may be, 1 must go out. 
Cualquiera que lo diga se equivoca. 
Whoever may say it is mistaken. 
N.B.—Ese en un cualquiera, he is nobody. 

5. Todo (all, whole, every) is either an adjective or 
a substantive. In the former case it should be followed 
by the article (as in French and Italian), or by its 
substitutes, unless in sentences of a general character, 
with the meaning of every, — Compare: 

Todo el mundo, the whole world. 
Todo un día, a whole day. 
Toda mi casa, my whole house. 

Todo hombre honrado, every honest man. 
Toda día trae sus penas, every day brings its sorrows. 
Toda casa tiene puerta, every hoise has a door. 

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Indefinite Numerals. 247 

On the other hand, the article is omitted before 
proper names or in adverbial expressions, as: 

Por toda E$paña, all over Spain (lit. through the 

whole Spain). 
Con toda puntuálidadj with all punctuality, in the nick 

of time. 

If everyone or all is followed by a rdative pronoun, 

this pronoun is rendered either by the corresponding 

form of cuanto or by que preceded by the article, as: 

Todo lo que tengo, all (that which) I have. 

Todo el que lo haya dicho, whoever may have said so ; or 

(Todos) cuantos lo hayan dicho* (but not cuanto lo 

ha dicho). 
El principe ha hablado con (todos) cuantos estaban 

The prince spoke to all those who were present. 
Bemark, — Todo is also neuter and corresponds to the 
English everything, as: 

Él habla de todo, he speaks of everything. 
N'.B,— TodOf if adverbially used (as much as, all, every- 
thing, entirely), is invariable, and when followed by a verb is 
used in connection with que, cuanto — i.e.; 

Lo ha perdido todo, he has lost everything. 
Ha jugado todo lo que tenia. 
He has gambled away all he had. 
Todo cuanto se haga, sera inútil. 
All that may be done will be useless. 

Idioms with toclo: 

Es todo un caballero, he is a perfect gentleman. 

Es una mujer todo corazón, she is a woman all heart» 

Lo sabe y, con todo, no lo dice. 

He knows it, and yet does not tell. 

Lo sabe él y todo, even he knows it. 

6. Mismo, saine, self, own, is used adjectively, as: 
la misma cosa, the same thing, su mismo padre, his 
own father. Sometimes it occurs as an absol. superl., 
as: la mismísima cosa, the very same thing, and 
frequently it corresponds to the English even, as: 

La misma reina lo ha dicho. 

Even the queen said so. 

* Todos cuantos lo han dicho, all those who said it. 

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248 Lesson 6. 

In conjunction with the personal pronouns it 
immediately follows the pronoun, thus: 
Nosotros mismos, we ... . ourselves. 
Vosotras mismas, you .... yourselves (few,). 

If the personal pronoun is a dative or accusative 
case, both the conjunctive and the absolute form of 
the same pronoun should be used, as: 

He will give it me (to myself). 
Me lo dará á mí mismo. 

Note the expressions: 

Hoy mismo, this very day. 

Mañana mismo, on the (very) morrow itself. 

Propio, propia (self, same, own) may be used 
as an adjective and as a pronoun: 

Al propio tiempo, at the same time. 

A las 9 de la mañana del propio dia. 

At 9 o'clock in the morning of the same day. 
N.B, — Identity, equality, are the striking features of 
mismo; possession, suitability, those oí propio. Compare: 

Ya no soy el mism^ (not el propio). 

I am not the same man. 

Tiene coche propio (not mismo). 

He has a private carriage (of his own). 

Esto es lo fnism4> qtie eso. 

This and that are the same. 

Eso es lo propio del caso. 

That is the proper thing under the circumstances. 
Thus, though mismo and propio may join nouns, 
and pronouns, only mismo, on account of its signi- 
fication, may join adverbs of time and place : 

To propio (yo m^ismo) lo oi, I saw it myself. 

Él propio (él mism,o) Juan lo asegura. 

John himself affirms it. 

Ayer m^ismo (not propio), indeed yesterday. 

Aquí nUsm^o (not propio), in this very place. 
7. Demás (from de — más), "pther," is invariable 
and used both adjectively and substantively, as: 

Las demias hermanas, the other sisters. 

Los demás no han hablado. 

The others did not speak (have not spoken). 

Dígale V. eso, y yo le diré lo demús. 

Tell him that, I will tell him the rest. 

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Indefinite Numerals. 249. 

A derivative of demás is demasiado, ''too much," 
whicli (like the Italian troppo) is used both adjectively 
and substantively, as: 

Demasiada gente, too many people. 

Bebió demasiado vino, be drank too much wine. 

Somewhat stronger than demasiado is sobrado, as: 
Ha dado á su hijo sobrado dinero. 
He gave his son too much money. 
^.jB.— From sobrado is formed the adverb sobradamente, 

8. Bastante and harto (enough) are used both 
adjectively and substantively, and sometimes even ad- 
verbially, as: 

Tengo bastante dinero, I have money enough. 

Me ha dicho bastante (harto), he has told me enough. 

Harto se ¡o he dicho, I have told him many a time. 

9. Otd*o, -a (other, another) is both an adjective 
and a pronoun. As already stated (p. 69, 7), it never 
takes the indefinite article. Coupled with uno, as: uno 
con otro or uno y otro, pi. unos y otros, it corresponds 
to the English both; uno á otro with one another, each 
other, as: 

Eso es otra cosa, that is a different thing. 
Déme F. otro, give another. 
Salieron uno con otro, they both went out. 
Miráronse unos á otros, they looked at each other. 

Followed by tanto, it means just as much or quite 
as much (as many), as: 

Yo tengo dos varas, y V, tiene otra>s tantas*. 
I have two ells, and you have just (quite) as much. 

otro libro, el otro libro, another book, the other book. 
otro dia, el otro dia, another day, the other day. 
otras casas, las otras casas, other houses, the other 

10. Tal (such, such a thing) is both a substantive 
and an adjective. It also means the aforesaid, the 
same, etc., as: 

M tal Diego, the aforesaid D. 

* In this case otro tanto should agree in gender and num- 
ber with the word to which it refers. 

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250 Lesson 6. 

Joined to uno, it means a certain, etc., as: 
Un tal López lo ha dichOy a Mr. Lopez said so. 
Habla de una tal Elvira^ he speaks of a certain E. 
-^0 haré yo tal, I will not do such a thing. 

Preceded by cual it means as — so; thus: 
Cual es el padre, tal es el hijo. 
As the father, so is the son. 

In proverbial expressions tal is often used instead 
of cual, as: 

Tal amo, tal criado, like master, like man*. 
Idioms with tal are: 

Por tal razón, therefore. 
Si tal; no tal, yes, indeed; no, indeed. 
Ese es un tal, he is a rogue. 
No hay tal, no such thing! 
Con tal que, on condition that .... 
¿ Qué tal? — Tal cual, Well, how are you? — Middling. 
Tal vez, perhaps. 

11. Fulano or fulano de tal (Mr. So-and-So): 
Fulano no quiere pagar, So-and-So won't pay. 
Tiene en su casa á fulano y á zutano. 
He has Mr. So-and-So and Mr. So-and-So at his house. 

Traducción. 7. 

1. Sometimes one (m.) does not know what to do. One 
(f.) does not know what to say. Somebody (m.) has been. 
Some (m.) came, but did not leave their naiaaes. Oae-of 
the two (say of the two, the one) was a foreigner. Both 
my sisters are now in Paris. Here is ice and lemonade; 
you may have both if you like. The ship will arrive 
here in the last days of June. We left the town in 
the first days of January. Will you write a letter, or give 
me your orders by word of mouth? I prefer (see p. 244, § 4) 
keeping my old servant to (tr, than) taking (Inf.) another 
(one). The gentlemen entered last and the ladies went out 
first. Have you found any (see page 245, 1) book that you 
could recommend me? In no town of this country are there 
so many foreigners as in the capital. These jewels are of no 
value. None of your friends (has) said that you had not done 
your duty. He arrived in this town without having (Inf) 
any acquaintances here. Is there anything more precious than 
the friendship of a virtuous man? 

* In French: Tel maitre, tel valet 

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Indefinite Numerals. 251 

2. I go now and then to that house, and I sing now 
and again; I meet very few people there. You know me 
better than anybody else; how can you say that I have 
cheated my friends on (en) any occasion? Whatever ex- 
cuse he may proffer, I shall not pardon him. The whole 
town speaks of this accident. All over Earope one finds 
Englishmen travelling. I have listened to him with the 
greatest (toda) attention. Everybody that (has) seen it will 
say that I am right. All he said was the purest truth. 
Every sensible man will be of my opinion. Here you have 
your poems; I (have) read them all, but none has pleased 
me. You speak of everything, you judge of everything, 
and yet you know nothing. That is all (which) I have heard. 
The child screamed with all its might, and nevertheless the 
nurse did not awake. She has lost all she had, and yet even 
in her poverty she is a perfect lady, 

3. She is not the same woman she was (que era) since 
(desde que) she has a private carriage. This (neuter) and that 
(n.) are not the same. I heard it myself, indeed, to-day, in 
this very place. The eount (has) told me so himself. Has the 
footman given it to you (thee) himself? No, he has not given it 
to me himself, the (maid-) servant gave it to me. Give me 
another book, the other book. Where are the other books? 
Have you not (got) them all? Yes, you (thou) have given 
them to me yourself. The coachman got five dollars, and the 
cook (f,) as much; the others got nothing. No, (indeed) you 
want (pide) too much, my friend. That is too much money 
for so little work. He has shown (to) his children too much 
tenderness. Have you wine enough? Thank you, sir, I have 
enough. Yesterday he lost ten dollars, and I gained (gané) 
just as much. Yesterday they spoke (with) me of a certain 
count Fabian; is he still here? The proverb says: Like 
mistress, like maid; like master, like man. Shall you come 
with me? Yes, (but) on condition that we return soon. 

Reading Exercise. 

De algunas costumbres de los Incas. 

Tuvieron los indios por costumbre traer las orejas hora- 
dadas, y el primero que lo usó fue Mango Capa, Inca, de 
donde todos proceden. Y visto después como este traía esta 
señal, y que habia sido valiente, usaron después los sucesores 
de ella, y otros muchos, asimismo, á quienes ellos daban li- 
cencia, por ser criados, ó allegados, ó parientes, como se dirá. 
Y tuvieron por grande blasón y nobleza esto, y asi lo tienen 
el día de hoy. La solemnidad y costumbre que entre ellos 
habia cuando se horadaban las orejas, y se hacían Incas (que 

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252 Lesson 7. 

es como cuando arma el Bey á uno caballero), es ésta. To- 
dos los que se habían de horadar las orejas venían donde 
estaba el señor, y todos allí juntos ayunaban treinta días 
(que era no comer sal ni ají, que son dos cosas que ellos más 
usaban en sus comidas, y usan el día de hoy). Vestíanse 
todos unas camisetas casi blancas, que tenían por delante una 
señal como cruz: y estas no las vestían en otro tiempo, sino 
para este efecto. Y á los quince días juntábanse todos, y 
subían á un cerro, el más alto que hubiese, ó iban corriendo, 
y los que más presto subían estos eran tenidos en más, y por 
más valientes y señalados. 

[Diego Fernandez, Historia del Perú.] 


¿Qué tenían por costumbre los indios? 

¿ Por qué la usaron después los sucesores de Mango Capa? 

¿Por qué lo tenían? 

¿Qué cosa era hacerse Inca? 

¿ Qué hacían todo? los que se habían de horadar las 

orejas ? 
¿En qué consistía su ayuno? 
¿ Qué se vestían ? 

¿Se vestían esas camisas en otro tiempo? 
¿Qué hacían á los quince días, y quiénes eran tenidos 

en más, y por más valientes? 

Seventh Lesson. 


(See Lesson 24, Part I.) 

Personal Pronouns. 

§ 1. From numerous examples the learner will have 
observed that the personal pronoun in the nominative 
case is usually omitted before the verb, provided no 
stress be laid upon it, or that no misconception can 
possibly arise by this omission. Thus we should say: 
Yo trabajo más que tú, I work more than you (thou), be- 
cause here the comparison requires the personal pronoun. 

§ 2. The form of address usted (V.) or its plural 
ustedes (VV., Yds,), is only omitted if it has been 
employed immediately before, so as to avoid every 
chance of a misconception, as: 

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Pronouns. 253 

Y, ha venido y me ha hablado mucho, 

Yott have come and (you) have spoken much with me. 

§ 3. Concerning the position of the dative and 
accusative case of the conjunctive personal pronouns 
the general rules have been given, page 100, 2(b). 
Further particulars are here added. 

(a) Contrary to the general rules, the conjunctive 
pronouns are affixed to the verb if the latter begins the 
sentence, also in poetry and in literary prose, as: 

Alegróme f I rejoice. 

Porque alii llego sediento, 

Pido vino de lo nuevo; 

MidenlOy dánmelo, béíolo, 

Pagólo, y voyme contento: 

Parecióle ser ya tiempo oportuno. 

It seemed to him üi^t it was the right time (to be the r. t.). 

(b) These pronouns are rarely applied to the first 
and second persons plural. If the accent is on the ante- 
penultimate of the verb, they can never be affixed. Thus : 
ló8 mandaríamos, we should send them, but never 

• (c) In the case of auxiliary verbs used in a wider 
sense, the pronoun can either be put before these or be 
attached to the following gerund or infinitive—; 

Iba buscándolo or Lo iba buscando. • 

He sought it (cf. Lesson 23, The Gerund). 

No me lo quiere decir, or: 

No quiere decírmelo, he won't tell me. 

Se estaba levantando, or: 

Estábase levantando, or: 

Estaba levantándose, he was rising. 

No he de decirlo, or: 

No lo he de decir, I shall not tell.' 
N.B. — In literary style, this practice is also admissible 
in the tenses compounded with haber, as: 

Habíanlo hallado, they had found it, 
but in conversation the auxiliary is always preceded by the 
. pronoun: . 

: , Lo habían hallado. 

(d) If an accessory sentence refers to a conjunctive 
personal pronoun in the dative or accusative case, the 
accessory sentence should be preceded by the absolute 
form of the same pronoun, as: 

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254 Lesson 7. 

Declaróte por mi heredero á tí que has tenido ingenio 
para entender el sentido de ¡a inscripción. 

I declare thee for my beir that hadst sagacity enough 
to understand the meaning of the inscription. 

(e) Sometimes for the sake of greater emphasis, a 
substantive in the dative or accusative, is placed before 
the verb, contrary to the general arrangement of words. 
In this case the corresponding personal pronoun should 
be added, as: 

Á mi padre no le conocí, as to my father, I did not 

know him (instead of: I did not know my father). 

Eso no lo sé, 1 do not know that (and not eso no se). 

§ 4. Very frequently, even with good authors, the 
accusative cases lo and le are used indiscriminately. 
When speaking of things, we may, as we observed 
page 99, 1, substitute lo for le; thus: 

¿ Ha visto V, mi libro ? No lo (or le) he visto. 
Have you seen my book? I have not seen it. 

If, however, the preceding substantive denotes a 
person^ le is decidedly preferable, as: 

¿Quiere V. á su hermano? Si, le quiero mucho. 
Do you love year brother? Yes, I love him much. 

§ 5. Notice how such expressions as " Ye English,'' 
''We . . . both,'' are rendered in Spanish: 

Mase. Vamos loa dos juntos, let us go both (together). 
Fem. Vamos Ids dos juntas, » » » » » . 

Lds midieres queréis hablar iodo el dia. 
Ye women like to chatter all day long. 
Vosotros los médicos, ¿ qué sabéis ? 
You, doctors, what do you know? 

The same, if a relative accessory sentence follows 
a personal pronoun, as: 

You that know nothing. 

Los (fem. Itis) que no sabéis nada. 

§ 6. Whenever in exclamations an adjective or an 
interjection is joined to a personal pronoun, the pro- 
noun should be preceded by de, as: 

¡Desdichado de ml! Unhappy man that I am! 

¡Desdichada de ti! Unhappy woman that you are! 

¡Ay de mi! Woe to me! 

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Pronouns. 255 

Traducción. 8. 

1. Have you studied the song which I brought (trcfje) 
you yesterday ? Yes, it is very pretty ; I (have) sung it twice 
this morning. You have written more than I, but I have 
drawn more than you. You have asked me, and you have 
got the answer (which) you desired; what more do you wish? 
I am very glad to see you here. I told (fr. referir) him 
[about] the accident, but he would not believe me. Let us go 
(fr. irse)\ If we had already received the books, we should 
have sent them to you. Have you found your hat ? No, I have 
been looking (§ 3. c) for it in my room and in yours, but I 
cannot find it. I went to see him at his house in order to 
ask him if he could lend me a book. I wrote him three 
times, but he would not answer me. 

2. I appeal to you who have been my best friend. To 
that famous Greek called Ulysses they gave the surname of 
the Prudent. As for his brother, I never saw him. Have 
you read this novel? No, I have not yet read it. Have you 
(already) seen the author of the new play? I have not yet 
seen him; but the play, — I have seen it. "We shall both 
go to Paris," said the girls; "there we shall visit our uncle and 
aunt." Ye men are often more loquacious than (the) women. 
We who always work, we do not know weariness; but you, 
who do nothing the whole day, you are always complaining 
of weariness. Woe to you, reprobate (m,), if you dare to 
enter this house! "Alas (¿r. Woe to me)!" cried the peasant, 
"I have lost all my money!" 

Reading Exercise. 

Be algunas costumbres de los Incas. (Continuación.) 
Todos los treinta días, desde el primero hasta el postrero, 
se juntaban en la plaza del Cuzco, ó en las del pueblo donde 
se hallaban aquel año. Y sentábanse por su orden, y hacían 
sus calles, y venían allí sus parientes y hermanos y deudos, 
y á las veces sus caciques. Y ponían á cada uno de los que se 
habían dr.imcer Incas una lanza en las manos, las cuales 
tenían juntas, como cuando un cristiano está rezando, y en 
medio tomaban la lanza. Y luego decían á cada uno los 
padres, y sus parientes y caciques: «Mira que de aquí en 
adelante no seas vellaco; sirve y obedece bien á tus padres, 
y trabaja y no seas perezoso ; corre mucho y haz todo lo que 
te mandaren, con mucha diligencia, porque cuando te llamare 
el Inca para la guerra, ó para cualquier otra cosa, le sepa» 
servir». Ellos decían en respuesta que así lo prometían hacer, 
y acabadas de decir estas palabras dábanle cuatro azotes, en 
cada brazo uno, y en cada pierna otro, y él habíase de estar 
quedo, y no se había de menear, ni hacer muestra de senti- 


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256 Lesson 8. 

miento, porque si se meneaba ó hacia muestra de dolerse, 
teníanle en poco. Llegado el postrer dia, sentábase el Inca 
en medio de toda la gente, y venían indios viejos, y maestros 
de horadar las orejas con sus herramientas, que para ello te- 
nían. Algunos de estos maestros lo hacían mejor, y eran 
más diestros, y no lastimaban tanto y dejaban los agujeros 
mayores. Luego les metían los anillos, y á los que eran hijos 
de caciques y señores poníanselos de oro, y de plata, y á los 
demás de madera ó de metal. Acabado esto, ofrecían sus 
padres ó parientes un carnero ú oveja, y matábanlo y sacábanle 
el corazón, y tomábale un hechicero y mirábale, y soplábale ; y 
6Í el corazón estaba tieso, decía que aquel tal había de ser para 
muchOj y valiente, y que era buena señal ; empero, si el cora- 
zón estaba flojo, decía que viviría poco, y que aquel tal no 
había de ser valiente, ni para nada. El carnero que se ofre- 
cía partíase entre los padres y parientes de cada uno, y luego 
bebían y hacían sus borracheras. 

[Diego Fernandez, Historia del Perú.] 


¿Qué hacían cada treinta años? 

¿Cómo se sentaban y que hacían? 

¿Qué les ponían á los que se habían de hacer Incas? 

¿Y qué les decían? 

¿Y ellos qué respondían? 

¿Qué les hacían entonces? 

¿Cómo se habían de estar? 

¿Qué hacían el postrer día? 

¿ Cómo les horadaban las orejas? 

¿Y qué les níetían en ellas? 

¿Cuántas clases de anillos había? 

¿Qué hacían después? 

¿Qué decían los hechiceros? 

¿Qué hacían por fin? 

Eighth Lesson. 

Demonstratires. — Interrogative Pronouns. 

(See Lesson 25, P. I.) 


§ 1. The principal difference between este and ese 
is that este generally refers only to the speaker or 
anything near him, whereas ese refers not only to the 


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Demonstratives. 257 

person addressed* or things near by, but also to the sub- 
jects of conversation. The opposite of both is aqtid. 
From this difference it results that este should always 
be rendered by *'this/' and that esc frequently corre- 
sponds to the English "this . . . here/' whereas aquél is 
"that." Examples: 

Esta casa es más alta que aquella. 

This house is higher than that (house). 

JDéme Y, ese libro, give me that book near you, or: 

which you have in your hand. 
Esas palabras no las dije yo, I never said those words. 
La cuestión no es esa, that is not the case. 
Eso no es verdad, that is not true. 
N.JB.—Este and ese can never be used as contrast in 
translating the English the former, . . . the latter . . . ; which 
must be rendered by aquél . . ., éste . . . ; or more generally, 
éste . . ., aquél . . ., agreeing in gender and number with 
the words to which they refer. Compare: 

Los niños y las mujeres tienen derecho á la protección 
de los hombres, éstas por su debilidad, aquellos por 
su inocencia. 
Children and women have a right to be protected by 
men, the former on account of their innocence, the 
latter on account of their weakness. 

§ 2. In English, it (or that) is very often used ab- 
solutdy—i.e., as the seeming subject of a sentence, whilst 
the real subject follows, as: It is my sister. In Spanish, 
the neuter form may only be used, if "that" refers to 
a whole sentence preceding, as: 

Eso es increíble, it (that) is incredible {viz,: what I 
heard or\ what I have been told, etc.). 

But, as in English: 

Esta es mi hermana, this (that) is my sister. 
Estas son mis esperanzas, these are my hopes. 
Esta es la Señora de A. y aquella es la Señora de N, 
This is Mrs. A. and that is Mrs. N. 

N,jB,— Position of the demonstrative. Though demon- 
strative adjectives precede the noun, they must follow it when, 
— for the sake of emphasis — this is affected by the definite 
article, also in exclamations with qué . ./ 

* The Italian cotesto. 
Spanish Conv.-Grammar. 17 

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258 Lesson 8. 

Este libro . . . ., 6Í libro este^ this book. 

Esa casa la casa esa . . ., that house. 

Aquél amigo . ., el amigo aquel, that friend. 
¡Qué hombre ese! what a man! 
¡Qué muyer aquella! what a woman! 

§ 3. We noticed (page 105) that the Spanish lan- 
guage often replaces the article by the demonstrative 
pronoun. This is the case when the demonstrative 
pronoun refers to a preceding substantive, as: 
My house and that of my neighbour. 
Mi casa y la de mi vecino. 

§ 4. If the real subject of the sentence is not a 
single word, but an infinitive with its object, as: To see 
you happy is my greatest happiness, this infinitive in 
Spanish commonly follows and, if so, should be intro- 
duced by the article^ and de; the article, of course, 
agreeing with the preceding predicate. Thus: 

Mi única felicidad es la de ver á V, dichoso. 
My only happiness is to see you happy. 

§ 5. The article used in lieu of the relative pronoun 
may also appear as a genitive or dative case, as: 
Prefiero este libro al que V, leyó ayer, 
I prefer this book to that which you read yesterday. 
^.J5.— Formerly the preposition de was often contracted 
with este and ese into one word, as: deste = de este; destos 
= de estos; desa = de esa. These contractions are now 

§ 6. In English the reference to a foregoing sub- 
stantive or adjective is often not expressed. In Spanish 
the neuter article to is used: 

¿Es V. la hermana de este señor? 

Are you the sister of this gentleman? 

Si, lo soy, yes, I am {i.e., the sister). 

¿Sois los criados del conde? 

Are you the servants of the count? 

Si, lo somos, yes, we are (i.e., the sei-vants). 

Todos se precian de patriotas; y sin embargo de que 

muchos lo parecen, ¡ cuan pocos lo son ! 
All boast of being patriots, and though many seem to 

be such, how few are so! 
Hermoso fué aquel dia, y no lo fué menos la noche. 
Beautiful was the day, and no less {i.e., beautiful) was 
the night. 

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Interrogative Pronouns. 259 

Likewise, the reference to a preceding adverb is 
expressed by lo, as: 

Amadis fué él sol de los valientes. Siendo pues esto 

asíj como lo es, etc. 
Amadis was the star of the gallant (knights). This 

being as it is, etc. 

§ 7. Note the following peeuliarities of the 
Spanish demonstratives: 

¿(iué hay de nuevo en ésa? 
What is going on at your placed 
En ésta no ocurre nada. 
Nothing new is going on here. 
Los niños de estos días, children nowadays. 
Idioms : 

JEsta noche, to-night. 
Ése lo sabe, he knows it. 
Ni por esas, not even so. 
Ésta (or ésa) no se la perdono. 
I shall not pardon him for this. 
¡A ése, á ése! stop thief [murderer]! 
No me ha dado ni esto. 
He has not given me even the smallest thing. 
JEn esto, at this time. 
¿Hemos reñido ? — ¿Y eso ? 
We have quarrelled — Why? 
Me fui á eso de las cinco, I left about 5 o'clock. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

§ 1. Like que in French, the interrogative qué?, what? 
is often accompanied by de, if the following adjective 
is used substantively, as: 

¿Qm hay de nuevo? What is the news? (Qu'y a-t-il 
de nouveau?) 

§ 2. If in an exclamation qué precedes a substan- 
tive, it should likewise be followed by de, if more em- 
phasis is required, as: 

¡Qué de envidia! What envy! 

¡Qué de locuras! What follies! 

§ 3. If qué precedes a substantive qualified by an 
adjective, tan is often inserted for the sake of emphasis, as: 


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260 Lesson 8. 

¡Oh, qué carga tan pesada! Oh, what a heavy burden ! 
/ Qtfé mucha>cha tan hermosa es esta ! 
How beautiful this girl is! 

N,B,—Yqí tan may be omitted: ¡Qué hermosa muchacha 
es esta! 

§ 4. As mentioned on page 106, cúyo"^ occurs as an 
interrogative pronoun (whose?); but the proper inter- 
rogative pronoun is preferable. Thus: 

Whose books are these? 

¿Cuyos libros son estos? Or rather: 

¿Be quién son estos libros? 

§ 5. ¿Cuál? implies distinction between two or 
more persons or things; it always carries the written 
accent; as: 

Estoy leyendo una novela, — ¿Cuál? 

I am reading a novel. — Which one? 

¿ Cuál es su sombrero de F., éste ó aquél ? 

Which is your hat, this one or that one? 

¿ Cuál de los dos le gusta á F. mus ? 

Which of the two do you like best? 

Traducción. 9. 

1. These flowers and yours (see § 3) are finer than 
those. Which hat do you want, this or that ? Give me that 
which you have in your hand. I have seen this picture and 
that; that pleases (fr. gustar) me better (más) than this. 
Father and son parted, the former to return to his lonely house, 
the latter to join his friends. This wine is bad ; this bread is 
good ; what bad wine ! what good bread (see p. 259, § 3., N.B.). 
— I never said those words, that is not true. These gentlemen 
and those have not been present at the ceremony. Is this your 
sister or your cousin? Neither one nor the other; she is 
my aunt. If these are all your wishes, they are very easily 
fulfilled {tr, to fulf.). Those are remarks which are not be- 
coming to a young man. He said he would not give the 
workman his wages; that is abominable. My cloak and that 
of my cousin Paul are made in the latest fashion. You say 
that he has told you (that) he came at 3 o'clock, but that 

* The relative cuyo is sometimes separated from its sub- 
stantive by the verb, as: 

El caballero, cuya era la espada. 
The knight to whom the sword belonged. 
Yet de quien is much to be preferred in such a case. 

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Interrogative Pronouns. 261 

is impossible. Who is that lady ? She is Miss Vallarino, and 
her companion is my sister's governess. 

2. He has lost his fortune and that of his uncle. She 
has invested your money and that of her sister. My most 
ardent wish was always to see you friends. Do you speak 
of Mr. Estrada? I do not speak of (the) Mr. Estrada who 
lives here, but of him (tr, that) who is in Mexico. I prefer 
this wine to that which we had (tr, drunk) yesterday. What 
news have you heard ? Nothing of importance. What non- 
sense I How can anybody believe such a thing as that ? Oh, 
what a horrible crime! What meanness to do such a deed! 
How charming are the banks of the river! How majestic 
are the summits of these mountains! Whose gloves are these? 
They are those of the young officer who arrived with me 
yesterday. Are you the daughter of my old friend Sagasta? 
Yes, sir, I am. Were you satisfied (plur, f,) with your 
new dresses? Yes, Mrs. B., we were. Is this man really 
happy? To be sure he is. My dear mother, nothing new 
is going on liere ; Charles left and must be now at your place 
(see p. 259, § 7). I will write more to-night. They have 
quarrelled. Why? She begged and cried, but not even so. 
She will not pardon him for that. I left their house about 11. 
Which of the two do you think is right ? Which do you 
like best? 

Reading Exercise. 

Grandeiza y decadencia de España, 

España es país para todo, y también los españoles. Es- 
paña produce todas las materias necesarias para la vida, no 
sólo las de primera necesidad, sino aún las útiles y de deli- 
cia. España es, entre los descubiertos, el único reino que 
pudiera vivir con solos sus frutos, sin mendigar género alguno 
extranjero : pan, vino, legumbres, aceites, agrios, frutas, miel, 
cera, pescados, carnes, aves, caza, lana, seda, linos, cáñamos 
y minerales de todas especies. Estas son sus más abundantes 
producciones; y se hallan debajo de un clima sano, delicioso, 
de aguas muy saludables, y de ríos en gran número, y rodea- 
dos de dos mares. España tiene en sus dominios todas las 
materias simples que necesitan sacar de nosotros las fábricas 
extranjeras; á ninguna nación le sucede otro tanto. Y á Es- 
paña DO le falta, en fin, ni le ha faltado nunca, más que ser 
conocida. El cielo hizo mucho por ella; nosotros lo deshace- 
mos; á Dios le debe infinito; á nosotros muy poco. 

(To be continued.) 

[M. A. Gándara. — ^^ Apuntes sobre el bien y él mal de España,''] 

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262 Lesson 9. 


¿Qué clase de pais es Espafia? 

¿Qué clase de gente son los españoles? 

¿Qué produce Espafia? 

¿Puede algún pais vivir con solos sus frutos? 

Pruébese con la descripción de las producciones y clima 

de Espafia. 
¿Qué materias simples tiene Espafia? 
¿Qué le falta á Espafia? 

Ninth Lesson. 

Possesstye and Relative Pronouns. 

(See Lessons 15 and 26, Part I.) 

Possessive Pronouns. 

Concerning the possessive pronouns we need add 
but one observation to what we stated in the first part 
of the Grammar — t;e>.; 

As the possessive pronoun of the third person sin- 
gular is alike in the masculine and feminine, a mis- 
conception might often arise, as in the sentence: 
This is his book and that is hers, or yours, 
Este es su libro y aquel es el suyo, 

where it seems doubtful whether "el suyo" means Ms, 
hers or yours. Hence the above sentence should be accor- 
dingly translated: 

Éste es su libro y aquel es el de ella. 
This is his book, and that is hers. 
Éste es su libro y aquel es el de usted. 
This is his book, and that is yours. 
N.B. — Idioms: 

lios míos, my people (family, friends, partisans). 
Le han pasado de las suyas, he has had many troubles. 
He de hacer la mía, I shall have my own way. 

Relative Pronouns. 

1. The rel^-tive pronoun que is used for all cases 
if referring to things; with reference to persons, however, 
it may only be employed in the nominative and accusa- 
tive case. Que also does not take á if it is an accusative 

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Possessive and Relative Pronouns. 268 

and refers to persons. Besides de and á, other prepo- 
sitions may likewise be coupled with que, provided they 
are monosyllables. The preposition por, however, cannot 
be used before que*. Examples: 

Nam, La señora que mene, the lady who comes. 

Las señoras que vienen, the ladies who come. 
Ace. La carta \ .-., the letter \ ^hjch T received 

Las cartas] ^^^ ^^^^^^' the letters P^^^*^^^® ^®^^^^- 
Las señoras que he visto, the ladies whom I have seen. 
With prepositions : La casa de que le hallé á F. 

The house of which I spoke to you. 
El jardín en que he visto á V, 
The garden where (in which) I saw you. 
N.B, — The direct object que is never suppressed in 
Spanish; compare: 

I have read the book that yon | 

lent me, [ He lei do el libro que 

I have read the book you lent [ 7. me prestó, 
me, I 

2. Que also occurs with the article, especially if 
preceded by two substantives, in which case it is used 
instead of el (la) cual, as: 

La señora me envió á un colegio de Cartagena, del que 

era directora una parienta suya, 
The lady sent me to a school in Cartagena, the head- 
mistress of which was a relation of hers. 
Note, — usually no comma is put before the relative 
pronoun. If it is, the meaning of the accessory sentence 
undergoes a slight variation. [A similar rule obtains in 
French.] The pupil is requested to compare the following 
sentences : 

Las señoras, que deseaban descansar, se retiraron. 
The ladies, who wished to repose, withdrew (here all 
the ladies wished to repose). 
Whereas : 

Las señoras que deseaban descansar, se retiraron, means: 
(Only) those ladies who wished, etc., withdrew. 
It is a peculiarity of the Spanish language that if que 
refers at once to two foregoing nouns of different gender, 

* Que corresponds to the French que and the Italian che, 
with the sole exception that these relative pronouns only refer 
to the nominative and accusative, whilst the Spanish que admits 
of other prepositions. Por is avoided before que, because por que 
(=z porque) means "because" and por qué, why? 

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264 Leeson 9. 

demonstrative pronouns should be added in order to distinguish 
these words, as: 

Adornaron la nave con flámulas y gallardetes que, éUos 
a/sotando el aire y eUas bescmdo las aguas, vistosí- 
sima vista hacían. (Cervantes.) 
They adorned the ship with pennons and flags which, 
the latter beating the air and the former kissing 
the waves, offered a splendid sight. 

Note,— Que if coupled with ser emphasizes the foUowing 

¡Es que no quiero! But I won't! (French: Cest que je 
ne veux pas!) 

¡Es que no se trata de eso! 

We are not speaking of such a thing! 

¡ 8i no fuera que teme ser descubierto! 

If it were not for his being afraid of discovery! 
N,B, — Que is very often met with in phrases such as: 

JBI que lo sepa que lo diga, let he who knows tell. 

JLa que lo sabe lo calla, she who knows it does not tell. 

Sea el que sea (or la que sea), whoever it may be. 

Sea el caballero (or la señora) que sea. 

Whatever gentleman (or lady) it may be. 

Suceda lo que suceda, whatever may happen. 

To soy el que lo dice. It is I who say it. 

JElla es la que lo sabe, it is she who knows it. 

La casa es la que arde, it is the house that is on fire. 
JRemarA;.— Finally, que being a weaker relative is used 
after quienquiera, cualquiera (compounds of quien and 
cual), which quien and cual cannot. 

Quienquiera (or cualquiera) que lo diga se equivoca. 

Whoever says it makes a mistake. 

3. Quien (like the Italian chi) often corresponds 
to the English he who, people who, as: 

Hay quien* dice, there are people who say. 

Á quien está contento nada le falta. 

To him who is satisfied nothing is wanting. 

Quien — quien is an equivalent for the English 
some — , some — , or the one — the other, as: 

Quien lee, quien escribe; some read, some write. 
(Cual — cual is likewise used in this sense.) 

* Also in the plural, as: Hay quienes no tienen vergüenza, 
there art? people who are shameless. 

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Possessive and Relative Pronouns. 265 

N.B. — Quien is also found in phrases referring to per- 
sons, and similar to those above (see page 263, N.B.), though 
withont the article, as quien already means el que: 

quien lo sepa que lo diga, 

sea quien sea, 

yo soy quien lo dice. 

4. Cual (without the article) expresses a comparison 
(see Lesson 26, Part I., page 110, § 4), whilst el (la) cual 
develops the meaning of the preceding sentence. In 
the former signification, it supposes a preceding tal, 
which, however, may be omitted, as: 

Esos hombres no son (tales) cuales se muestran. 
These people are not (such) as they show themselves. 

5. Cuyo, -a, pi. -os, -as, as a relative pronoun, 
renders the Enghsh whose, and, like this, requires a 
substantive following, with which it agrees in gender 
and number, as: 

La madre cuya hija es tan laboriosa. 
The mother whose daughter is so diligent. 
El caballero cuyos amigos han llegado. 
The gentleman whose friends have arrived. 
Note. —Sometimes cuyo is also separated by the verb from 
the substantive to which it belongs, as: 
El caballero cuya era la espada. 
The knight whose sword this was {i.e., to whom this 

sword belonged). 
Bufc, at any rate, it is better, in sueh a ease {i.e., when 
speaking of persons or personified beings), to use de quien 
instead of cuyo. 

But if the substantive after the relative whose is 
the predicate of the accessory sentence, cuyo must be 
replaced by another relative pronoun. Thus we cannot 

El niño cuyo tutor él es, the child whose guardian he 
is, but only: El niño de quien or del cual es tutor. 


1. If the relative pronoun is followed by a numeral 
referring to a preceding substantive, as in the sentence: 
The child looked at its apples, which were seven (i.e., 
apples), que is coupled with the corresponding article in 
the nominative case, as: 

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266 Lesson 9. 

He conn ted the dollars in his parse, which were eight. 
Contó los duros de su bolsillo, los que eran ocho. 

2. Quien (see p. 264, n? 3) referring to things, though 
met with in ancient writers, is now quite obsolete and 
must not be imitated. 

Es un bálsamo de quien tengo la receta en la memoria. 

It is an ointment who?e receipt I have in my memorj. 
Es un bálsamo cuya receta tengo . . (or del cual tengo 
la receta . .). 

3. Donde is used instead of a relative pronoun, 
provided it denotes a local circumstance, as: 

La ciudad donde or en donde vivo. 
The town where (or in which) I live. 

4. Cuyo connects more closely an apposition with 
the word to which it refers, as: 

Tin porquero tocó un cuerno, á cuya señal se recogen 
los puercos, (Cerv.) 

A swine-herd blew a horn, at which signal the pigs go 

Vinieron algtmas embajadas, por cuyo motivo se detuvo. 

There came several embassies, for which reason he re- 
mained longer. 

5. It is a peculiarity of the Spanish language to 
employ relative sentences, where the English use indirect 
questions or exclamations, as: 

No puede V, figurarse el dolor con que recibí esta 

You cannot imagine how much grieved I was to learn 

this news. 
Sé lo Men* que me quiere, 
I know how much he loves me. 

6. The English in that ... to introduce an ex- 
planatory sentence, is rendered by its Spanish equi- 
valent en qiie; but in referring to a previous sentence, 
by en lo que, en Jo cnal. Compare: 

Animals differ from () plants in that they feel and 
move, or: by their being capable of feeling and 

* Querer bien, to love, lit. to wish the good of somebody. 
French: Le bien qu^il me veut. Ital. II bene che mi vuole. 

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Possessive and Relative Pronouns. 267 

moving, or: by sensation and motion, (French: en 
ce quHls sentent et se meuoent.) 

Los animales se diferencian de las plantas en que 
sienten y se mueven. 

Pueden los relativos no sólo reproducir un concepto pre- 
cedente sino anunciar un concepto subsiguiente; en 
lo que no se diferencian de los otros demostrativos. 

The relative pronouns are not only capable of reproduc- 
ing a preceding idea, but they can also indicate a 
following notion, wherein they do not differ from 
the demonstrative pronouns. 

7. If the relative sentence is but a periphrase of a 
substantive in the nominative case, the definite article 
€Í ^should precede que, as: 

Parecieron estas condiciones duras ; ni valió, para hacer- 
las aceptar, el que Colon propusiese contribuir con 
la octava parte. 

These conditions seemed bard, and it was of no avail 
Colnmbus proposing (= Columbus' proposal was of 
no avail) in order to have them accepted, to contri- 
bute with the eighth part. 

Again, relative sentences which imply an accusative 
case are introduced in this way, as: 

No podia yo mirar con indiferencia el que se infamase 

mi doctrina. 
I could not see with indifference how they calumniated 

my doctrine (= the calumniation, detraction, etc., of 

my doctrine). 

8. If which refers to a whole foregoing sentence, it 
is rendered by lo que (French : ce qui; It. il or lo che), 

Los reos fueron condenados al último suplicio, lo que 

causó un sentimiento general. 
The culprits were condemned to death, which caused a 

general sensation. 

9. The exclamative *'how" or "how much" is very 
often lo . . . . que, and then the adjective takes its place 
between lo and que. Now it may occur that the adjective 
is feminine, when the pupil might easily be misled to 
consider the somewhat strange form (lo . . a) incorrect, 
which is by no means the case. Example: 

Asi se ve lo generosa que eres. 

Thus one sees how generous (fern.) you are. 

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268 Lesson 9. 

This must be understood thus: 

Asi se ve lo que (how much) tú eres generosa. 

Traducción. 10. 

1. Yesterday I saw your friends and mine. I cannot 
at once comply with his wishes and with hers. He wrote a 
long letter to his relations and to hers. These are his flowers 
and those are hers. He has had many troubles, because he 
always had his own way. (See page 262, N.B.) Who are 
the gentlemen that come there ? They are the two merchants 
of whom I spoke to you. I thank you for the kindness with 
which you have always treated me. Have you read that 
book I lent you ? Yes ; the friend you know wants to read it. 
(See page 263, N.B.) To him who is hungry, any meal 
pleases (le gusta). Have you thought of (en) what you have 
promised me ? Mr. Silvela lives at the beginning of the street 
in which the house of (the) General Moya is situated (fr. 
hallarse). You behave like a man (pronoun) who knows no- 
thing. He who flatters you, wants (fr. querer) to cheat you. 
(The) one prefers (the) work, the other (the) idleness. (The) 
one pretends this, the other something else. These people are 
as you have depicted them to me. The workman whose child 
is 80 ill, is (tr. finds himselQ in the greatest distress. Let him 
who knows how to do a thing do it, whoever it may be. Who- 
ever may come, tell them that I am not at home. And if 
it should be that lady? Whatever lady it may be. It is I 
who say it. Do your duty, whatever may happen. 

2. The tulips whose colours are so brilliant, have no 
smell. The girl whose aunt you saw here yesterday will 
now live in our house. The boy whose godfather he is, gives 
him much trouble (dar disgustos). He attentively observed 
the members of the family, who were seven. The little girl 
joyfully counted her dolls, of which she had received four. 
The house where we live stands in the middle of a beautiful 
garden. He had to pay seven hundred dollars, which sum 
he could not raise for the moment. She asked her money 
from him, for which reason he resolved to (á) sell his house. 
You cannot imagine with what great joy I accepted this 
proposition. If you knew how much (lo bien que) she loves 
him, you would not doubt (of) her sincerity. Now, one could 
see how malicious the servant (f,) had been. I cannot de- 
scribe to you how afflicted my mother was at this news. 

Beading Exercise* 
(jhrandeza y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 
Doscientos afios hace que comenzaron flamencos, ingleses 
y franceses á aprender de nosotros el arte de las fábricas, á 

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Adverbs. 269 

sacarlas, tomarlas y llevarlas de España á sus países; y ésta 
fué la época en que dio principio nuestra decadencia. En el 
siglo diez y seis daban nuestras fábricas la ley en tres cuar- 
tas partes del mundo. En todas ellas tenían factorías nues- 
tros comerciantes españoles. El increíble número de telares 
que contaba España, es cosa repetida en muchos escritos an- 
tiguos y modernos. Pero lo más notable es que con todo el 
esmero de su esquisita aplicación, aún no han llegado todavía 
estas industriosas naciones á dar á los bordados, telas de seda, 
tisúes, y tejidos de oro y plata, aquella perfección, permanen- 
cia, solidez y hermosura que, después de doscientos años, to- 
davía se admiran hoy en los nuestros. Los ornamentos de 
altar que Felipe II donó á la sacristía del Escorial, fabricados 
en Sevilla, etc., y que se conservan en ella, expuestos á la 
disposición de quien quiera verlos, responden de esta verdad. 

(To be continued.) 
[M. A. Gándara. — '* Apuntes sobre el bien y el mal de España,'*] 


¿Cuándo principió nuestra decadencia? 

¿Cuál era el estado de las fábricas españolas en el 

siglo dieciseis? 
¿Han llegado Flandes, Inglaterra y Francia á igualar 

nuestros bordados, etc., de entonces? 
¿Qué era lo distintivo de aquellos bordados, etc.? 
¿ Dónde pueden probarse esas verdades ? 

Tenth Lesson. 

Adrerbs. — Their position. — Affirmations and 

In addition to the treatment of this Subject in Part I. 
(Lessons 30th, 31st) we further add: 

1. Peculiarities of certain Adverbs. 
Adverbs of Place. 

(a) Adonde instead of donde, where? is now obso- 
lete. In modern speech it means only where-to, as: 

El lugar adonde nos encaminamos. 
The place where we go to; 

El liigar donde residimos, the place where we live. 

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270 Lesson 10. 

(b) Donde may be used as a relative or as a con- 
junction in such sentences as: 

La ciudad por donde transitábamos. 

The town through which we passed. 

Que to haga, donde no, que le castiguen. 

Let him do it, otherwise, let him be punished. 

Adverbs of Time. 

(a) Cuando cannot be a relative, and must be re- 
placed by en que to render wlien in sentences such as: 

Hay dias en que todo sale mal. 
There are days when everything goes wrong. 
N.B. — However, in referring to another adverb of time, 
it renders the English relative that in such sentences as: 
Ayer fué cuando la vi. 
It was yesterday that I saw her. 
Mntances fué cuando me lo dijo. 
It was then that she told me. 

(b) Cuando as a conjunction— i.e.: 

¿Cómo se lo he de dar cuando no lo tengo? 
How can I give it to him if I have not got it. 

Adverbs of Manner. 

Note the peculiar meaning of the following adverbs. 

¿ Cómo no se lo dijo V. ? 
Why did you not tell him? 

Es cierto, como que lo vi yo, it is true, for I saw it. 
Como soy Juan [in strong assertions]. 
As true as my name is John. 

¿A cómo se venden? How much do you sell them at? 
Eran cotno unos veinte. 
There were about twenty of them. 
Tráigame V. agua bien caliente. 
Brint; me some water very hot. 
Bien se lo decía yo á V., I told you so. 
Ha^e V. mal en hacer eso. 
You are wrong in doing that. 
Mal podrá decirlo, si no lo sabe. 
He cannot say it, since he does not know it. 
MeQor que mejor, so much the better. 
Peor que peor, so much the worse. 
¡Así lo maten! I wished they would kill him I 

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Affirmation and Negations. 271 

AH lo tncUen no lo hará. 

He will not do it, even if they kill him for it. 

Asi como asi, anyhow. 

2. Position of the Adverb. 

Regarding the position of the adverb, we now add 
the following rules: 

(a) Proper adverbs are generally placed after the 
verb and before the direct object — Le., the accusative 
case (see Less. 15, Part II.: The Direct Object). Thus: 

Mi amigo no ha llegado todavía. 

My friend has not yet arrived. 

Su amigo de V, ha ganado siempre mucho dinero. 

Your friend has always gained a great deal of money. 
Observation,— \t must be distinctly understood that if 
the verb is in a compound tense, the adverb can never be 
placed between the auxiliary and the past participle, bat 
always follows the latter. A construction like: ha siempre 
ganado, would therefore be erroneous. 

(b) Adverbial locutions follow the direct object, as : 

He Uido su carta de V, con mucfia €Uención, 

I have read your letter with great attention. 

The above observations are understood of the con- 
struction when regular. As, however, the Spanish language 
abounds in inversions — i.e,, deviations from the regular 
construction — mauy exceptions are met with in the works 
of Spanish authors; for emphasis, euphony, distinctness, 
and elegance of speech often require another arrangement 
of the words than that of the regular construction. 

3. Affirmations and Negations. 

The simplest affirmation is si, yes. Si and no are 
seldom used alone, but generally accompanied by señor, 
señora, señorita, hijo, hija, hombre, mujer, amigo, etc., 
according to the degree of respect or familiarity be- 
tween the speaker and the person spoken to. Instead 
of St, the word ya (already) is also used as an affirmation 
(like giá in Italian) if the speaker supposes that the 
meaning of his answer is already known to the person 
addressed, as: 

Yes, I recollect, ya me acuerdo. 

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272 Lesson 10. 

The simple affirmation or negation is made more 
emphatic by the addition of que, as: 
I say neither Yes nor No. 
No digo ni que si ni que no. 

Note,— The student will not forget that, as stated on 
p. 136, the first negative particle ni may be omitted with 
neither — nor, as: 

No debe V, (ni) decirlo ni escribirlo. 

You shall neither tell nor write it. 
Observation,— The English student must bear in mind 
that the English practice of answering simply with "Yes, I 
do" or "No, I do not," etc., is by no means admissible in 
Spanish. Here the answer is either simply SI, señor, or No, 
señor, or a complete sentence added to the negative particle, as : 

Did you see my brother to-day? Yes, I did. 
No, I did not, 

¿ Ha visto V, hoy á mi hermano ? Sí, señor, le he visto. 
No, señor, no le he pisto. 

Only the verbs ser, estar, and hacer sometimes show a 
certain resemblance, though only a seeming one, with the 
English construction. Examples: 

Are you the mother of this child? Yes, I am. 

¿Es V, la madre de este niño? Si, lo soy. 

Are yon ready? Yes, I am. 

¿ Está V, pronto ? Si, estoy pronto. 

Did the shoemaker make my shoes? Yes, he did. 

¿Hizo el zapatero mis zapatos? Si, los hizo. 

It is easily understood that in Spanish these verbs are 
not atixiliaries, as in English, but principal verbs, with pre- 
dicates or objects of their own, which is not the case in Eng- 
lish; and therefore the English and Spanish constructions are 
totally different. 

As already stated (Lesson 31, Part I), in Spanish 
the negations never, nothing, none, nobody, etc., may be 
used with the preceding particle no. But this is only 
the case with the regular construction. As soon as the 
negation itself begins the sentence (by inversion), no is 
omitted as superfluous; thus: 

No como jatnás en esta fonda, I never eat at this inn. 

Ese vil perezoso no hace nada. 

This vile idler does nothing at all. 

No verá V, hoy á nadie. 

You will not see anybody to-day. 

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Affirmations and Negations. 273 


Jamás como en esta fonda. 

A nadie le gusta recibir consejos. 

Nobody likes to receive advice. 

Nada me agrada^ nothing pleases me. 
Note.—Ji the English no or not any is rendered by nin- 
guno or (no) alguno, the position of these two words should 
be carefully observed. Ninguno always precedes, algimo follows 
the accusatvve to which it belongs. Thus: 

No le confiaré á 7. ningún secreto, or: 
» » » » » secreto alguno, 

I shall not entrust you with any secret. 

No more, if the verb has an accusative (direct ob- 
ject), is y a no, as: Ya no tengo dinetH), I have no 
more money. If, on the contrary, the verb governs no 
accusative case, it is no — más, as: I shall lie (tell 
a falsehood) no more, no mentiré más; or, rendered 
more emphatic by the addition of nunca (never): ya no 
mentiré nunca más. 

If no more (or not . , , any more) means as much as 
"wof again," it may be rendered by no with the cor- 
responding tense of volver with á, as: I shall lie no 
more, no volveré á mentir; do not come to my house 
any more, no vuelvas á entrar en mi casa. 

If only or but refers to a number, as : "I have only 
six dollars," it is translated no — más que, as: 

I have but (only) ten dollars. 

No tengo más que dieis duros. (Je n'ai que . . ,) 

In aU other cases but (or only) is no — sino, as: 
I travel but rarely. No viajo sino rara vez, 
N,B, — But and only are also rendered by solamente, sólOf 
meramente, etc. In exclamations más que is also met with, as: 
¡Más que nunca vuelva! 

If he but never returned! (God forbid he should ever 

Traducción. 11. 

1. Where are you going? Tell me, otherwise I shall not 
let you go. How can I tell you if I do not know it my- 
self? There are occasions when one does not know what to 
do. It is now that I do not understand you, as true as I am 
here. So much the better. Are you here at last? Yes, I 

Spanish Cony.-Grammar. 18 

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274 Lesson 10. 

am ready. How do you think about {tr. what do you say of) 
this demand? I say neither Yes nor No, for I do not know 
whether Mr. Moreno is right or wrong. I never got a letter 
from you, and I never (have) heard that you had written 
to me. I never write in twilight, because I am afraid to 
injure my eyes. Did you write to Mr. Marino? Yes, I did. 
Shall you come this evening? Yes, I shall. Are you the 
tutor of these young gentlemen? Yes, I am. Never, shall 
Í forget what you have done for me! Why do these young 
people not work? They have nothing to do, because you 
have not given them anything to do. I saw nobody when 
I entered the house. 

2. Nobody has arrived by (en) (the) train. Tell nobody 
that I have spoken with you. You are a queer fellow, my 
dear friend; nothing pleases you, you do not feel sympathy 
with anybody, you treat everyone unkindly, and yet you 
want everyone to treat you (tr, that everyone treat [St^j.'] 
you) politely and affectionately. I always avoid intercourse 
(el trato) with a man that has no friends. Have you some 
wine left (tr. still some wine)? I have no more. You have 
cheated me, therefore I shall not believe you any longer 
(more). Pardon me, sir, I shall not do it again (tr. no more). 
I had but two hundred dollars. I write only in the morning; 
in the evening I have no time to write. Have you given 
him only 12 pesetas? He has not asked for more; if he had 
asked for more, I should have given him more. 

Beading Exercise. 

Grandeisa y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 
¿Y España, no es país para fábricas? ¿Puede oírse 
esto sin compasión? ¿Qué Londres, qué París, qué Nimes, 
ni qué Lyon han igualado á las fábricas antiguas de Toledo, 
Granada, Sevilla y Segovia? Si exceden hoy á las actuales 
(en que no hay controversia) ya se ha indicado el motivo en 
que consiste: y se dirá más todavía para que en pocos años 
se queden muy atrás, si se practicare lo que yo propondré en 
estos apuntes. Damascos ha hecho la piedad del Rey fabricar 
en Talavera para adornar una capilla del Escorial, que no 
pueden ceder á ningunos de Europa. ¿Pero qué ha de suce- 
demos, si cuando más hacemos, quitamos un par de grillos 
de los pies del comerciante, labrador, fabricante, ó navegante, 
y en el mismo acto le amarramos por la cintura con una ca- 
dena mucho más fuerte? y no obstante decimos: «camina ade- 
lante, que ya tienes los pies sueltos.» Él no da paso, ni 
puede ; y luego se dice : « \ ven ustedes que España no es país 
para esto! . . .» (To be continued.) 

[M. A. Gándara. — i< Apuntes sobre el bien y el mal de España.»\ 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Prepositions. 275 


¿Es Espafia pais para fábricas? 


¿Dónde se fabricaban los damascos? ¿Eran notables? 

¿Qaé sucede pues, j por qué no adelanta Espafia ? 

Eleventh Lesson. 


As stated in Part I., the Spanish prepositions are 
either proper prepositions, being simply placed before 
the word to which they refer, as: sobre los montes, over 
the mountains, or they are adjectives, substantives, par- 
ticiples, etc., coupled with a preposition, and thus pro- 
perly prepositional locutions, as delante de testigos, be- 
fore witnesses. 

1. Proper Prepositions. 

Among these, á, de, en, para, and por offer the 
greatest difficulty; we will, therefore, consider each of 
tiiem separately. 

Á, at, in, to, etc. 

1. The predominating idea of this preposition is direc- 
tion, aiming at a point, therefore motion to or towards, as: 

Ir al correo, to go to the post. 

Tirar al blanco, to shoot at the target. 

Volverse al principe, to address oneself to the prince. 

2. Thus, action: 

Empezar á andar, to begin to walk. 
Ponerse á leer, to begin to read. 
JEntregarse á los placeres. 
To give oneself up to pleasure. 

3. Again, it impUes the majiner of an action or 
state, as: 

Á mi modo, in my (own) way. 
Á la turca, after the Turkish fashion. 
A lo militar, in a military fashion. 
Á sangre fría, coolly, in cold blood. 
Cara á cara, face to face. 

4. With transitive verbs, to point out the direct 
object, if a person or a personified thing: 


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276 Lesson 11. 

Amar al prójimo^ to love the neighbour. 
Aborrecer á alguno^ to hate someone. 
Temer á la muerte, to fear death. 

Thus, to distinguish the personal from the im- 
personal object, as: 

Bar una cosa á alguno^ to give someone something. 
Permitir algo á otro, to allow anyone anything. 

5. Time and place of an action or state, as: 
El mendigo está á la puerta. 

The beggar stands at the door. 
Á las diez, at ten o'clock. 
Al anochecer, at nightfall. 

6. The price of something, as: 

Á dos pesetas kilo, 2 pesetas a kilogram. 

7. Instrument, means, and cause, as: 

Matar á hierro, to kill with the sword (lit. iron). 

^ fuerza de armas, by force of arms. 

Á instancias de sus amigos, at the request of his friends. 

8. A with the infinitive replaces an accessory sen^ 
ence beginning with when or if, as: 

Á verla V. diría, if you could see her (or when you saw 
her) you would say. [French: A la voir, rows diriez.'] 

9. Besides, á is met with in a great number of 
peculiar expressions, mostly adverbial locutions, to be 
foimd in every good dictionary. Such are: 

Á sabiendas, wittingly, purposely. 

Á ojos cerrados, blindfold (lit. with closed eyes). 

A saiga lo que saliere, at random, at haphazard. 


1. jDe is frequently the opposite of a. Its pre- 
dominating idea is possession, motion towards the speaker, 
material, and origin. Examples: 

El jardín de mi tío, the garden of my uncle. 

Mi primo viene de Madrid, my cousin comes from M. 

Un reloj de oro, a gold watch. 

El hijo del capitán, the son of the captain. 

2. Again, the end of an action: 

Acabar de comer, to finish dinner. 
Dejar de estudiar, to leave off studying. 
Cesar de Hover, to stop raining. 

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Prepositions. 277 

3. With reflective and passive verbs or participles 
to point out the agent of a reflective or passive action, 
almost always equivalent to por (by, with, at): 

Ofenderse de algo, to be hurt (offended) by something. 
Querido de sus amigos, loved by his friends. 
Sorprenderse de %ma cosa, to be surprised at something. 

4. Thus, the cause of an action or state, as: 
Ciego de furor, blind with fury. 

5. Extent: 

Este cuarto tiene 12 pies de ancho y 16 de largo. 
This room is 12 feet wide and 16 feet long. 

6. Qualities ascribed to a person under certain 
circumstances*, as: 

Trabajar de sastre, to work as a tailor. 

Hacer de intérprete, to officiate as an interpreter. 

De is preferred if a peculiar distinction of a person 
or thing is denoted, as: 

El hombre del gabán verde, the man with the green coat. 
La niña de los ojos azules, the girl with the blue eyes. 
Francfort del Main, Frankfort on the Main. 

7. After the names of days^ months, titles^ dignities, 
etc. Examples : 

La dtidad de Toledo, the city of Toledo. 

El mes de enero, the month of January. 

El titulo de conde, the title of count. 
^.-B.— With mountains and rivers de is only used, if the 
attribution is a proper nams or an appellative noun, as: 

El rio de San Lorenzo, the river St. Lawrence. 

El rio de la Plata, the river La Plata (silver). 
If this is not the case, de is omitted, as: 

El rio Duero, the river Duero. 

8. It is a pecuHarity of the Spanish language** that 
in exclamations a substantive is often joined by de to 
the following proper name or appellative noun denoting 
a person, as: 

* Chiefly after the verb estar, as: El conde de B. está de 
embajador en París, Count B. is ambassador at P. 

** In German likewise: „S)er 2:5I|)eí t)on ^utfd^err ^a)a8 
Sommerbilb t)on SDilenfd^cn!* „S)er Glacier ton ©taat!" 

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278 Lesson 11. 

¡El pobre de Bocinante! Poor R.! 

¡La loca de Elvira! That foolish E.! 

¡El ladrón del* criado! That thief of a footman I 

9. With de are formed a great many locutions, as : 
de baJde, gratis; de miedo, for fear; de veras, in truth; 
vestir de verano, to dress in summer clothes; de camino, 
on the way, etc. 

The cases where de is coupled with a foregoing 
adjective, substantive, or verb are so manifold that we 
refer the pupil to his dictionary. For those who are 
somewhat acquainted with the language, we recommend 
the excellent work of V. Salvá*"^. 


1. The predominating idea of this preposition is 
residence in some place. It therefore denotes a state of 
repose, as: 

Estoy en ntt cuarto, I am in my room. 

En su casa de Y., in your house. 

Mi primo vive en Paris, my cousin lives in P. 

2. It likewise denotes direction, but diflfers from the 
synonymous á in so far as it also conveys the second- 
ary idea of penetration into, as: 

El criado entró en mi cuarto, 
The footman entered (into) my room. 
La piedra cae en el agua. 
The stone falls into the water. 

3. With verbs of motion, to express the means of 

Ir en ferrocarril, to go by rail. 
Viajar en vapor, to travel by steamer. 
But, á pié, on foot; á caballo, on horseback. 

4. Moreover, en denotes an epoch at or within 
which something happens, as: 

En el mes de enero, in (the month of) January. 
En el año de 1880, in the year 1880. 
En breve, in a short time. 
But, á las diez, at 10; por la noche, in the evening. 

* With appellative nouns the article is commonly affixed to de. 
** The full title of Salvá's Work is, Gramática de la lengua 
castellana según ahora se habla, ordenada por Don Vicente Salva; 
Paris, Gamier Hermanos. 

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Prepositions. 279 

Note,— En is not used, if a demonstrative adjective, a 
numeral, or the definite article precedes the respective day ol 
the week, the month etc., as: 

FA diez de octubre, the 10th of October. 

¿Irá V. á ver á mi tic el miércoles? 

Shall you come to see my uncle this Wednesday? 

5. Again, en denotes the cause as well as the pur- 
pose of an action, as: 

Lo hizo en provecho de su patria. 

He did it for the benefit of his country. 

Le mató en venganza del ultrage.* 

He killed him in revenge of the offence. 

Un discurso en memoria del rey, 

A speech in memory of the king. 

6. With some adjectives denoting skill, superiority, 
and their contraries: 

Hábil en todo, skilful in everything. 
Superior en calidad, of a superior quality. 

7. The manner and kind of an occupation, as: 

8e ocupa en cazar, he is busy hunting. 

Trabajar en plata, en oro, to work in silver, in gold. 

Negociar en tabaco, to deal in tobacco. 

8. En precedes the infinitive governed by a sub- 
stantive with haber (where the French use il y a), as: 

Hay dificultad en decirlo. 

There is a difficulty in telling it. 

9. When before a substantive which occurs tunee, 
it denotes continuation or repetition^ as: 

De dia en dia, from day to day. 
De hora en hora, from hour to hour. 

10. Finally, en is used after a great many ad- 
jectives and verbs, of which we give those most in use. 
The adjectives are: lento and tordio, slow; versado, versed, 
experienced; exacto, exact; and the verbs: comerciar and 
traficar, to deal, to transact; insistir, to insist; meditar, 
to reflect; pensar, to think (of something); perseverar, to 
persevere; tardar, to tarry; vacilar, to stagger, to totter; 
alucinarse, to be mistaken; emplearse and ocuparse, to 
occupy oneself; mezclarse, to meddle with. 

* = "outrage" (French and English). 

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280 Lesson 11. 

11. Idioms with en are: 
En estOy at this moment. 
En voz hoja, in a low voice. 

Beber en una taza, to drink out of a cup (in a cap*) etc. 
N.B.—En comiendo f se vá. 

No sooner he finishes dinner, he leaves. 

JEn Uegando le veré. 

I will see him as soon as I arrive. 


It expresses: 

1. Accompaniment, cooperation, state, contact: 
Ir con alguno, to go with somebody. 

Vivir con otro, to live with someone. 

Trabajar con alguno, to work with somebody. 

España confina con Francia. 

Spain lies adjacent to France. 

Estar con un constipado, to have a cold. 

2. Manner, instrument: 

Vivir con economía, to live economically. 
Hablar con dulzura, to speak softly. 
Pescar con caña, to fish with a rod. 
Tocar con los dedos, to touch with the fingers. 

3. Disposition towards: 

Llevarse bien con otro. 
To be on good terms with another. 
Afable con los niños, kind to children. 
N.B,— 'Conmigo, contigo, with me, with you (thee). 

General Remark.— K peculiarity possessed in common by 
the prepositions á, con, de, en is that of their being used 
after verbs beginning with such prepositions— i.e.; 

Acercarse á, to get near to. 

Acostumbrarse á, to get used to. 

Combinar una cosa con otra. 

To combine one with another. 

Colaborar con otro, to collaborate with another. 

Contentarse con algo. 

To be pleased (satisfied) with something. 

* French: hoire dans une tasse. 

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Prepositions. • 28 1 

Depender de las circunstancias. 
To depend on circumstances. 
Encastillarse uno en su opinión. 
To stick to one's opinion. 

Tradncción. 12. 

1. Shall you go (fut,) to the theatre to-night? No, I 
am going to the concert and afterwards to my friend Bastinos's 
who gives a hall to-night (baile esta noche). The dog stood 
before the door and barked. At nightfall we arrived at Ma- 
drid. It began to rain and did not stop raining. The ladies 
were dressed after the English fashion. I should like to speak 
with you (in private) face to face. Allow me to finish dinner. 
These cherries are sold (reñect.) (at) one real a pound. At 
the prompting (A instancia) of my friends I have bought the 
house. If one hears him, one thinks that he is right. I 
should find the way to your house blindfold. Stay with 
us to supper. He conld not move for the cold. This tower 
is (has) 200 feet high and 40 feet wide. His brother worked 
long (tr. much time) as (a) joiner at Paris. We shall disguise 
ourselves (disfrazarse) as gardeners and go to the badl in 
this costume. The president's brother is (estar) interpreter 
at the embassy at Athens. The girl with the fair hair has 
spoken to the gentleman with the brown cloak. 

2. In the month of March he obtained the title of Mar- 
quis. This rogue of a lawyer (has) made me pay two hun- 
.dred dollars. In my room you will find ink, pens, and paper. 
Last year in (the month of) May we travelled to Paris. Ere 
long (in a short time) I shall write to my cousin (f,). On 
Tuesday there will be (habrá) a ball at the count's. It is 
generous to speak on behalf of the oppressed. Tou have done 
it to your own damage. The merchant deals in sugar and 
coffee, wine and oil. Why will you give vent (desfogar) to 
your anger on me ? I did not think of offending you. It was 
dangerous to speak. There was danger in speaking the truth 
to a favourite. I am waiting from day to day, but no letter 
is forthcoming (no llega carta). He waited hour after hour 
(for) the return of his friend. The just man is always slow 
to punish. It is a disgrace not to be acquainted with (no 
estar uno enterado de) the history of one's country. Do you 
still think of going (Infin,) to Italy ? It is sometimes a dan- 
gerous thing to meddle with other people's affairs. With 
whom do you live? Are you coming with me? I am going 
to fish with rod and line (hilo y caña). He is not on good 
terms with her. He is in bed with a cold. Get near the 
fireplace, it is cold. No, thanks; I am used to cold weather. 
Would you be satisfied with that? It would depend on () cir- 

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282* Lesson 12. 

ReadiDgr Exercise. 
Grandesa y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 

La nación española es nación de mucho honor, dócil, 
fiel, obediente j amantisima de sus Soberanos. Sn carácter 
es vivo, pronto, esforzado, constante, especulativo y penetrante. 
Por la senda del honor se la conduce hasta lo sumo. Los 
Beyes Católicos y el famoso Jiménez (por no volver más atrás) 
que quisieron teólogos, jurisconsultos, capitanes, estadistas y 
políticos, todos los hallaron con superioridad á las demás na- 
ciones. Sus obras doy por garantes. Carlos V deseó capi- 
tanes y estadistas : jamás vio la Europa un Consejo de Estado 
como el suyo, y nunca hubo príncipe que tuviese tanto nú- 
mero de generales insignes. Felipe II anheló toda suerte de 
hombres sobresalientes en todas líneas, y en todas se aventa- 
jaron sus vasallos. El Concilio de Trento lo dirá. Felipe III 
quiso santos, y los altares se poblaron. Felipe IV amó poetas, 
y el Parnaso se declaró español. La débil complexión de 
Carlos II no le permitió pensar en nada, y en España nada 
hubo. El Rey Felipe quiso capitanes y eruditos, y en un 
instante se formaron de la nada: no digo hasta lo sumo; 
pero digo hasta más allá de aquel punto que permiten los 
instantes. ¿Si probarán estas expresiones que todas las cosas 
dependen de los Gobiernos? 

(To be continued.) 
[M. A. Gándara. — ^Apuntes sobre él bien y el mal de España,*] 


¿Qué clase de nación es la española, y cuál es su 

¿Cómo se la puede conducir? 
Pruébese que en cada época ha producido España los 

hombres que sus Reyes necesitaban. 
¿Á qué pregunta puede dar origen este hecho? 

Twelfth Lesson. 

The Prepositions continued. 
For and para (i.e., por á), on account of their 
common origin, are sometimes misleading. It will, 
therefore, be worth stating that por denotes cause, whilst 
para means purpose. 


1. It denotes the intrinsic motive or the criteriofi 
of an action, as: 

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TJie Prepositions continued. 283 

La mvjer lo hizo por vanidad. 
The woman did it from vanity. 
Lo sé par experiencia, I know it by experience. 
N,B, — Where par denotes purpose, the preposition para 
may be used in its stead, as: 

Callaré por (or para) no dar disgusto á V, 
I shall be silent, that I may not vex you. 

2. A certain quality attributed to a person or a 
thing, as: 

Tomar la mar por patria, to take the sea for one's home. 
Becibir á uno por maestro, to take one as a tutor. 
Tener á uno por docto. 
To consider a person to be learned. 

3. The price of anything, barter, or in general an 
act of exchange, as: 

¿ Cíiánto pide V, por este sombrero ? 
How much do you ask for this hat? 
Compré mi casa por 10,000 duros, 
I bought my house for 10,000 dollars. 
No daré mi lápiz por tu pluma, 
I shall not give my pencil for your pen. 

Trabajo por mi amigo. 

I work in place of my friend (or for my friend's sake). 

Trabajo para mi amigo. 

I work on behalf of my friend. 

4. A certain place, direction, as well as repose, as: 
Pasar por la calle, to go through the street. 

Fui por París á Londres, 

I went by Paris to London. 

Echar por tierra, to throw to the ground. 

Perdí mi dinero por esta calle, 

I lost my money in this street. 

5. Por used with the passive voice* indicates the 
argent, and is translated by by or through, as: 

Fué muerto por otro de una puñalada. 
He was killed by another by a thrust with a poniard 
(he was stabbed). 

If the English passive voice is rendered by the 
reflective verb, por should be used, as: 

* Generally speaking, por is an equivalent for the French 
par, whereas para corresponds to pour. 

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284 Lesson 12. 

Aqud busto se hizo por un gran escultor. 
That bnst was made by a great scalptor. 

6. Again, por denotes timey answering to the ques- 
tions **when?" and "how long?" as: 

JPor la tarde, la mañana, la noche. 

In the afternoon, the morning, the night. 

Hemos hablado por una hora. 

We talked for an hour. 

Le he prestado á V. el libro por una semana. 

I lent you the book for a week. 

7. Certain parts of anything may be denoted by 
por, as: 

Coger por la mano, to seize by the hand. 

Asir por el brazo, to seize by the arm. 

El perro cogió al toro por la oreja. 

The dog seized the ball by the ear. 

Lo tomó por el mango, he took it by the handle. 

8. Por frequently answers to the question howF 
thus implying manner or means, as: 

Tor orden alfabético, in alphabetical order. 

Tor fuerza, on compulsion. 

Lo supo por él criado, he knew it from the servant. 

Marchar por compañías, to march by companies. 

9. Por often corresponds to the English for, when 
it means in favour of, as: 

Combatir por la patria, to fight for one's country. 

10. After verbs importing motion, as ir, enviar, etc., 
por indicates the object of the motion, as: 

Ir por pan, to go for bread. 

Enviar por d vidriero, to send for the glazier. 

11. Whilst estar para implies an impending futu- 
rity, something about to happen, estar por expresses 
that something has not yet happened, as: 

Las peras estfin por madurar. 
The pears are not yet ripe (i.e., must still ripen). 
Las casas están por alquilar*. 

The houses must first be let (they are not yet let); on 
the other hand: 

* Estar por used with the Ist person expresses a desire of 
this person to do something, as: 

Estaba por abofetear al palurdo. 

I had a mind to give the impudent fellow a box on the ear. 

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The Prepositions continued. 285 

Las casds están pa/ta alquilar. 

The houses are to let (they can be had at any moment). 
(See under ;para No. 5.) 

12. With an adjective, por corresponds to the Eng- 
lish "however," and requires the subjunctive of the verb 
following with que, as: 

Par hermosa que sea esta señora. 

However beautiful this lady may be. 

Bor grandes que sean los reyes, Dios es superior á ellos. 

However great kings may be, God is greater than they. 

13. Far with the infinitive mood is an equivalent 
for an accessory sentence denoting cause, as: 

Por ser yo tu amigo, as I am your friend (being y. f.). 
Se le recompensará par haber cumplido con su obligación. 
He will be rewarded for having done his duty (because 

he, etc.). 
Here, just as in the example under No. 1: 
(Callaré por no dar disgusto á Y,) 
por expresses the reason, and its sentence takes the place of 
a single substantive, as is frequently the case in Spanish. See 
Lesson 21, n.<^ 4, Part II. 


1. To indicate purpose and destination, advantage 
and prejudice, as: 

8e come para vivir, one eats in order to live. 

Este libro es para V, 

This book is for you (destined for you). 

Partiré para España, I shall set out for Spain. 

La casa está para vender, the house is to be sold. 

Lo he hecho para un amigo, 

I have done it for (the benefit of) a friend. 

Lo hizo para engañarme. 

He did it in order to deceive me. 

J^.^. —After ir (to go) á should be preferred; 2iñ&r partir 
and salir, to depart, to set out, hacer vela, to set sail, á like- 
wise obtains, but para is preferable, as: 

Ir á Inglaterra, to go to England. 

Salgo para Madrid, I start for Madrid. 

Hieo vela para Málaga, he sailed for Malaga. 

Fartir para (seldom á) Inglaterra, 

To start for England. 

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286 Lesson 12. 

2. To denote the time when an action will be per- 
formed or something will happen, as: 

Me pagará V, para San Juan. 

You will pay me on St. John's day (Midsummer). 

JPara siempre*, for ever. 

3. Frequently para restrains the meaning of the 
predicate to a certain subject or object, as: 

Tengo para mi, I, for my part, am of opinion. 

El general legó la relación para si. 

The general read the report to himself (in private). 

4. "In proportion" or "comparatively" is commonly 
rendered by paray as: 

El niño es pequeño para su edad. 

The child is small for its age. 

N.B. — Para should be followed by con if the comparison 
lies between two different subjects, as: 

¿ Quién eres tú para con tu hermano ? 

What are you in comparison to your brother? 

Fara con likewise signifies for or towards, with reference 
to a person**, as: 

No tengo reserva para con mi madre. 

For my mother I have no secret. 

Era mug paternal su conducta para con Francisco. 

To Francis he behaved very much like a father. 
If "in proportion" or "proportionally" is not followed by 
a substantive, but by an accessory sentence, para lo que is 
employed, as: 

V. no pagó el sombrero pa/ra lo que vale. 
* You have not paid for the hat in proportion to what 
it is worth. 

5. Coupled with estar, the preposition para denotes 
that something is impending*"^*, as: 

Estamos para salir, we shall go out directly. 
Esiog para acabar, I shall have done presently. 

6. Frequently para is joined to an infinitive or par- 
ticiple, instead of an accessory sentence denoting condi- 
tion, as: 

* But also: Por siempre. 

** Where the French often use vis-a-vis and envers. 
*** In Italian essere per or essere in procinto, sul punto di . . . 

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The Prepositions continued. 287 

Tara decir verdad no le he visto á V. 

To speak the truth (= if I shall speak the truth), I 

have not seen you. 
Es difícil para aprendido de memoria. 
It is difficult to learn by heart. 

If para with the infinitive does not replace an 
accessory sentence, it means "in order to," as: 

Para escriMr es menester . . . 

In order to write, it is necessary ... 

Tradaecién. 18. 

1. On par. He acted thus from pride and supercilious- 
ness. For (jod*s sake (par amor de , , ,) do not speak in 
this way I One might think that you said so only from envy. 
In order to (give) do my friend (a) pleasure, I at once im- 
parted (to) him the news. He may say what he pleases, no 
matter how much (par muchoque) he affirms it, I shall not 
believe him. The Count has adopted his nephew as [a] son. 
I sold my library for 800 dollars. I gave hira my "Cervantes'* 
for his "Lope de Vega." This morning when I passed (on pass- 
ing by) the great square, I met my tailor, who had promised 
(me) to bring my new coat yesterday. Why (did) have yoa 
thrown the water on the ground ? I did it by accident. The 
boy was run over (atropellado) by a carriage. We were in- 
vited to (the) dinner by the aide-de-camp of the prince. The 
works of this poet are admired by everybody. I have lent 
him the money for two months. He seized me by the shoulder 
and pretended that I had taken the money. Tou must not 
take the dog by the tail, else he will bite you. With mild- 
ness we often obtain more than with severity. I knew of 
your arrival from my aunt. The soldiers marched by com- 
panies. Do you go for wine or for beer? Send for the 
physician; the child is ill. The house and garden are (still) 
to he sold. The linen must still dry. However rich (the) 
men be, they are seldom satisfied. However nice this child 
be, it also has its faults. I had a good mind (Estaba por) 
to tell him. As there is [a] great deal of (mucho) wine in 
this country, the commerce in this article is very lively. 

2. On para. Are these flowers for you or for your 
sister? This garden is not to he sold (active voice). Shall 
you travel to France or to Italy? I do not say the word^ 
that I may not betray myself (tr, me). Do you go to Toledo 
or to Madrid? I shall go to Madrid. He has bid me fare- 
well for ever. I shair write to you at Christmas if you are 
still at Paris then. The girl read the letter by herself. I 
find that it is little money for (in comparison with) such 

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288 Lesson 12. 

great pains (sing.). What is the creature in comparison with 
the Creator? I am a beggar in comparison with that prince 
of the Exchange. For (one's) friends one must not have se- 
crets. What he spends (gastar) is little in comparison with 
what he earns. We were on the point of (leaving) departing 
by (fche) rail (road) when we got your letter. I was on the 
point of setting out when your aunt arrived. I do as much 
as I can, in order to gain the esteem of my equals (mis 
semejantes.) For being (i.e., considering it was) sung from 
memory, the song was very correctly sung. — If I am to 
speak my mind (tr. to speak freely), the comedy did not 
please me. — In order to please, it is necessary to be ami- 
able and good-natured. He who works for his family is an 
honest man. 

Reading Exercise. 

Grandeva y decadencia de España. (Continuación.) 

Guando las Castillas solas ponian cómodamente cuarenta 
mil caballos bizarros en campaña, no habla las ordenanzas 
que hoy; pero había libertad, labranza y crianza. Tampoco 
había caballería andaluza; ésta era batida por la castellana. 
Los ejércitos de nuestros augustos soberanos no se sirvieron 
de caballos andaluces hasta el reinado de don Juan II. Al- 
fonso Yin, rey sólo de las dos Castillas, para coronarse de 
laureles en las Navas de Tolosa, revistó en Toledo 40,000 
caballos castellanos, pagados á cinco reales cada uno; 130,000 
infantes á tres, sin contar algunos tercios de infantera que 
aún no habían llegado: y 60,000 carros de provisiones, equi- 
pages y bagajes, que ocuparían, á lo menos, 140,000 ca- 
ballerías; y algunas irían de carga, aunque la historia no 
lo dice. Á este respecto, no sería mucho creer que la España 
de entonces, considerada en toda la extensión que domina hoy 
la corona de Castilla, podría poner hoy en campaña desahoga- 
damente 120,000 caballos, con 400,000 infantes, y 200,000 
carros. Y al presente costaría buen trabajo sacar de las 
Castillas 6,000 caballos, con 50,000 infantes efectivos, y 20,000 
carros. Esta cuenta gira sobre el supuesto de que las dos 
Castillas compongan una tercera parte de las Españas unidas 
hoy, que no la componen. (To be continued.) 

[M. A. Gáná&r&.—* Apuntes sobre el bien y el mal de España.y^] 

" Conyersacién. 

¿Cuántos caballos podían poner cómodamente en cam- 
paña las dos Castillas? 
¿Por qué? 
¿Había entonces caballería andaluza? 

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Prepositions. 289 

¿ Cnándo empezaron á servirse los Reyes de la caballería 

¿Qné ejército revistó Alfonso VIH antes de la batalla 

de las Navas de Tolosa? 

Thirteenth Lesson. 



The following are the other simple prepositions in 
their alphabetical order: 

1. Ante, before — i.e., in the presence of^ as: ante d 
rey^ in the presence of the king; ante sus ojos^ before 
his eyes. Ante denotes time and order only in ante todo 
or ante todas cosas, before any other thing, before all. 

Aqtiende (obsol.)» bere, on this side, and aUende, there, 
on the other side, are properly adverbs, although used as 
prepositions, as : Aquende el mar, on this side of the sea ; 
allende el rio, on the other side of the river. {Allende de is 
quite antiquated. It means more than = además de, etc.) 

2. Contra, against, implies opposition or resistance, 
contact^ as: 

No hay remedio contra la muerte. 
There is no remedy against death. 
Dio contra la pared. 
He knocked against the wall. 

It rarely refers to place, as: 
Mi casa está contra el (better frente al) palacio. 
My house is situated opposite the palace. 

3. Desde, from, is the contrary of hasta (see 6), 
and denotes the point of departure, as: 

Desde Paris hasta Yiena, from Paris to Vienna. 

Desde may be used of time as well as place: 

Desde ayer, from yesterday (till . . .). 

N,B,—li not the point of departure, but duration is 

intended, de may be used instead of desde; in which case to 

is rendered by á: e,g,, from 3 to 4, de las tres á las cuatro, 

4. JEntre, among, between, from, denotes space, 
time, and number (French parmi), as: 

Spanish Cony.-Grammar. 19 

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290 Lesson 18. 

Entre ayer y hoy, between to-day and yesterday. 
Entre doce y veinte, from (between) twelve to twenty. 
EfUre et jardín y la casa, between the garden and the 

5. Hdoia, towards, denotes direction, but without 
the accessory idea of aim; also an approximate time^ as: 

Hacia el poniente, towards the west. 
Hada medianoche, towards midnight. 

6. Hasta, till, as far as, denotes limit as to space, 
time, or number, as: 

Hasta el mar, as far as the sea. 
Hasta las once, till 11 o'clock. 
Tengo hasta 2,000 libros, I have some 2,000 books. 
N.B. — When used as an adverb, hasta means even, as: 
Hasta las miÁJeres pelearon, even the women fought. 
Hasta no más signifies to the utmost, 

7. Según, according to, conformably, agreeably, 
expresses the conformity of a circumstance, as: 

Según las historias, conformably to the histories. 
Según las circunstancias, according to circumstances. 
Según factura, as per invoice. 

8. Sin, without, differs from the English preposition 
in so far as it may never be used as an adverb: 

Sin duda, without doubt. 
N,B.— Tiene otras casas, sin esas. 

He has other houses, besides those. 

9. So, under, is now almost obsolete, and occurs 
in but few locutions, as: 

So capa, so color, so pretexto, under pretext. 
So pena, upon pain of ... . 

10. Sobre, on, upon, denotes height and superiority 
in the proper sense as well as figuratively, as: 

Sobre la mesa, on the table. 

Sobre todos los vicios, worse than all vices. 

Sobre cien duros, more than a hundred dollars. 

When used with the names of places, it likewise 
denotes vicinity, as: 

Anochecer sobre Valladolid, 

To arrive at nightfall near Valladolid. 

El rey I)(on) Sancho murió sobre Zamora, 

King Sancho died before {i.e., at the siege of) Zamora. 

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Improper Prepositions. 291 

Moreover, it expresses the subject of a book, an 
essay, etc., as: 

Un libro sobre la inmortalidad del alma, 
A book on the immortality of the soul. 

A higher rate of something, as: 

Sobre el salario^ over and above the salary. 
A security or warrantship, as: 

Creer sobre palabra, to believe upon (one's) word. 
A repetition with the accessory idea of reinforce- 
ment, as: 

Escribir carta sobre carta, to write letter after letter. 
And finally an approximate time, as: 

Vino sobre las ocho, he came about 8 o'clock. 
N.B, — Sobre ser caro, es malo, it is bad besides being dear. 
11. Tras, behind, after, implies time and space, as: 

Tras los montes, behind the mountains. 

Tras el verano viene el otoño. 

After (behind) the summer comes the autumn. 

2. Improper Prepositions. 

These were originally either adjectives or substan- 
tives with prepositions or adverbs. With the only ex- 
ception of bajo (see 3), they all require cle after them. 
They are: 

1. Acerca de, about, relating to, in reference to, 
concerning. It is only used in referring either to per- 
sons or matters, as: 

Le hablé acerca de éso, I spoke to him about it. 
¿ Qué piensa V, acerca de él ? 
What do you think about him? 

2. Antes, before, denotes time and order, as: 
Antes del otoño, before autumn. 

Antes del dia, before daybreak. 

Antes del rey, before the king {e.g., marching before 

the king). 
N.B.— Antes y con antes, long before. 

3. Bajo, under, underneath, below, beneath, as: 

Bajo protesto, under protest. 

Bajo la rodilla, beneath (under) the knee. 


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292 Lesson 13. 

N,B,^Bajo may be followed by de, as: 
Bajo del brazo, under the arm. 

4. Delante de . , ,, before (of space), but also in 
presence of, as: 

Delante de testigos, before witnesses. 

Delante de la puerta, before the door. 

Vive delante de la iglesia, he Uves opposite the church . 

5. Dentro de . . ,, within, as: 
Dentro de las murallas, within the walls. 
Dentro de sí mismo, within him- (her-, it-) self. 
Dentro de ocho dios, within a week (8 days). 

6. Después de, after, behind, imports time and 
order, as: 

Despides de sus días, after his death. 
Uno después del otro, one after another; one behind 
the other. 

7. Encima de, on, upon; besides, as: 
Encima de la mesa, on (upon) the table. 
Encima de la carta, above (upon) the letter. 
Le regañan y endma le pegan. 

They grumble at him and, besides, they beat him. 

8. Fuera, outside, without, beside, as: 

Fuera de la puerta, outside the door. 

Fuera de hora, oat of time. 

Estar fuera de sí, to be beside oneself. 

As observed with reference to para con (p. 286), 
a preposition may be coupled with another preposition 
in order to modify the original idea. Thus: 

De á, each of, as: Dos barriles de á cien libras, two 

casks, each of 100 pounds. 
De debajo, from under, as : De debajo de la mesa, from 

under the table. 
De entre, from between, as: De entre las piedras, from 

between the stones. 
De hacia, from, as: De hacia los montes, from the moun- 
tains {Le,, in the direction from the m.). 
Por entre, between, as: For entre la reja, between the 

trellis or grating (direction). 
For endma de, over, as: For endma de la mesa, (to 

pass, to throw, etc.) over the table. 
For detrás de, from behind, as: For detrás del árbol, 

from behind the tree. 

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Improper Prepositions. 293 

Traducción. 14. 

1. We are not speaking about that. Concerning that 
• I know nothing. I will see him about it, he spoke about 

you. Make the payment as per invoice. There are many 
reasons besides (tr, withotit) that. He dare not (no se atreve) 
(to) appear before my eyes! Before all things (todo) I tell 
you that you are mistaken. The maniac thrust (did) (with) 
his (tr. the) head against the wall. Quinine is an excellent 
remedy against fever. He has married the lady against the 
desire of his family. He knocked his head against the wall. 
I accompanied him from his house to the bridge. We must 
suffer from the cradle to the grave. Even among robbers 
there is still a law. There is a great difference between him 
and his father. There came between (from) 50 to 60 soldiers. 
The suburb is situated towards [the] west. Go on (Ade- 
lante)*; there you will find room enough. Towards 9 o'clock 
I shall come home. We stayed with your brother till 
8 o'clock. To meet soon again! (Hasta luego,) Even the 
children laughed at the nonsense (which) he told us. One 
noust always act conformably to (the) circumstances. In con- 
sequence of the treaty, the town belongs to the king. Ac- 
cording to the law, he deserves a severe punishment. Your 
father will he now above 70 years old (tendrá). That is in- 
sipid beyond [all] measure (manera). Vice exercises a great 
dominion {dominio^ m.) on (the) man. Is this a book about 
hunting or about fishing? The church is built on the top 
of a hill. Besides their salary, the actors sometimes receive 
a special payment (i.e., gratification) if they perform (tror 
bajan). He lent me 10 dollars on my ring. 

2. We sent one messenger after another, but he did 
not come. At last, about 8 o'clock, he appeared, and besides 
being late he grumbled. Beyond {tr. behind) the mountains 
there are also people, my dear friend. Why do you not shut 
the door behind you? I have come even {tr. still) before 
the appointed time. Long before. Three pages walked be- 
fore the duke. The garrison did not surrender on {tr. under) 
such conditions. The soldier was wounded below the elbow. 
What shall you do before the trellis? He confirmed the truth 
before witnesses. Do write to me within a fortnight {tr. 15 
days)! Within my house I am king. After an absence of 
seven years, I returned (fr. volver) to Vienna. After the Po, 
the Tiber is the greatest river of Italy. Put the books on 
the chest of drawers! Do you see that little bird on the 

* ^'¡Adelante cm juicio (= judgment)"! = "Drive on cau- 
tiously 1" — words of Ferrer, the governor of Milan, to his 
coachman during the riot (Manzoni, «I Promessi Sposi»). 

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294 Lesson 13. 

roof? God be thanked, now we are out of danger! He tagged 
the dog from under the bed. The thunderstorm came from 
the direction of (de hacia) Valencia. The robber stepped forth 
from behind a column. 

Beading Exercise. 

Grandeza y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 

Y para que nadie se admire de esta diferencia de fuerza, 
sepan todos que, mucho más inmediato á nosotros, en el año 
de 1563, en la feria de Medina del Campo solamente, se tra- 
ficaron y giraron en letras de cambio más de 150,000,000 de 
escudos. En los afios anteriores habia sido mayor el tráfico. 
Las ferias consimiles que entonces se celebraban por todo el 
reino, eran muchas, y muchos los millones de millones que 
se comerciaban cada año. Cotéjense con las contrataciones 
de hoy. T afiádase á esto, para convencimiento general de 
las cosas, tanto de mar cuanto de tierra, el número increíble 
que á todos consta de las embarcaciones mercantiles que habia 
en solo el puerto de Pontevedra, reducido hoy á cuatro tristes 
pescadores; y de los millones de fanegas de pan que se cogían 
en España, y resulta de las tazmías eclesiásticas. Sueños pa- 
recen estas realidades ... Dv s siglos ha que está bajando 
España, y dos siglos ha que están subiendo sobre nuestras 
caídas, errores y desaciertos, primero Holanda, luego Ingla- 
terra, y después Francia. ¿Cómo, pues, no han de haber as- 
cendido ellas á la cumbre de la felicidad, y descendido noso- 
tros al abismo de las desdichas? A la verdad han sabido 
aprovecharse bien de las ocasiones que les hemos presentado; 
y en esto merecen elogio . . . 

(To be continued.) 
[M. A. Gándara.— «J|)Mníc5 sobre él bien y el mal de España.^] 


¿ Qué hecho explica esta diferencia de fuerza ? 
¿Había muchas ferias entonces? ¿Por cuanto se comer- 
ciaba en ellas? 
¿Cuál era una de ellas? 
¿Era notable el puerto de Pontevedra? 
¿Cuál ha sido la causa de la decadencia de España? 
¿Qué naciones han subido mientras España ha bajado? 

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Use of Conjunctions. 295 

Fourteenth Lesson. 

Use of Coigunctions. 

Connective Conjunctions. 

Y (and). In a series, between the two last, in 
reading out numbers, between tens and units; between 
two words alike to translate the English after or many 
and many a in similar cases: 

El padre, la madre y el hijo. 

Tbe father, the mother, and the son. 

Limes, miércoles y viernes, 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. 
1900, mil novecientos; 891, ochocientos noventa y uno. 
Horas y horas, hours after hours. 
Libros y libros, many and many a book. 
At the beginning of sentences, such as: 

¿ Está V, contento ? — Y mucho. 
Are you pleased? — Very much indeed. 
/ T qué frió hace! How cold it is! 
N,B,— Hablo de él y no de Y,, or 

Hablo de él, que no de Y. 

I am speaking of him, and not of you. 

Hi (neither, nor). It may follow a sentence with 
no, or y no, or ni, or even stand by itself at the 
beginning of a sentence, but cannot be followed by no. 
In such sequence of compound negations, no, y no 
are used only with verbs, whilst ni is used with any 
part of speech: 

No le he msto, ni le veré hoy. 

I have not seen him, nor shall I see him to-day. 

Entró, y no me dijo nada, ni yo tampoco. 

He came, and did not say anything, neither did I. 

No tiene ni dinero ni salud. 

He has neither money nor health. 

Ni ayer, ni hoy, neither yesterday nor to-day. 

Ni él, ni yo, neither he nor I. 

¿Le ha visto Y.? •— Ni le veré. 

Have you seen him? — No, neither will I see him. 

Ni eUa misnia sabe lo que quiere. 

Not even she herself knows what she wants. 

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296 Lesson 14. 

yi siquiera me ha hablado. 

He did not even speak to me. 

i^.J?.— JVI may be immediately followed by the negatives 
ninguno, nadie, nada, nunca, as well as follow them, which 
no may not: 

No lo sabe ni nunca lo sabrá. 

He neither knows it, nor will he ever know. 

yi él ni nadie, neither he nor anybody. 

Nadie, ni él; nobody, not even he. 

Disjunctive Conjunctions. 

ó (or). Between the last of two or more disjunctive 
parts of a sentence or clause; or before each of them, 
if emphasis, distinction, etc., is required, or verbs are 
introduced, or distribution is implied: 

Vendrá hoy é mañana. 

He will come either to-day, or to-morrow. 

¿8e queda V., 6 viene? 

Are you coming or are you going to stay here? 

Ó v., é él, uno de los dos. 

Either you or he, one of the two. 

Ó no lo sabe, é no lo quiere decir. 

Either he does not know or will not say. 

To denote approximate number: 

Tiene veinte ó veintiún años. 
She is twenty or twenty one. 
Habia ocho ó diez personas. 

There were eight or ten (about eight or ten) people 

In conjunction with sea^ be: 

Sea v., é (sea) él, it may be either you or he. 
N.B.— Ó lo has hecho tú, ó él. 

Either you have done it or he has. 

Ó tü, 6 él, lo habéis hecho. 

Either you or he has done it. 

Adversative Conjunctions. 

Sino (but). To correct a statement by turning a 
negative sentence into an affirmative one. If a verb is 
introduced in the latter, sino que is employed: 

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Use of Conjunctions. 297 

La huena crianza no es obra de da naturaleza, sino el 

fruto de una huena educación (or sino que es el.. .). 
Good behaviour is no work of Nature, but the result of 

a good education. 
No lo dijo él, sino ella, or 
No lo dijo él, sino qtie lo dijo ella. 
It was not he, hut she tliat said it. 
No lo sabe, sino que lo aparenta. 
He does not know, he only pretends. 
No sólo habla bien, sino que escribe muy elegantemente. 
He does not only speak well, but he also writes very 

No — sino corresponds also to the English but or only, as: 
No viene sino raramente, 
H-í comes but seldom (Ital. Non viene se non rara- 

No espero sino que te vayas, 
1 only wait till you are gone. 

As seen by these examples, the principal sentence sihonla 
likewise be negative. 

JPero (but). To introduce distinction without deny- 
ing a previous statement, which may be either affirma- 
tive or negative. JPero may he followed by a nrgative, 
and be the first word of a sentence, or even stand by 
itself, which sino may not: 

Lo dice, pero no lo cree. 

He only says it, he does not believe it. 

No sabe mucho^ pero habla bien. 

He does not know much, but talks well. 

Pero ¿por qué?, but why? 
N.B.—Es malo, pero malo, it is very bad indeed. 

Mils (but). To denote either opposition to what 
immediately precedes, or a consequence differing from 
that which one might have expected, as: 

Lo dice Tácito, mas no convienen con él los otros 

Tacitus says so, but the other historians do not agree 

with him. 

Mas no porque las ciencias sean el primero, deben ser 

el único objeto de vuestro estudio. 
But although the sciences be the first object of your 

study, they must not be the only one. 


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298 Lesson 14. 

N.B. — JPero aiKl mtis are much the same thing; the 
former is more used in the colloquial language, the latter in 
literary style. 

Aunqiie (though, although^ even, in spite of) in 
hypothetical sentences is followed by the Subjunctive, as : 
Aunque lo sepa, no lo dirá. 
Even if he knows, he will not tell. 
No lo haga Y, aunque él se lo diga. 
Do not do it, even if he asks you. 

Also aun cuando, even if: 

Aun cuando lo sepa, no lo dirá. 

No lo haga F. aun cuando él se lo diga. 

Cuando (provided, on condition, if; even, though), 
also precedes the Subjunctive in hypothetical sentences, 

Ctuindo no lo sepa V., pregúntelo. 

K you do not know it, ask. 

Cuando venga Y., tráigalo. 

Bring it when you come. 

J^r.5.— However, in speaking oí positive facts, the Indi- 
cative, not the Subjunctive, is used: 

Aunque lo sabe, no lo dice. 

He knows, but does not tell. 

Cuando viene, lo trae. 

Whenever he comes, he brings it. 

No lo hace aun cuando él se lo dice. 

He does not do it, although he tells him to. 

Adversative conjunctional phrases are: 
Sin embargo. 

no obstante, 
con todo, 
no por eso, 

nevertheless, notwithstanding. 

«oto ^e, \ J ^i^^j 
solo si que, f ^ 

Conditional Conjunctions. 

Si (if). It requires the Conditional or the Imperfect 
of the Subjunctive if the condition appears only possible 
or dubious, as: 

Si estudiaras (estudiases), te querría mucho más. 
If you would study (learn), I should love you (much) 

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Use of Conjunctione. 299 

Si esto fuera asi, yo lo consentiría. 
If it were so, I should consent. 

In this case the sentence expressing the condition 
may be contracted into an infinitive with á, as: 
A ser esto asi, yo lo consentiría. 
If ¡t were so (it being so), I should consent. 

N.B.—Si with the Present of the Indicative expresses 
also condition: 

Si viene, que espere, if he comes, tell him to wait. 

But if the condition rather than such is something con- 
sidered as certain or universally known, the Indicative 
follows, as: 

Si aspiréis á ser docto, estudia. 

Study, if you wish to be learned. 

Si hay malos. My buenos. 

If there are wicked people, there are also good. 

N,B, — The following are further uses of si with the 

¿Si lo sabrá? I wonder if he knows it. 

No me ha dicho si lo sabe ó no. 

He has not told me whether he knows it, or not. 

No lo dirá si le aJwrcan, 

He will not tell, even if they hang him for it. 

Como, when signifying if, unless^ or / wonder if, 
requires the Subjunctive; but meaning as, or in question- 
ing, the Indicative, as: 

C<ymo aprendas la lección, la sabrás. 

If you learn your lesson, you will know it. 

No iré como él no venga, 

I will not go, unless he comes. 

¿ Como no esté malo ? 

I wonder if he is ill? 

Como está enfermo, no sale. 

As he is ill, he does not go out. 

Mientras, with the Indicative, ex^^resses positive 
facts; with the Subjunctive, condition: 

Mientras más le dan, más quiere, 

The more they give him, the more he wants. 

MienU'as no me lo pierda V,, lléveselo, 

1 will lend it to you, provided you do not lose it. 

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800 Lesson 14. 

Causal and Final Conjunctions. 

JPorque (because, as, since), denotes ''the reason 
why,'* the cause of something, and is used in state- 
ments and answers as a correlative of ¿por qué?, 

¿JPor qué? — JPorque si. 

Why? — Because it is so. 

Lo haré parque V. me lo pide. 

I will do it, because you ask me. 

No fui parque llovia. 

I did not go, because it rained. 
N.B. — At times it expresses a mere wish: 

Daria la vida porque ella me quisiese. 

I would give up my life that she would love me. 

Fiara que (that, in order that, so that) denotes 
obtainable end, or purpose, and is generally followed by 
the Subjunctive: 

8e lo digo á V. para que lo sepa. 

I tell you, that you may know it. 
Tráigalo ¥., para que le conozcamos. 
Bring him, that we may know him. 
N.B. — When the reason why and the purpose are much 
the same, either porque or para que may be used: 

Lo hago porque (or para que) no ae ofenda. 
I do it that he might not be offended. 

JPues^ ptiesto que^ implies ''the- reason why'' 
as immediate consequence of something understood; 
whilst porque*"^ expresses the reason why as a cause, as : 

Iré contigo, pues"^** lo quieres. 
I shall go with you, since you wish it. 
No pude asistir á la función, porque estaba ausente. 
I could not go to the performance, because I was away. 
Very often pues corresponds to the English well, well 
now, why, only, etc., with a question or a command, and fre- 

* Puesto que meaning ifj and followed by the Subjunctive, 
is almost obsolete: 

Puesto (supuesto) que te favorezcan, muéstrate agradecido. 
If they favour you, show yourself thankful. 
** French pmsque and parce que. Ital. poicM and perché. 
*** If pues indicates the reason subsequently, it is often ren- 
dered by for, as: 

No puedo creer á V. pues ha mentido. 
. I cannot believe you, for you have told me a falsehood. 

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Use of Cod junctions. 301 

quently it expresses opposition, being rendered by yet, never- 
thelesSf etc. Examples: 

. Pue8 ¿como he de salir? well, how shall I get out? 

¡Pues dígaselo YJ only tell him sol 

Dice que no tiene dinero ; pues le he dado hay 10 duros. 

He says that he has no money, yet I gave him 10 
dollars to-day. 

€on tal que (on condition, provided) requires the Sub- 
junctive mood, as: 

Diviértete, con tal que cumplas con tu obligación. 

Enjoy yourself, provided you do your duty. 
The conjunctions ya (si ya), es que, si es que, and si 
must often be periphrased in English, as a literal translation 
would be impossible. Ex.: 

/ Ya (or si) lo dije! did not I say so! 

¡8i hablé con ella ayer! 

I spoke with her but yesterday! 

¡Es qué se lo dije esta mañana! 

Why, this very morning I told him so! 
These sentences are all more or less exclamative, and 
either confirm or contradict what has been said before. 

Other conjunctions are á fin de que, so that, in 
order that; así, so, thus; así que, so that, as soon as; 
demás de (á más de), besides; entre tanto, meanwhile; 
luego, con que, por (de) consiguiente^ therefore, thus; 

Note,— Luego, like the Latin ergo and the French done, 
draws a conclusion from what precedes, as: 

Pienso, Iv^o existo, I think, therefore I exist.* 

Con que** and por consiguente express the same 
idea, but less positively. In conversation, con que seldom 
introduces a proper logical conclusion, but rather sums 
up what has been said, etc., before, as: 

¡€on que, hasta luego! well, then, I hope to see you 
soon again! [In French, sur celk, je vous salue!] 

¡€an que, vendré á las ocho! 

Well, so I shall come at eight o'clock! 

¿ Can que, nos deja V, 9 

So you are leaving us? 

* Cogito, ergo sum. 
** German olfo. 

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802 lesson 14. 

Subordinate Conjunctions. 

To these beloug que, that, and según with the 
signification; as, in conformity, agreeable, etc., as: 

Dice gtie no quiere venir conmigo. 

He says that he will not come with me. 

Habla según lo entiende, 

Hé speaks as he nnderstands it. 

Bemark,— As in Italian, que often immediately follows 
a past participhj in which case it replaces a compotmd con- 
junction, like luego que, después que, etc., the arrangement of 
words being inverted. Thus: 

Dicha que fué esta palabra. 

(Ital.: Delta che fu questa parola.) 

Scarcely had this word been uttered. 
The regular order would be: 

Luego que esta palabra fid dicha. 
In both sentences, dicha is feminine, because it must 
agree with the following subject in gender and number (see 
The Passive Voice). 

Again, '*when" and ''as," referring to an adverb 
or adverbial phrase of time immediately preceding, are 
rendered by que. In English, the present participle is 
frequently introduced, the conjunction being omitted, as: 

Un dia que estuve en una tertulia. 
Once (one day) when I was at a party. 

» » » being at a party. 
Note, — In such a case the conjunction ctuindo is not ad- 
missible. If, however, a sentence containing an adverbial 
phrase of time (as: At 5 o'clock he entered my room) is 
turned into a principal sentence having the sense of the ad- 
verbial phrase, an accessory clause introduced by when, cuando 
should be used, not que. Thus: 

At 5 o'clock, etc. = it might be ñve o'clock, when he 
entered my room. 

Serian las dnco, cuando entró en mi cuarto. 

Que often replaces phrases formed with que, such 
as antes que, después que, in order to avoid re- 
petition, as: 

Después que el ejército fué desbaratado y que (for des- 
pues que) él general hubo entrado en la ciudad . , . 

After the army was beaten and (after) the general had 
entered the town. 

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Use of Conjunctions. 303 

Before the Subjunctive, too, que is frequently omitted, 
as in English. Ex.: 

No quiso (que) le alcanzase. 

He did not wish (that) he might overtake him. 

This is almost always the case with the verbs rogar^ 
and suplicar, to beg, request, which are never used 
with the Infinitive, but with the Subjunctive either with 
or without que — e.g.: 

Buego á F. me diga el motivo de su proceder, 
I beg you to tell me the reason of your conduct. 

Traducción. 15.* 

1. I told you that I was at home Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays. Did you wait for (tr. esperar) me, then? 
A long time, indeed; hour after hour. How sorry I am! 
It was in 1897, and then I had no health nor humour. I 
was never ambitious, and I never thought of soliciting (en 
solicitar) official situations. I want sincerity, and no lies and 
subterfuges. I have not told him, and I shall not tell him. 
Neither to-day nor to-morrow. Do you want gold or silver? 
Silver or gold, as you like. We were about ten or twelve 
friends. It was not I, it was he, and it did not happen on 
Thursday, but on Monday. He did not know it, he only 
pretended. I am your friend, but not your servant. You 
are my beloved sister, but not my mistress. (The) good taste 
is not the produce of erudition, but an inborn talent of (the) 
man. I encounter many difficulties in my studies, but I will 
not let myself &e (fr. dejarse) discouraged (Infin. acobardar) 
by them. You affirm it, but your master affirms the contrary. 
Not only is he a good painter, but he is also familiar with 
literature. Though I saw him, I did not speak to him; and 
even if he asks me, I will not tell; but he must know, for 
(tr. when) he does not ask, and when they speak about her, 
he does not say even a word. How can you think that I 
will already go away (now) if I have come only an hour 
ago? (si no hace más que una hora que he llegado). If you 
had asked me, I should have answered you directly. If you 
write to me, I shall also write to you. I shall give him the 
money, because you find the account in order. I am staying 
here because you wish it. I could not come yesterday be- 
cause I was ill. If I am told to do such a thing, I shall 
at once refuse. I shall lend you the money, provided (on 

* As the English and Spanish expressions often greatly dififer, 
it is occasionally preferable, for the convenience of the pupil, to 
write the English so that a literal translation will be good Spanish. 

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804 Lesson 14. 

condition) that you give it me back within a month. I do 
not know whether he knows it or not. I wonder if someone 
has told him. He will not say a word, even if they hang 
him for it (use si). The more she has, the more she wants; 
the more money, the less charity (use fnientras); and provided 
you flatter her she is happy. Why did you not come? Be- 
cause it rained. I wonld give all I have if he would do it 
(use parque), I tell you that you may know it, for I call 
myself your friend. 

2. I told him, but he does not want to do it. He is 
very obstinate indeed (use pero). Have I not (tr. But I 
have) told you to-day that I shall not go to the play? Bat 
I brought yon the newspaper yesterday evening. You refuse, 
80 we shall (drop the subject) not speak any longer of the 
matter. Yon will not pay me, so I shall send the note to 
your uncle. Well, you come to dine with us [on] Sunday? 
So you will not come with us to the promenade? So I shall 
depend upon it (cimento con ¥,). I tell you so, that you may 
know it. I declare (you) that I have not deserved these 
words. As (it) seems to me, you have not done your task. 
Relate me the accident as it happened (siicedió). The field 
brings fruit according as it is cultivated (reflect, fr. cuUivar), 
As soon as (the) supper was over {tr, finished), the gentlemen 
went away. As soon as I shall have paid (sulj.) my bills, 
I shall depart. One morning, when I took my chocolate, 
someone knocked at the door. It might be nine o'clock, 
when we heard a great noise in the street. As soon as all 
was put in order and the room shut, we left the house. We 
feared (lest) our enemies should he victorious (tr. conquer). 

Beading Exercise. 

Grandeza y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 

La verdadera y física riqueza de España consiste en la 
abundancia interior de todo género de frutos nacionales; el 
oro y la plata americana no es buena, sino se hace servir de 
instrumento para mejorar esta felicidad natural del país. 

El dinero en si no es más que señal, representación ó 
ficción de ella. España en general está pobre desde que le 
vino de Indias más dinero; y no es culpa de las Indias. 
¿Pues qué es? Es que yendo á las Americas en busca de 
esta señal de riqueza, abandonamos más la riqueza física y 
real, que teníamos dentro de casa. ¿De qué sirve labrar y 
traer mucho dinero de las Indias, si no le labramos ni trae- 
mos para nosotros? Nosotros nos fuimos á buscar tesoros en 
América, y las naciones cultas se vinieron á sacárnoslo de 
nuestra casa con la venta de los frutos de su industria. Ck)n- 

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The Object of the Verb. 805 

quistamos á las Indias, es verdad; pero nos hicimos tribnta- 
rios vohmtarios de Inglaterra, Francia, Holanda, Oénova, 
Venecia, Hamburgo, etc. Más tributo pagamos á estas naciones 
que al Bey. De todas las producciones de España y América 
no nos queda más que el vano y fastuoso honor de tener las 
naciones ocupadas en servirnos; quiero decir, en chupamos 
la sustancia, y despojarnos del comercio, artes, fábricas, manu- 
facturas ó industrias. 

(To be continued.) 
[M. A. Gándara. — tApuntes sobre el bien y el mal de ^apa/la.»] 


¿ En qué consiste la verdadera riqueza de España? 

¿Son buenos el oro y la plata americanos? 

¿Qué es el dinero en si? 

¿Desde cuándo está pobre España? 

Expliqúese por qué. 

Al conquistar las Indias, ¿qué nos hicimos? 

¿Qué nos queda hoy? 

Fifteentli Lesson. 

The Object of the Verb. 

The Direct Object. 

The most striking diflference between the Spanish 
and other languages is exhibited by the direct object 
of the verb, as stated in the First Part (see The Sub- 
stantives in connection with the Prepositions, p. 15). There 
it was stated that the direct object (accusative), when 
importing a person or personified thing, seems to be ex- 
pressed not by the accusative, but by the dative case — 
i.e., by the preposition á preceding the noun. Thus; 
The mother loves the daughter, is not: La madre ama 
la hija, but: La madre ama á la hija. 

To this general rule are now added the following 
remarks : 

1. Not only names of persons, but also names of 
countries and toivns without article, and personified ideas, 
are connected by á with the preceding verb, as: 
Amar á la patria, to love one's country. 
Los franceses conquistaron á España, 
The French conquered Spain. 
Spanish Conv.-Grammar. 20 

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806 Lesson 15. 

El almirante atacó y saqueó á Nicotera. 

The admiral attacked and plundered N. 
Note.-- The prepos. á may be omitted before proper names, 
if the accusative is taken in a general sense. Thus: 

Aguardar á un criado, to expect a (certain) footman. 

Aguardar un criado. 

To expect a footman (any person of that class). 
This is also the reason why substantives taken in a 
general sense (the French sens partitif) are not preceded bj 
á in the accusative, as: 

Busco criados. 

I am on the look-ont for servants (Fr. Je cherche des 

Es preciso que el ejército tenga oficiales inteligentes, 

The army must have intelligent officers. 

No conozco invjer más arrogante. 

I do not know a more arrogant woman. 

2. If a verb governs two direct objects (i.e., accu- 
sative cases), of which the second is properly the predi- 
cate of the first, the former is rendered by the dcUive 
case and follows the latter, as: 

He calls his caprice character. 
Llama carácter á su capricho. 

3. If the accusative of the person, which according 
to the general rule ought to be expressed with the dative 
case, is followed by another attribute with á, the first 
á is omitted, as: 

/ Envíe V. el jardinero á la plaza ! 

Send the gardener to the market! 

N.B. — If, however, the personal complement is a proper 
name, and the following attribute denotes a place, hoth take 
áy as: 

/ Envie V. á Carlos á la plaza ! 

Send Charles to the market! 

But if both complements denote a person, the first á is 
dropped, as: 

¿Prefiere Y. Cervantes á Calderón? 

Do you prefer Cervantes to Calderón? 

4. If by the use of it a misconception could arise, 
this preposition is omitted, as: 

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The Object of the Verb. 307 

Mi amigo me recomendó el general. 
My friend recommended the general (acms,) to me. 
(Me recomendó al general^ would be "recommended me 
\_acc,] to the general" [daf].) 

5. Again, á is suppressed before numerals (except 
unOy or others if used with a restrictive meaning), as: 

Conocí seis señoras de la reunión, 
I knew six ladies of the society. 

Conocí á una señora^ etc., I knew a lady . . . 
Conod á seis de las ocho que allí había. 
I knew six of the eight ladies that were there.) 

6. After the verbs to name, to elect, to choose, etc., 
the accusative without á is used. Thus: 

España ha producido grandes poetas. 

Spain has produced great poets. 
El príncipe nombra los empleados.* 
The prince appoints the functionaries. 

If, however, the personal object is a proper name, 
the dative should be used, as: 

España ha producido á Cervantes y á Calderón. 
Spain has produced Cervantes and Calderón. 
Han nombrado Coronel á . . . 
They have appointed so and so to be a Coronel. 

7. Occasionally the omission of a is required by 
euphony. Thus: Mira aquél hombre, look at that man, 
because Mira á aquel hombre, would grate on the ear. 
The latter also, however, is occasionally found; in, fact 
in the best writers we meet with numerous exceptions 

* K another personal accusative follows, as : The prince ap- 
pointed him general, this accusative is, as in English, added 
without the article, or with por (after to recognize^ to acknowledge, 
etc.), or else with como (after to consider, to depict, etc.), as: 

El principe le nombró capitán. 

The prince appointed him captain. 

Los soldados le reconocieron por general. 

The soldiers reco}fnize<i (acknowledged) him as their general. 

Le considero como bribón. 

I consider him as a scoundrel. 
If these verbs are passively used, the accusative case is turned 
into a nominative, as: 

Fué nombrado capitán, he was appointed captain. 



by Google 

308 Lesson 15. 

to the rules given above on the omission of á when 
the object is a person. 

8. With some verbs the signification is altered by 
the omission or the use of á. Thus: 

robar alguno, means: to kidnap somebody; 

robar á alguno, » to rob somebody; 

dejar alguno, » to leave behind (a son, etc.); 

dejar á alguno, » to desert somebody; 

pierde sus hijos, » he loses his sons; 

pierde á sus hijos, » he ruins his sons. 

9. In Spanish several verbs always govern the 
accusative case without preposition (except names of 
persons, which take the accusative with ó), whilst in 
English they are introduced by prepositions. In Eng- 
lish some of them may govern the accusative. They 
follow in alphabetical order: 

Acechar, to lie in wait for . . . mirar, to look at. 

cortejar, to pay one's court pedir, to beg (of). 

to, to render homage to. rogar, to beg (of). 

escuchar, to listen to. tratar, to treat with. 

encontrar, to meet (with). violentar, to offer violence to, 
extrañar, to wonder at. and many others. 

huir, to flee from. 

As these verbs are all transitive in Spanish, they 
may, of course, also be used passively, as: 

Fuifnos escuch€ido8 por el juee. 
We were listened to by the judge. 

If another object, denoting a person^ is added to 
these verbs, it is rendered by the dative of the pronoun 
or the substantive, thus: 

Me pide un favor, he asks me a favour. 

Fide un favor al rey, he asks a favour of the king. 

10. As stated in p. 122, 3, verbs are often used 
reflectively in Spanish, in order to modify the original 
idea. In such a case, the personal object takes á, 
whereas the direct object importing a thing does not, as: 

Tragarse, to devour; Las fieras se tragan á los 

hombres, the wild beasts 
devour the men. 

llevarse, to take away; Se llevó el dinero, he took 

away the money. 

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The Object of the Verb. 809 

11. As already stated, if, for the sake of greater 
emphasis, either the direct or indirect object pre- 
cedes the verb, the corresponding personal pronoun 
should be added. 

A ná no me lo puedes decir. 

To me you cannot say so (for: no puedes decírmelo), 

AquelUis siete medallas las hallaré, 

I shall find those seven medals. 

Traducción. 16. 

1. If we love our country, we only do our duty. The 
Greeks conquered Troy after a siege of ten years. He calls 
his nonsense jokes, and his impertinence witticisms. I (have) 
sent the footman to the mill and the (maid-) servant into the 
garden. I prefer Souvestre to Lamartine, and Dante to Pe- 
trarca. He recommended me his servant, but I have not 
taken him. I have known seven or eight wealthy families 
in that town. Do you know more talented authors than 
Dickens and Thackeray? The king appointed the Marquis 
captain-general of the Island of Cuba. The minister appoints 
the officers, and the king confirms them. I consider every- 
body an impostor who does not speak the truth in such a 
case. Napoleon was elected emperor by the French. Ger- 
many has produced great philosophers, and France great ge- 
nerals. The city of Mayence produced Gutenberg, the inven- 
tor of the art of printing. Look at that lady; what do you 
think of her beautiful dress? Napoleon the First left a son, 
the Duke of Reichstadt. If I must leave my country, I am 
very unhappy. 

2. The robbers have stolen (me) my -whole fortune. (The) 
gipsies have often kidnapped children. We should never 
flatter the great in order to obtain a favour. Thank your 
father for his great kindness. I have dissuaded your friend 
from his project. Obey thy parents, if thou wilt become 
happy. We have prevented the danger in time. I renounce 
(to) all my claims to (tr. at) the estates of that family. I 
could not resist his entreaties. Help your neighbour on every 
occasion. Assist the unhappy man, lest he be lost! It is a 
great misfortune if a young prince is always flattered by 
his courtiers. I was helped when it (was not too late) still 
was time. Happily the danger was avoided! I remind you 
of your promise. The beggar asked me for alms. Ask the 
peasant the way! What are you doing here? I am pidting 
on my boots (tr. calzarse). Why do you not put on (tr. po- 
nerse) the waistcoat which the tailor (has) brought you yester- 
day? I shall read this letter, though you have forbidden it 

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310 Lesson 16. 

to me. You cannot deceive me (see 11), my dear friend! 
I know you better than you know yourself! 

Reading Exercise. 

Grandeza y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 

Ya he dicho (y diré mil veces) que las riquezas ameri- 
canas solo son útiles haciéndolas servir para florecimiento de 
las producciones naturales de Espafia. Este uso es el que 
hasta aquí no hemos hecho, y este uso es el que necesitamos 
hacer si queremos que vuelva Espafia á su antigua felicidad, 
esplendor y abandancia. Y veis aquí descubierto aquel mis- 
terio oscuro que tiene confusos á muchos hombres muy há- 
biles, sin acertar á comprender cómo florecieron Holanda, 
Inglaterra y Francia desde que comenzaron á poseer las In- 
dias, y cómo decayó Espafia desde que tuvo Americas. Estas 
tres ilustres potencias se valieron de aquellas sefiales de rique- 
za para fomentar la riqueza real de sus dominios europeos, 
y Espafia al contrario, se tiró inconsideradamente á las mis- 
mas riquezas representativas, abandonando su labranza, su 
pastoría, sus artes, sus fábricas, sus manufacturas y sus indus- 
trias, que formaban la sustancia real y esencial del Estado: 
ésta fué la desgracia, y este el efecto, contrario al suceso de 
nuestros vecinos. Más claro os lo diré. Los Gobiernos ho- 
landeses, ingleses y franceses miraron siempre sus patrias como 
parte principal, y sus Indias como parte accesoria, que debía 
hacer la felicidad de sus estados hereditarios ; nosotros al revés, 
por falta de buenas medidas, venimos en el efecto á mirar 
las Americas como parte principal de nuestras riquezas, y 
descuidando los intereses sólidos de la madre, la hicimos como 
accesoria de sus hijps. Y lo peor es que por tal camino 
venimos á infelicitar á nuestra Espafia, sin haber hecho felices 
á nuestras Americas . . . 

(To be continued.) 
[M. A. Gándara. — (a Apuntes sobre el Men y el mal de España.*] 


I Con qué condición son útiles las riquezas americanas ? 

¿Hemos hecho ese uso? 

¿Qué descubre esto? 

¿ En qué consiste ese misterio ? 

Expliqúese por qué florecieron Holanda, Inglaterra y 
Francia desde que tuvieron las Indias, y por qué 
decayó Espafia desde que tuvo Americas. 

¿Cuál fué la conducta de los Gobiernos extranjeros, y 
cuál la de nuestros Gobiernos? 

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Remarks on the Spanish Passive Voice. 311 

Sixteenth Lesson. 

Remarks on the Spanish Passive Yoice and on 
some Spanish and English Yerbs. 

1. As already stated, to bSy when used as an 
auxiliary to form the passive voice, is rendered by ser, 
as: to he loved, ser qiierido. However, the pupil should 
always bear in mind that the passive voice is much 
less used in Spanish than in English, the reflective verb 
being commonly used instead. 

N,B. — The Spanish passive voice signifies that an action 
has been, or not, completed; and therefore is almost always 
used in past tenses, in narrative and statements of what is 
considered to he (or not to he) an accomplished fact. 

Fué muerto de un tiro, he was hilled by a shot. 

Ha sido enterrado hoy, he has been buried to-day. 

Su memoria será respetada siempre. 

His memory will always he honoured. 
Whenever the above is not the case, the English passive 
voice is rendered in Spanish either by the active voice (in 
the 3rd pers. plnr.) or by the reflective se (with the 3rd p. 
plur. or sing.) or by se with a pronominal indirect object. 

Le mataron de un tiro. 

Se le ha enterrado hoy. 

Su memoria se respetará siempre. 

Note how the following English Passive forms are 

rendered in Spanish: 

Spanish spoken here, se habla español. 

No re -admittances given, no se dan salidas. 

No admittance, se prohibe la entrada. 

Apprentice wanted, se necesita un aprendiz. 

Carriages lent on hire, se alquilan carruajes. 

T. . -J -J. • r ji Í se dice, se teme. 
It IS said, It IS feared, | ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ 

If the action or state expressed by the passive voice 
is represented as frequently repeated and therefore habi- 
ttml, the verb ir (to go, like andaré in Italian) is pre- 
ferred to ser, as: 

Este verbo va conjugado asi. 
This verb is conjugated thus. 

Note the following among many idioms: 

Ser de buen corazón, to be good-hearted. 
Ser de buenas piernas, to be a good walker. 

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812 Lesson 16. 

Ser de huen comer, to have generally a good appetite. 
Ser de muchos años, to be very old. 

2. To become (sometimes also "to grow") is ren- 

(a) By ser, if the state is represented as a lasting 
one, as: 

Es menester estudiar mucho para ser sabio. 
One must study much in order to become learned 

(i.a , if a man is learned, he remains so). 
Mi hijo será comerciante. 
My son will become a merchant. 

(b) Ponerse, if the transition from one state to another 
is to be denoted, as: 

8e pu80 triste, he became sorry. 

Se ha puesto pálida, she has become pale. 

(c) Volverse, if the idea of an alteration predominates, 

Volvióse alegre. 

He became merry (i.e., having before been sad). 

Se ha vueUo muy insolente. 

He has become very insolent. 

(d) Hacerse, salir, if the stress is laid on the deve- 
lopment of the action or state, as: 

¿Qué se ha heclio de su amigo de Y,? 
What has become of your friend? 
8e me hace cada día más desagradable. 
He becomes every day more disagreeable to me. 
8e hizo soldado, he became a soldier. 
Salió un afamado actor. 
He turned out or became a famous actor. 
N.B. —The same idea is expressed by ser de, as: 
¿Qué fué de él? 
What became of him? (Ital. Che fu di lui?) 

(e) Llegar d ser^ ponerse, meterse (á), venir á ser, 
when implying intention or aim, or result^ as: 

Quiere meterse soldado, he will become a soldier. 
Vino á ser infelie por el descuido de su hijo. 
He became unhappy by the imprudence of his son. 
Llegará á ser él primero de todos. 
He will become (he will be) the first of all. 

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Remarks on some Span, and Engl. Verbs. 313 

(f) Ir á parar, venir á parar, parar en . . ., pasar 
á ser, pasar de (á), salir, when importing a final aim, as : 

¿ En qué irá á parar esta cosa ? 

What will in the end become of the matter? 

¡No sé en que parará! 

I really do not know what will become of him I 

(g) Quedar^ if the alteration is represented as merely 
accidental or involuntary, as: 

Á esta noticia quedó muy afligido. 
At this news he became very sorry. 

Observation,— Besides these verbs, there are some others 
which convey the notion of development or transition, but with 
an accessory idea, as: anochecer, to grow dusk, enverdecer, 
to become green; empeorarse, to grow worse, to deteriorate, 
to degenerate; envejecer, to grow old, etc. With these verbs 
(in the gerundio) estar is often used, in order to express an 
accessory idea of duration, as: 

El ruido está creciendo. 

The noise is growing louder and louder. 
(See The Gerundio,) 

3. To be able, Can, etc. See Part 11., Less. 17, n.^ 15. 

4. To ha/ve with the accusative and past participle 
following, as: I shall have a coat made, means hacer 
hacer [in French: faire faire], as: 

8e hizo hacer un sombrero, he had a hat made. 

Sometimes in such a sentence, to have is not trans- 
lated, if the person who performs the action is not 
mentioned, as: 

He has his books printed at Madrid. 

Imprime sus obras en Madrid (= he prints ....). 

5. To cause, to order, is hacer and sometimes 
mandar, as: 

Haga V. entrar al criado. 

Order (tell) the footman to come in. 

Mandó al soldado acompañar al prisionero,^ 

He ordered the soldier to accompany the prisoner. 

* If '*to order" or "to cause," etc., is followed by the infini- 
tive of the passive voice, as in the sentence: He ordered the sol- 
dier to be shot, the object should be placed after the infinitive 
of the active verb. Thus: 3Iand6 fvsilar al soldado. 

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814 Lesson 16. 

6. To let, when meaning '*to permit," "to allow," 
is commonly dejar y as: 

No me dejo engañar {lit, I do not let me cheat). 

I do not let my self be cheated.* 

No deja cerrar la puerta. 

He does not allow the door to be shut. 

Dar likewise occurs in this signification, as: 

jyéme F. esta carta á escribir, let me write this letter. 
^o¿e. — "Let me know'' = send me word, is rendered bj 
hucer saber j as: 

Hágame F. saber si puede venir. 
Send me word if you can come. 
To be let (= hired) is alquilar, as: 

This house is to be let, esta casa está para alquilar, 

7. To get is also frequently rendered by hacer. 
Yet this verb has so many other significations in Spanish, 
that its meaning must be gathered from each peculiar 
instance — i,e, : 

¿Ha recibido F. su dinero? 

Have you got your money (i.e., have you received your 

money) ? 
He alcanzado, or logrado la colocación, ya tengo la 

I have got (i.e., obtained) the situation. 
Ha engordado, se ha puesto (vuelto) gordo. 
He has got (i.e., become) fat. 
No puedo veneer esta dificultad, etc. 
I cannot get over this difficulty = I cannot overcome 

or conquer this difficulty. 

8. To be obliged^ to be compelled, I tmisty 

Hkewise present some difficulties. 

(a) If the subject of the sentence is expressed by 
(me, people, etc., es menester, es preciso, es ne^ 
cesarlo, hay que, conviene, are used with the in- 
fi^nitive and toithotU a nominative case; thus: 

Es menester (necesario, preciso) trabajar para ganar 

la vida, 
One must work in prder to gain one's livelihood. 

(Lit, It is necessary to work, etc.) 
No hay que decírselo, one (you) must not tell him so, etc. 
** In Spanish the passive voice cannot be nsed after the 

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Remarks on some Span, and Engl. Verbs. 315 

(b) K, on the contrary, the subject is distinctly 
expressed, an accessory sentence is introduced by que, as: 

Es precisa (necesario etc.) que F. trabaje para ganarse 

la vida. 
You must work in order to gain your subsistence. 

Es preciso que las mujeres trabajera para * 

Women must work in order 

(c) Instead of es menester, etc., deber (de) or haber 
de may Ukewise be used, it being immaterial whether a 
moral necessity or a compulsion by some material force 
"be meant; though in this latter case, tener que may be 

He de estar en mi cuarto, I must stay in my room. 

I>ébe de hacer frió, it must be cold. 

Tengo que escribir muchas cartas, 

I have many letters to write. 

8u hermano de F. ha de estar enfermo. 

Your brother must be ill. 

Observations,—!. A construction not rarely met with, is 
ihe dative of the personal pronoun with es preciso, followed 
by the infinitive, as: 

Me fué preciso hacer eso, 

I was obliged to do so. (French: il me fallut faire cela.) 
2. The English *'oughf' is likewise rendered by es me- 
-nester, etc., or by deber, etc. If this verb is followed by the 
Compound infinitive (as: you ought \o have given), it is trans- 
lated by the imperfect Indie, or by the corkditU>nal of the 

I>ébía (or debiera) habérmelo dicho. 

He ought to have told me so. 

Tradneción. 17. 

1. He was run over by a carriage. He was taken to 
the hospital. He has been buried to-day. His death will 
be greatly (muy) felt. Listen to me : "English spoken here." 
•'Carriages lent on hire," "apprentice wanted," "it is said," etc., 
are always rendered (se traducen) by se. Yes, I understand, 

verbs "to permit," "to allow." Dejar should always be followed 
by the infinitive of the active verb : 

Dejó m>atar (or que matasen) á aquél hombre. 
He allowed that man to be killed. 
• In French: 11 faut travailler, and: II faut que ¡es femwes 

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816 Lesson 16. 

but let us go out this interval. But we cannot. Why? Be- 
cause "no re-admittances are given.** Though he is a verj 
old man, he is a good walker (use ser de). Have you (ge- 
nerally) a good appetite? What has become of your friend? 
In order to become clever, it is necessary to have intercourse 
with clever people. The boy said : '*! will become an officer." 
My sister was {tr, became) very glad when she heard this 
news. At first he was sad (afligido) y and afterwards he be- 
came merry, without any reason. Not every acorn becomes 
on oak-tree, and not every soldier a general. This man be- 
came richer every year. Who will be (become) the first of the 
class? If you want to become (a) merchant, you must first 
of all learn order and diligence. You will turn out a spend- 
thrift if you (go on like that) continue in the same way. 
Jacob Lafitte was (became) at last a great banker. Tell me, 
what has become of the servant (whom) you had last year? 
When we heard this, we were (became) much surprised. (The) 
spring is coming; the trees are getting green. Do you know 
that your father is growing rather (muy) old? Do not be 
deceived {tr. Do not let yourself deceive) by (the) appearances. 
Why do you not let the dog come in? Tell the footman 
to come in. The emperor ordered the culprit to be put in- 
to prison. 

2. Where do you (Por quién . . see 4) have your linen washed 
(i.e., who washes y. 1.)? I shall send him word that I am 
(estoy) engaged. It is to be hoped {tr. it lets itself hope) 
that we shall have fine weather. That is easy to assert (lit. : 
it is easy to assert that), but difficult to prove. It is not 
said {lit.: it cannot be said) that you are not right, but 
yet I do not believe it. Where have you had this coat 
made? My neighbour will have his house freshly painted. 
One must always speak the truth. You need* only com- 
mand (mandar)y and it will he done (tr. hacerse) directly. 
The children must go to bed at eight o'clock and get up at 
six. I must stay at home to-day, for I have yet to do my 
task. Our friends must be abroad, for their house is shut 
up. You ought to have waited for me, for you knew for 
certain {tr. certainly) that I should come. You ought not 
to have done so (it) if you did not wish deeply to afflict 
your poor father. 

♦ "To need" and "to want" are often rendered as shown 
by the following examples: 

Necesitamos dinero^ we want some money. 

No hay más que hablar ^ one only needs to speak. 
"Ought" is sometimes translated by necesitar ^ as: 

V. hubiera necesitado descansar. 

You ought to have reposed. 

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Peculiarities of some Spanish Verbs. 317 

Reading Exercise. 

Grandeza y decadencia de España. (Continuación.) 

La codicia inconsiderada del oro 7 plata americana em- 
pobreció la riqueza natural de España: oro y plata la des- 
poblaron: oro y plata la convirtieron de industriosa en ocio- 
sa: oro 7 plata destruyeron su labranza, crianza, fábricas, 
artes é industrias: oro 7 plata trasmutaron en esterilidad su 
.abundancia, 7 en carestía la baratura de sus víveres: oro 7 
plata, extraídos del reino, la hicieron pobre. De la pobreza 
de los particulares resultó la indigencia universal 7 las nece- 
sidades del Erario: de ésta, la ruina de los vasallos 7 sus 
pueblos: de sus atrasos, el general de la monarquía; de éste, 
el de los miembros. Una á otra se dio la mano. Crecieron 
los gastos, el lujo 7 las obligaciones de la corona, cuando 
eran menores los medios de asistirla, fomentarla 7 auxiliarla. 
De esta misma indigencia se derivó el aumento de tributos, 
impuestos 7 arbitrios, que fué redoblar 7 remachar el mal. 
Una carga superior á las fuerzas conclu7Ó en de8ma7o, aban- 
dono 7 holgazanería. Y de estos antecedentes resultó (7 
necesitó resultar por consecuencia necesaria) toda la actual 
que padecemos en todas líneas. En una palabra, nosotros ba- 
jamos por aquel principio mismo que hizo subir á los demás, 
7 todo ha provenido de una conducta contraria á la natura- 
leza del bien; de sistemas, digo, opuestos á la conveniencia 
del Estado. 

(To be continued.) 
[M. A. Gándara.— «^pMwfeí sobre él him y el mal de España,^] 


¿Qué empobreció la riqueza natural de España? 

¿Qué hicieron el oro 7 la plata? 

¿Qné resultó de todo esto? 

¿Por qué se aumentaron los tributos? 

¿Y de estos antecedentes que resultó? 

¿Por qué bajamos? 

Seventeenth Lesson. 

Pecnliarities of some Spanish Yerbs. 

With some verbs idioms are formed which in Eng- 
lish must commonly be periphrased with adverbs, etc. 
Tho^e most in use are: 

1. Acahar, to finish, to terminate, is commonly 
rendered by just, just now, also by to have done, as: 

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318 Leeson 17. 

Acaban de llegar, they have just arrived. 
Acabo de leer, I have done reading. 

Sometimes acabar corresponds to the English finaUy, 
at lasty and fuUy, as: 

Acabar de resolverse, to resolve finally, at last. 
Acabar de entender, to understand fully, entirely. 
Acabar de conocer, to know at last. 

No acabar may be rendered in diflPerent ways, as: 
No acababa de maravillarse,* 
Lit.: He could not leave ofiF wondering = he was 

quite amaeed, etc. 
Acabar con uno, to kill a person. 

2. Acertar^ to gain, to carry one's point, answers to 
the English "to be able," as: 

No acertó á resolver qué hacer. 

He could not determine what to do. 

Sometimes it expresses a casualty or contingency 
and is an equivalent for to happen, as: 

Acerté á pasar, I happened to pass. 
Acertar con alguno cosa means: to guess. 

3. Alcanzar, to reach, to overtake, has very nearly 
the same meaning as acertar; thus: 

No alcancé á persuadirle, 

I was not able to (I could not) persuade him. 

No alcanzo como pueda ser eso. 

I cannot understand how that could be. 

4. Cansarse, to get tired, when negatively employed, 
imphes (like no acabar) that an action is going on^ as: 

No se cansaba de hablar. 

Literally: He did not grow tired of speaking = He 
went on or kept speaking. 

5. Bar, to give, like echar (see this verb, 7), ex- 
presses the sudden and instantaneous beginning of an 
action or a state, as: 

El niño dio á reir, the child began (suddenly) to laugh. 
(Besides, dar forms a good many idioms, for which the 
pupil is referred to the dictionary): 

Dar las gracias, to thank. 

Dar los buenos dias, to wish (one) good morning. 

* In French: II ne finissait pas de ^émerveiller. 

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Peculiarities of some Spanish Verbs. 319 

Bar la enhorabuena, to congratulate. 

Bar el pésame, to condole with. 

(Ir á) dar un paseo, to go for a walk. 

Bar las doce, to be striking 12. 

Bar que decir, to cause people to talk. 

Bar de bofetadas. 

To give a sound smacking on the face. 

Se ha dado á la bebida (á las diversiones). 

He has taken to drink (to amusements). 

6. Dejar, to let, joined to the participle, chiefly in 
commercial style, is equivalent to an auxiliary verb, as: 

Bejé acreditado en cuenta, I have credited the account. 

(On dejar, to let, see the preceding Lesson.) 
Bejar dieho, to leave word, to have already stated. 
Bejar de hacer una cosa. 

To leave off doing something (i.e., not to do it). 
No dejar de hacer una cosa. 
To go on doing a thing (i.e., to do it). 

7. Echar, to throw, is often synonymous with dar 
(see 5), as: 

Echar á correr, to start running. 

Se echó á llorar, he began (all at once) to cry. 
Echar de ver means "to behold, to get a sight of"; 
echarla de escritor, to pose as a writer {Echar, too, forms a 
great many idioms). 

8. Estar para, followed by the infinitive, corresponds 
to the English ''to be about," ''to be upon the point 
of," *'to be going to," as: 

Estaba para decirle, 

I was going (I was about) totell him (see p. 286, n.® 5). 

Note the following, among many idioms: 

Estar de cumpleaños, to be one's birthday. 

Estar de luto, to be in mourning. 

Estar de paseo, to be out for a walk. 

Estar en candelero, to be a high wig. 

9. Gustar, to please, to relish, when negatively em- 
ployed, means "to dislike," as: 

No me gusta ese hombre, I dislike that man. 

10. Haber de (see the preceding Lesson) is some- 
times an equivalent for the English "ought," as: 

F. había de saberlo, you ought to know it. 

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820 Lesson 17. 

But: Ha de saber F. (has de saber), know, then! 
V, ha de saber que estoy aqui. 
Enow, then, that I am here. 

When used impersonally (hay — quej^ it should 
be rendered as in the following sentence: 

Htxy mucho que desear, there is much to be wished for. 
Note,— Haber, though commonly an auxiliary, is some- 
times a principal verb, especially in poetry, as: 
Héroes hubieron Inglaterra y Francia, 
England and France had their heroes. 
Los hijos que de Isabel hubo el rey 2>. Fernando. 
The children that King Ferdinand had from Isabella. 
Conviene que se haya como hombre que no sabe ni oye 

He must behave like a man who does neither know 

nor hear. 
Also in the expressions he aqui, here is, there is, haber 
is an independent verb: he aqtii á nuestro héroe, here is 
our hero. 

Besides, haber is used absolutely in certain exclamative 
expressions, as: 

¡Bien haya! happy he who . . . 

¡Mai haya! woe to him who . . . 

¡(^ue Bios haya! God give him eternal repose! 

11. Ir á, like the English '*to be going to," denotes 
impending futurity, as: 

Voy á decirle, I am going to tell him. 
Vamos á ver, let us see! 

Idioms are: 

Ir de luto, to be (dressed) in mourning. 
Ir de paseo, to go for a walk. 
Ir de reunión, to go to a party. 

12. Llegar^ to arrive, like acabar , frequently an- 
swers to the English "at last," **finally,", "in fine," 
etc., as: 

Ha llegado á comprender, at last he understands. 
Llegar á oir, á entender means: to hear for the first 
time; We^ar á saber is "to come to know," "to be informed," 
"to learn," "to hear," etc. 

13. Llevar, to bring, to carry, to wear, joined to 
the participle, expresses, like dejar (see p. 319, n.® 6), past 

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Peculiarities of some Spanish Verbs. 321 

time in general, as: llevar sabido, to have known; Uevar 
estudiado, to have studied, learned; Uevar hecho, to have 
done. The pupil must bear in mind that if the past 
time is expressed by dejar, Uevar, tener (see 17) or trasr 
(to bring), the past participle should agree in gender 
and number with the substantive to which it refers: 

Le Uevo escritcis ya cuatro cartas, 

I have already written four letters to him. 

Lleva mandados tres recados. 

He has sent three messages. 

14. Ponerse á, meterse á correspond to the Eng- 
lish "to begin" (French: se mettre a), as: 

8e puso á escribir, á hablar, á comer. 
He began to write, to speak, to eat. 
Foner forms a great many idioms: 
Poner en duda, to doubt. 
Poner en claro, to ascertain. 
Poner en limpio, to make a fine copy. 
Ponerse (el sol), to set (the sun). 
Ponerse colorado (or encarnado), to blush. 
Poner por escrito, to put down in writing. 
Poner miedo, to ifrighten. 
Ponerse en la razón, to be reasonable. 

15. Saber J to know, to be able, denotes an acquired 
ability, as: 

¿Sabe V. hablar castellano? 
Can you speak Spanish (i.e., have you learnt it)? 
Saber de algtmo, to hear from anyone. 
Poder, on the contrary., expresses an innate faculty, as: 
No puede hablar, porqtte es mudo. 
He cannot speak because he is dumb. 

16. Tardar, is to (tarry) be a long time in . . ., 
to defer, to delay, as: 

Tarda mucho en responder. 
He Is a long time in answering. 
No tardar is commonly rendered by soon, as: 
No tardará en responder, he will soon answer.* 
Note: ¡Cuánto tarda el tren! how late the train is! 
¿Cuánto se tarda de aquí aUá? 
How long does it take from here to there? 

* In French: II ne tardera pas á repondré. 
Spanish Conv. -Grammar. 21 

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322 Lesson 17. 

17. Tener, to have, to hold, as already stated (Part L, 
p. 10), is commonly used instead of the auxiliary "to 
have." The difference between tener and habe^- has been 
explained. Tener impUes the lasting eflPect of an action, 
as: te he dicho, I told you; but: te tengo dicho, I told 
you once for all. Thus: he escrito la carta, I have 
written the letter, simply denotes the past tense, whereas: 
tengo escrita la carta lays a particular stress on the 
word written, — Me ha ofendido is: he has offended me, 
but me tiene ofendido, means: he has offended me, and 
I still resent the offence. — La casa que ha comprado, 
the house he (has) bought; /a casa que tiene comprada, 
the house he has bought and still possesses. — The 
pupil will notice that the participle used with tener 
agrees in gender and number with the word to which 
it refers. — Without an accusative following, tener sel- 
dom occurs with the past participle, as: 

Tengo acabado, I have done (see Participles). 
Tener que . . ., to be obliged, has been mentioned before. 
Tener likewise forms a great many idioms: 

Tener miedo, to be afraid. 

Tener frío (calor), to be cold (warm). 

(No) tener razón, (not) to be right. 

Tener en poco (en mucho), to value (not to value). 

Tener que hacer, to have something to do. 

18. Tratar^ to treat, to deal, to purpose, to set 
about, if emphatically denoting a design or purpose, is 
followed by de, as: 

Los conjurados tríUqban de asesinar al rey, 
The conspirators purposed killing the king. 

19. Venir de , , , like acabar, intimates that an 
action has just been performed, or that a condition 
began or ceased immediately before; thus: 

Viene de verla (or: acaba de verla), he has just seen her. 
However, venir de cannot be used, unless the idea of 
''to be coming from^^ is implied. 

Venir á ser (or: llegar á ser), simply means "to be,'* 
**to become." 

20. Volver á . . ., is an equivalent for again or 
once more, as: 

Vuelvo á decir á su hermano de V, , , . 
I once more (again) tell your brother . . . 

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Peculiarities of some Spanish Verbs. 328 

Volver without the infinitive following is "to return/* 
"to come back," as: 

Volveré á las once, I shall be back at 11 o'clock. 

N,B.— The repetition of an action is often expressed by 
the prefix re — , as: 

Animar, to animate; reanimar, to reanimate. 

Observation, — The cases where duration, etc., of an action 
or a state is expressed by the verbs andar, estar, ir, and 
venir with the gerundio, are explained in Lesson 23, "The 

Tradnecién. IS. 

1. We had just entered the house when we heard her 
crying. We could not wonder enough at his impudence. 
He will kill (use finish) her. I was not able to dissuade him 
from his project. You have hit (guessed) it, my friend! He 
has taken to drink; he has taken to amusements (see 8. dar), 
I congratulate you. I thank you very much. It is striking one. 
That will cause people to talk. He left word that you should 
do it (use d€Qar), When he poses as a writer, I always 
begin to laugh. It is her birthday, but she does not keep 
it (lo celebra) because she is in mourning. I was on the point 
of writing to you when I got your letter. I did not wish 
to speak to him any longer, for he bored me dreadfully. I 
cannot go out to-day, I must stay at (tr. guardar, to watch) 
the shop. You must send me the book (still) to-day. There 
is (a good deal more) still much to be (tr. dejarse) said 
about your behaviour, but I have no mind to scold any 

2. What are you about (to do) there, Charles? I want 
to open the window, for it is very warm in the room. Have 
you at last understood that I cannot comply with your re- 
quest? I have already asked him three times (use Uevar), 
He just began to work when his friend came into the room. 
I doubt it (use poner). You are not right ; I value your 
opinion very much (use tener). Can you dance? No, I 
cannot dance, but I can fence and ride. You cannot ride 
to-day; the horse is ill. You can never get your task done 
(fr. You always tarry to finish your task). Never mind ! I shall 
soon come back. As I have bought the article, I shall not 
send it back again. We tell you again that you are wrong 
in acting thus. Mr. Gayoso has sold the house which he 
bought two years ago. I would get rid of this disagreeable 
occupation, but my master told me that he could not get on 
without me. Do not trouble me. You see that I have no 
time to talk to you. He has insulted me, and I shall never 


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324 Lesson 17. 

forgive him again for this insult. I shall not sell the garden 
again which I bought. I have already dressed myself this 
morning, and now I must (es menester) dress myself once more. 
I never saw my poor brother again! 

Reading Exercise. 

Grandeza y decadencia de España. (Continuación.) 

El carácter de la nación en general no es holgazán; si 
fuese este su genio y su temperamento, ¿cómo habla de ha- 
ber sido la más industriosa hasta el reinado de Felipe III? 
Aquel mal es adquirido. Hoy mismo no me señalarán en 
toda la Europa cinco naciones que amen el trabajo tanto como 
los Catalanes, Gallegos Vizcaínos, Guipuzcoanos y Montañeses: 
improbas son sus fatigas .... Puertas abiertas y puertas 
cerradas, digo que han sido las dos fuentes de todas nuestras 
desgracias. Abriéronse las que debieron cerrarse y cerráronse 
las que debían abrirse. Veis aquí ya el trastorno de toda 
España. Ésta en realidad, ha sido, es y será, siempre que 
no se remedie, la surgente de los males políticos que han 
armiñado al Estado. Carcoma silenciosa, que insensiblemente 
ha ido royéndole hasta el corazón. Todas nuestras decaden- 
cias son hijas de esta lima sorda. 

Para restituir la monarquía á su antiguo y debido es- 
plendor, es preciso mudar de estilo. Volver el cuadro al re- 
vés: abrir, digo, lo cerrado, y cerrar lo abierto. Veis aquí 
ya los dos polos de la felicidad pública. Este es el sistema 
necesario; ni el bien tiene más entrada, ni los males otra 
cura. Y nada es más conforme al derecho natural que dis- 
tribuirse y consumirse los productos dentro de la nación 
misma que los contribuye. Por aquí ha de comenzar sus 
operaciones el héroe que se propusiere el plan de remediarla. 
No hay que equivocarse : todo lo demás será pérdida de tiempo, 
y acaso complemento de la destrucción. Crecerá el mal cada 
día: bajarán las rentas reales: se empeñará el Real Erario: 
irán los pueblos á menos, y á más la dificultad. ¡Ojalá sea 
yo mal profeta! 

(To be continued.) 
[M. E. Gándara.— «4pwníes sobre él bien y el mal de España.*] 


¿Cómo se prueba que el carácter general de la nación 

no es holgazán? 
¿Quiénes pueden señalarse entre los más trabajadores 

de Europa? 
¿Cuáles han sido las dos fuentes de todas nuestras 

desgracias ? 

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Moods. 325 

¿Por qué? 

¿Qué es preciso para restituir la monarquía á su an- 
tiguo esplendor? 
¿Hay otro sistema? 
¿Por qué no lo hay? 
¿Todo lo demás que será? 

Eighteenth Lesson. 

The Moods. 

1. The Indicative Mood. 

This mood represents an action as positive and 
beyond all doubt. In this regard the English and Spanish 
language offer no remarkable difference. In accessory 
clauses, no less than in the principal sentence, the In- 
dicative Mood is employed, as: 

El criado dice que ya está pronto, 
I'he footman says that he is ready. 

Mi amigo me escribió que ya había visto á su primeo. 
My friend iwrote me that he had already seen his cousin. 

2. The Subjunctive Mood. 

Any action or state that does not appear to be 
quite certain, but is represented as possible or doubtful, 
as well as consequences resulting, not from any fact, but 
from mere thought or feeling , should be expressed by 
the Subjunctive Mood. In Spanish this mood — com- 
monly neglected by the English — is strictly observed 
and is one of the greatest beauties of the language, as 
it modifies the expression far more than is possible 
with the English Subjunctive. For this reason the Eng- 
lish verbs could, wotdd, should, may, might, must, etc., 
are usually not translated, but rendered by the Spanish 
Subjimctive. The student who is acquaiuted with the 
French and Italian languages will find a great analogy 
between these languages and the Spanish, and will be 
seldom mistaken in using the Spanish Subjunctive (ex- 
cept the future and conditional) where he would employ 
the Subjunctive in French or Italian. 

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826 Lesflon 18. 

We may distinguish between: 

(1) The dependent Subjunctive. 

(2) The absolute Subjunctive. 

The dependent Subjunctive is used: 

1. After the conjunctions antes que, before, ere; 
aunque, although, though; cuando, when; con tal que, 
on condition that ; dado que, caso que, puesto que, pro- 
vided that; para que, in order to, so that; por más que, 
however .....; 5¿, if; como si, as if; sin que, without . . .; 
and after the exclamation ¡Ojalá!, God grant it, and a 
few others. Examples: 

Vendré aunque Uueva, I shall come, though it may rain. 
Haré mi deber, sin que F. me lo recuerde, 
I shall do my duty without your reminding* me of it. 
For más que hcigaSy no te perdonaré. 
Whatever you may do, I shall not pardon you. 
Note.—li, however, a fact admitting of no doubt is 
stated, the Indicative mood is required even after these con- 
junctions, as: 

He venido aunque lluetfe, I have come, though it rains. 

2. After verbs importing order, fear, and apprehen- 
sion, permission, desire, doubt, etc., as: 

Temo que mi tío no venga, 

I am afraid my uncle will not come. 

El maestro quiso que y o diese mi libro á mi hermano, 

The master wanted me to (= wished that I should) 

give my book to my brother. 
Dudo que cumpla con su palabra. 
I doubt if he will keep his word. 
N,B,— But after dudar (de) si ..,, to doubt, the Indi- 
cative should be used, as: 

Dudo (de) si está á su palabra. 

I doubt whether he will keep his word. 

3. Decir, when meaning "to order," "to ask," and 
esperar, when meaning "to hope," govern the Subjunc- 
tive mood; when meaning, respectively, "to relate" (to 

* We need not add that the English presewi participle, when 
used, as in the above sentence, instead of accessory clauses, should 
always be rendered by the respective person and tense of the 
verb with the corresponding conjunction. Thus: without your 
reminding me = without that you remind me. 

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Moods. 827 

tell, speak), or "to wait" ("to expect"), they govern the 
Indicative, as: 

Me dice que venga, he tells (orders) me to come. 

Espero que venga F., I hope (that) you will come. 


Me dijo que mi tío vendría. 

He told me that my uncle would come. 

Espero que F. vendrá, I expect that you will come. 

4. The Subjunctive is also used in relative sentences 
if the action, expressed in them, is not meant to imply 
something as definite, but as negative, unknown, doubt- 
ful, intended in the future — e.g.: 

Diga lo que quiera, no le creeré. 
He may say what he likes, I shall not believe him. 
No encontrarás quien te perdone semejante injuria. 
Thou wilt find no one to pardon thee such an insult. 
JDonde quiera que fueres, haz lo que vieres (Truéba). 
Wherever thou mayest be, do what thou seest done. 

5. In compound interrogatory sentences meant 
to be open questions: 

¿Hay aqui alguien que lo sepa? 
Is there here anyone who knows it? 
¿He dicho yo que no tenga razón él? 
Did I ever say that he was wrong? 

6. After sin que: 

Lo hizo sin que le viesen. 

He did it without anybody seeing him. 
8e lo han dado sin que lo pidiera. 

They have given it to him without his asking for it. 

7. In sentences such as: 

Sea el que sea, whoever it may be. 

Dijéralo quien lo dijera. 

No matter v^rho might have said it. 

Que viniese que no viniese, whether he came or not. 

Si lo dice, que lo diga, if he says it, let him say. 

Si viniese, que venga, if he comes, let him come. 

The absolute Subjunctive is used: 

1. In exclamations with que — viz.: 
i Que me haya este favor! 
If he only would do me this favour! 

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828 Lesson 18. 

NoU.—Que is dropped in such expressions as: 
J Quiera Dios! God grant it! 
¡Quiera el cielo! Please heaven 1 

2. In requests, exhortations, and commands assuming 
a negatiTe form, as: 

¡No dig€i8 que estoy aqui! 

Do (thou) not say that I am here! 

¡No vengas acá! do not come here! 

¡No me niegues tu favor! 

Do not deny me your (thy) favour! 

Observation.— In sentences of this kind, as well as in 
those introduced by ^we, a verb importing a msh or desire 
is understood, so that the construction is properly elliptical. 
The whole phrase would run: 

¡(Quiero) Que me haga este favor! 

I wish that he would do me this favour! 

¡(JEM jo que) No hagas ruido! 

Do (thou) not make a noise! {i.e., I wish that thou do 
not make a noise!) 

3. The Imperative Mood. 
It is used: 

1. In requests, exhortations, and commands, niiless 
assuming a negatiye form: 

Mancedlo, do it. No lo hagáis, do not do it. 

Diselo, tell him. No se lo digas, do not tdl him. 

2. In ironical expressions to show the consequences 
of an action: 

Hazlo, y te pego (lit.: do it, and I will beat you). 

If you do it, I will beat you. 

Dígalo v., y no le creerán (lit.: say it, and they will 

not believe you). 
Do not say it, because they will not believe yon. 
Idiom atical Imperative by means of the Infinitive: 

A comer, come to dine; eat! 
A vestirte! get dressed! 

Traducción. 19. 

1. I (am at) work now, that I may have finished (haber 
acabado) at 6 o'clock. These people looked at me, as if I 
were a criminal. Before (i.e., sooner than) doing (tr. I do) 
that, I had rather (tr. I will) die. I shall come at all events, 

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Moods. 829 

even if I have no news from you. I lend yon the money 
on condition that you give it me back soon. In case (that) 
Mr. Barrera should depart to-day, let me know (tr. avisar) 
by telegraph. I entered the saloon without the others noti- 
cing (tr. notar) it. God grant that I find my family in good 
health! I was afraid (that) your mother would not find us 
at home. I wish you a happy journey (transí, that you have). 
I doubt (very) much that he will come (still) to-day. I (have 
no doubt, but) do not doubt that every one of your words 
is the strictest truth. Tell the footman to come (i.e., that 
be comes) directly. I tell you that I have not received your 
letter. I hope (that) you will send me good news again. I 
still expect (you to keep) that you will keep the promise 
which you have made me. Is there anyone here who. has 
seen it? He did it without anybody seeing him. No matter 
who may say it, it is not true. 

2. Do it. Do not do it. Tell him. Do not tell him. 
Do it, and do not tell him. Get dressed, and come to dine. 
(Idiom, Imperat,) Do come, my dear friend, it is much too 
cold in this room! Never mind (tr, that may not give you 
trouble), I shall put all to rights! Tell him that I am ready! 
I am looking for the book in order to give it to you. I seek 
a footman that may serve me well. God grant (that) it 
were true! Let him speak out (tr, speak) if he wishes us 
to do him the favour. Do not tell your brother that we are 
here. Do not come here! There is no room for you! Do not 
tell him the whole truth, that he may not be too much up- 
set. Do speak to me with (en) confidence! I shall do all 
that is in my power! Be patient! I told the servant to 
tell the physician to come directly! Fear (thou) my wrath I 
Do (thou) not fear anything! I shall assist you! Let us 
take (Vamos á dar) a walk! 

Reading Exercise. 

Grandeza y decadencia de España, (Continuación.) 

Ciérrense, pues, en España las puertas abiertas ; ábranse 
las cerradas: pónganse diques á los ríos de oro y plata que 
desaguan fuera del reino: piénsese, búsquese, y tómese por 
primera diligencia un temperamento equitativo que sirva de 
equivalente, y aún de grande aumento al Real Erario: róm- 
panse las cadenas que embarazan los progresos: repruóbense 
los estorbos: quítense á la Nación los grillos que se han fa- 
bricado de los yerros de dos siglos: derríbense las murallas 
que quedan señaladas: mírese la libertad del comercio como 
único fundamento de la felicidad pública: fórmese y dése 
sistema fijo á todas las partes y ramos de la monarquía, que 

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880 Lesson 19. 

vive, ó mejor diré, muere 8in él. Un sistema, digo, sabio, 
prudente, justo y equitativo: un sistema libertador: x\n sistema 
combinatorio, que abrace desde el interés y parte más alta 
del Estado hasta el ramo y partecilla más mínima de la mo- 
narquía: nn sistema auxiliador, reformador: en una palabra, 
un sistema sencillo y perfecto, obra ilustre de un rey grande, 
que sujete á un centro de unión todas las ideas del Gobierno; 
qne reduzca á su punto de vista todos los intereses de la 
autoridad real, del pueblo y del £rario; que enlace intima- 
mente la gloria de la majestad con la abundancia y felicidad 
pública, de tal modo que, unidos estrechamente estos dos ob- 
jetos (que siempre deben caminar á paso igual), se haga im- 
posible la ventaja del uno sin la mejora del otro, el adelan- 
tamiento de éste sin el florecimiento de aquél: y en fin, un 
sistema dichoso y perpetuo que lleve á la inmortalidad el 
glorioso nombre del Rey, restablezca la opulencia en Espafia, 
y haga respetable el crédito de la nación. 
(M. A. Gándara. — «42^***^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ V ^^ ^^^ ^^ Esjpaña.^] 

Con ver sacien. 

¿Qué hay que hacer? 

¿Qué sistema ha de ser ese? 

¿ De qué modo se ha de enlazar la gloria de la majestad 

real con la felicidad pública? 
¿Pueden caminar separados esos dos objetos? 
¿Cuál será el resultado de tal sistema? 

Nineteenth Lesson. 

The Use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 

Use of the Tenses of the Indicative. 
§ 1. Present. 

(a) In narratives, instead of the Definite; as: 
Esta mañana iba yo por la callea cuando un amigo se 

me acerca y me dice (se me acerco y me dijo): 
Thiá morning I was going along the street, when a 
friend approached me, and said to me . . . 

(b) Likewise in colloquial language to replace the 
Future, as: 

Voy (instead of ire) á misa mañana, 

I shall hear mass to-morrow. 

Dentro de quince días me vuelvo á Inglaterra, 

Within a fortnight I shall return to England. 


by Google 

The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 331 

§ 2. Imperfect. 

(a) In descriptions of characters, opinions, states, 
manners and customs^ representing a past action as often 
repeated, or customary, or progressive, as : 

Tenia en su casa un ama que pasaba de los cuarenta, 
y una sobrina que no llegaba á los veinte, y un 
mo0O de campo que así ensillaha él rocín como to- 
maba la podadera, (Cervantes: <íDon Quijote.T^) 
He had in his house a housekeeper that was more than 
forty years old, a niece who ha-d not yet reached 
her twentieth year, and a farm-hand who used to 
saddle the tiag, as well as to handle the pruner. 
Cuando yo era pequeño era muy travieso. 
When I was small, I used to be very mischievous. 
¿Qué iioHa Y,? — Estaha leyendo, 
What were you doing? — I was reading, 

(h) When two actions are represented as being 
performed at, or as lasting, the sam£ time, as: 

Mientras yo escribia, mi amigo fumaba, 
AVhilst I was writing, my friend was smoking. 
Él hablaba, pero no le entendían. 
He was speaking, but they did not understand him. 
N.B.—li one action is interrupted by another, the Imper- 
fect denotes the action that was going on when the other took 
place; the latter requiring the Definite, Ex.: 

Mientras yo escribia, él entró en mi cuarto. 
Whilst / was writing, he entered ray room. 

(c) To render the Imperfect auxiliaries could, should, 
iind ought, etc., as: 

Debía (or debiera) habérmelo dicho. 
He should have told me so (= He ought to have told 
me so. See page 315, Observ. 2). 

§ 3. Definite. 

(a) To represent a past action as occurred on one 
occasion and entirely elapsed; hence in historical 
narration. Ex.: 

Falleció Napoleon el 5 de mayo de 1821, 

Napoleon died the 5th of May 1821. 

En la mañana del 8 renovaron el asalto. 

On the morning of the 8th they renewed the assault. 

Me lo dijeron ayer, they told me yesterday. 

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832 Lesson 19. 

Cervantes murió pobres Cervantes died in poverty. 
Colón descubrió la América en 1492. 
Columbas discovered America en 1492. 
^.^.— The Definite may mark duration, but withoat 
any reference to another action or state, as: 
Napoleon fué un gran general. 
Napoleon was a great general. 
JPaaé mi niñez en Inglaterra, 
I passed my childhood in England. 

(b) Instead of the Compound perfect whenever the 
speaker considers less the action or the state itself than 
the final result^ as: 

¿Cuándo ha visto F. á mi madre? 

When have you seen (did you see) my mother? 

La VÍ esta mañana, I saw her this morning. 

Me did orden de esperarle á él. 

He gave me orders to wait for him. 
N.B. —¥or euphony Spaniards very often replace the 
Pluperfect or 2nd Pluperfect by the Definite, if one of these 
tenses immediately precedes. Thus: 

HaMa admirado las tablas que mi tio compró (for 
había or hubo comprado). 

I had admired the pictures which my uncle had bought 

§ 4. Compound Perfect. 

To represent an action perfected some time ago, but 
whose consequences extend to the present time.* Thus: 

(a) In referring to a past still present in its results: 

Su padre le ha desheredado. 

His father has disinherited him. 

To he viajado mucho. 

I have travelled a great deal. 

Lope de Vega ha escrito más de 1800 comedias. 

Lope de Vega has written more than 1.800 plays. 

(b) To represent past actions which have occurred 
within a period of time which we consider as not 
elapsed : 

* It never has the meaning of the English Perfect in 
the sentence: Mr. Scrooge has been dead these seven years 

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The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 888 

JHJoy por la mañana ha hecho frió. 
This morning it was cold. 
Esta semana casi no he salido de casa» 
I scarcely have been out of doors this week. 

§ 5. Future. 

(a) As in English, with the force of an Impera- 
tive, as: 

¿No callarás? will you not be silent = Be silent! 
Darás al momento el dinero á tu tía. 
Yon will at once give the money to your aunt! = Give 
the money to your aunt at once! 

(b) Again, to express a desire to do somethmg, as: 
¡Con que, tú serás müitar! 

Well, so you want to be a soldier! 

(c) To express doubt, probability, or strong con- 
viction by means of an indirect question which does 
not admit of a negation, as: 

¿Qué tendrá, que no viene? 

I wonder what is the matter with him, that he does 
not come? 

Esta/rá enfermo, probably he may be ill. 

¿Habrá amigo mejor que él? 

Can there be a better friend than he? 
Observation. — After dicese, it is said, they say, etc., where 
in| English the Infinitive mood follows, preceded by to, the 
Future should be used in Spanish, as: 

The general is said (expected) to come to-day. 

Dicese que el general llegará hoy. 

§ 6. Conditional. 

This mood presents some difficulties to the foreigner. 
In Part I., on the Auxiliaries, the most important ob- 
servations may be found. As we shall yet have to 
speak of the Conditional mood when treating of the 
Sequence of tenses (Lesson 20), we need only add that 
the absolute Conditional of the Indicative is often used, 
in order to express an approximate time or number, 
as well as any uncertain assertion whatever, as: 

Serian las 5, cuando él llegó. 

It was about 5 o'clock when he arrived. 

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834 Lesson 19. 

Tendría en aquél tiempo veinticinco años. 
Sbe might then have been 25. 
¿No se equivocaría Y.? 
Bat might you not be mistaken? 
Also in expressing any humble request, question, or 
wish; and in exclamations to a express strong wish: 

¿ Tendería F. la amabilidad de , . .? 
Will (or would) you kindly . . .? 

¿Querría V. dar un paseito? 
Would you not come for a short walk? 
¿No Unna/ria F. un bizcochito'f 
Will (or would) you not take a biscuit? 
¡Lo mataría! I would kill him! 
^.^.— With querer, in expressing wishes (not requests) 
the Conditional of the Subjunctive (Vo) is preferred: 
Quisiera decirle á F. dos palabras. 
I wish to speak a few words to you. 

The Imperfect, the Definite, and the Compound 
Perfect compared. 

The Imperfect refers to continuous or customary 
actions as viewed from the past, as: 

Cuando tenia dinero, tenia muchos amigos. 

When I bad money, I used to have many friends (then). 

The Perfect to complete actions as not connected 
vdth the Present, as: 

Perdí el dinero, I lost the money (not now). 

The Compound Perfect to past actions as still present 
in their consequence, as: 

Solo me ha quedado un amigo. 
I have only one friend left (still). 

Or, compared in a clause: 

Chiando tenia dinero, tenía muchos amigos; perdí él 
dinero, y solo me ha quedado uno. 

Tradncción. 20. 

1. Yesterday I wascoming home when a friend of mine 
stopped me and said (to me): *To-morrow I am going to Paris". 
(Use the Present.) Do you go to the theatre to-night? No, 
I go to the concert; I went to the theatre last night. Oh, 
yes, I met you when you were going. Did you come out 
late ? We came out very late. How is it that the perform- 

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The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 335 

anee ended so late? Because the theatres in Spain begin 
late, and the intervals are very long. Is it a long time since 
you bought this house? No, I bought it last autumn. This 
summer I bought a garden; but as it did not please me, I 
sold it. May I offer (fut,) you a glass of wine? No, thank 
you, I have (had some) already drunk some. Tell your bro- 
ther that he must pay me. The Lord's Commandment says: 
*'Thou shalt not kill!'* When we were in the country, we used 
to take a walk every day ; after breakfast we read or played, 
and after dinner we took a nap. Napoleon was bom in the 
island of Corsica. The Greeks besieged the city of Troy, and 
finally took it by assault. I wonder if he is ill. (use the 
Future,) Go and give him this letter. (Use the Future,) 
Can there be a better man than he? 

2. Schiller and Goethe have been the greatest poets of 
Germany. Did you pay a visit to Mr. Lorenzo Sepiilveda 
last week? Yes, I was there, but I could not speak to him. 
Whilst the young gentlemen and ladies danced, the papas 
and mammas played at cards or looked at the amusements of 
the young folk. Italy had her greatest poets in the 13th and 
15 th centuries. For three years I received no news of my 
brother. The ball lasted till 6 o'clock in the morning. Was 
the count last year in Italy or in France ? How much have 
you paid for this coat? I do not recollect whether I paid 
24 or 26 dollars. When I got your letter, I had already 
posted the one I sent you. When he* had related him all 
(which) his father had told us, he grew (tr. quedar) very sad. 
After I had done the task which the master had (set) given 
me, I went down into the garden. 

3. Do your duty, come what may. If it please God, 
I shall go to Seville next month. I should give you your 
money if you had done your duty. If you were less dis- 
contented, you would not always be complaining. I should 
very much like to learn something new. If we do our duty, 
no one can blame us. I have ordered {tr, that you go not 
out) you not to go out to-day; why have you not obeyed 
me? He has advised (tr. that I may not write) me not to 
write in the twilight, because my eyes are too weak. I 
should have asked you to do me this service if I had not 
known that you were absent. Do you doubt (de) that (que) 
I am an honourable man? No, but I doubt that you are 
able to do what you have promised me. I expect you to 
tell me the truth. I am waiting for my brother to come, in 
order to speak to him about (de) your proposal. He has 
told me he cannot do what you wish. I tell you to be quiet 
(suent). Do not speak to your friend about what I have 
been telling you. Do not stay here. Do not interrupt me 

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836 Lesson 19. 

if I speak. Do not trust him with your secrets, he is a 
prattler. Let us go, that we may be in time (llegar á). 

Reading Exercise. 

La Farsa de Ávüa. 

Incorporados los de la liga con el arzobispo de Toledo 
en Ávila, determinaron desposeer al rey de una manera tan 
solemne como audaz y afrentosa. En un llano inmediato á 
la ciudad hicieron levantar un estrado tan alto que pudiera 
verse á larga distancia. En él colocaron un trono, sobre el 
cual sentaron una efigie ó estatua de don Enrique con todas 
las insignias reales, aunque en traje de luto. Hecho esto, 
leyeron un manifiesto en que se hacían graves acusaciones 
contra el rey, por las cuales merecia ser depuesto del trono 
y perder el titulo y la dignidad real. En su consecuencia 
procedieron á despojarle de todas las insignias y atributos de 
la magestad. El arzobispo de Toledo fué el primero que le 
quitó la corona de la cabeza; el conde de Plasencia le arre- 
bató el estoque; el de Benavente le despojó del cetro, y don 
Diego Lopez de Zúfíiga derribó al suelo la estatua. Seguida- 
mente alzaron en brazos al joven príncipe don Alfonso, y le 
sentaron en el trono vacante, proclamando á grandes voces: 
«i Castilla por el rey don Alfonso!» Los gritos de la multitud 
se confundieron con ^ ruido de los tambores y trompetas, y 
los grandes y prelados, y después el pueblo, pasaron con gran 
ceremonia á besar la mano al nuevo monarca. 

[Lafuente. — «Historia de España.^] 


¿Qué hicieron los de la liga, y cuando lo determinaron? 
¿Dónde levantaron el estrado? ¿Cómo era? ¿Qué 

pusieron en él? 
¿Qué leyeron? ¿Qué contenía el manifiesto? 
¿Qué hicieron después, y que parte tomó cada uno? 
¿Qué hicieron con el Príncipe? 
¿Cómo terminó el acto? 

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The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 337 

Twentieth Lesson. 

The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 


The Tenses of the Indicative. 

Of the tenses of the Indicative mood we have still 
to consider the Pluperfect, the 2nd Pluperfect, the Com- 
pound Future, and the Compound Conditional. 

The Pluperfect and the 2nd Pluperfect, being 
compounds of the Imperfect and the Definite, are dis- 
tinguished in a similar way. 

Thus the 2nd Pluperfect refers to a past action 
as occurred immediately before another already completed 
or past and with which it is more or less connected. 
So it must be used in compound sentences, after ad- 
verbs and conjunctions denoting time, as: cuando, luego 
que, así que, apenas (scarcely) or apenas . . . (cuando), 
no bien . . . (cuando), Ex.: 

Cuando hubo amanecido salí. 

When it had grown light, I went out. 

JLuego que to hubo dicho se arrepintió. 

Así que lo hubo dicho se arrepintió. 

Apenas lo hubo dicho (cuando) se arrepintió, 

lío bien lo hubo dicho (cuando) se arrepintió. 

Are all rendered by: 
No sooner he said it, he repented. 

If, on the contrary, the actions do not appear so 
closely following on another, and on the other hand 
are not considered as being connected, the Pluper- 
feet should be used. Ex.: 

Los israelitas desobedecieron al Señor que los había 
saciado de la tierra de Egipto, 

The Israelites were disobedient to the Lord, who had 
led them out of the land of Egypt. 

Ya lo hdbia dicho cuando se arrepintió. 

When he repented, he had already said it (i.e., he re- 
pented, but he had already said it). 

In these sentences there is no immediate connection 
between the two actions (desobedecieron and habia sa- 
cado, and habia dicho and arrepintió). 

Spanish Conv.-Grammar. 22 

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338 Lesson 20. 

The Compound Future denotes a future action 
or state, as previous to another future action, as: 

Véame F. pasados algunos dios, quizá le habré pro- 

curtido una colocación. 
Cali on me in a few days; perhaps I shall have found 

yon a situation. 
Cuando yo llegue, ya se habrá ido (previous future). 
He will be gone by the time I get there. 
N.B. — No se habrá ido cuando yo llegue (preyions 
He will not be gone, by the time I get there. 

For the Compound Conditional see The Conditional 

(page 341). 

The Tenses of the Subjunctive. 
The Present of the Subjunctive is used: 

(a) Negatively— i.e.^ in prohibitions, also in requests, 
exhortations, and commands made in a negative form, 

No lo h4iga F., se lo prohibo. 

Do not do it, I forbid you. 

No se vaya V,, si es temprano. 

Do not go, it is so early. 

No se acerquen F. F. al perro, que muerde. 

Do not come too near the dog, it bites. 

Nunca preste V, libros, porque no se devuelven. 

Never lend your books, because books are never returned. 

(b) With que, in elliptical sentences depending on 
verbs of command and wish: 

¡Que entre! let him come in! 

¡Que OS divirtáis mucho! enjoy yourselves! 

¡Que tengas feliz viaje! happy journey to you! 

(c) In exclamations: 

/ Sea F. muy bien venido ! welcome ! 

¡Ojalá venga pronto! oh, that he may come soon! 

¡Bendito seas! God bless thee! 

Sequence of Tenses. 
The Subjunctive being a depending Mood, the theory 
of the use of its tenses at once comprises the most im- 
portant rules concerning the sequence of tenses— ^'.e.: 

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The use of the Teosee. Sequence of Tenses. 839 

1. The Present of the Subjunctive, preceded by 
que, is used in subordinate clauses depending on a 
Present, Future^ or Imperative of verbs of wish, command, 
fear^ and sorrow, in the principal sentence [the same 
rule as in French], as: 

Deseo que lo consiga V,, I hope you will succeed. 
Desearé que F. ae alivie, I hope you will get better. 
Teme que no le comprendan. 

He is afraid lest they do not understand him. 
Le mando á F. que lo haga, I command you to do it. 
Le he dicho que me escriba. 
I told (asked) him to write to me. 
¡Cuanto siento que V. se moleste! 
How sorry I am to trouble you! 
Sentiré que se ofenda. 
I should be sory if he feels hurt. 

N.B. — If the subject of the two sentences is the same, 
the Infinitive, without que, is used: 

Deseo conseguirlo, I wish to succeed. 

Temo no comprender I am afraid of not understanding. 

2. The Imperfect of the Subj. (or the Conditional 
in -ra), preceded by que must be used in subordinate 
clauses depending on a past tense in the principal sent- 
ence [the same rule as in French], as: 

Deseaba (deseé, he deseado), que F. lo consiguiese 

(or consiguiera). 
Temía (temió, había temido) que no le comprendiesen 

Le mandaba (mandé, he mandado) á V. que lo hiciese 

¡Cuánto sentía (sentí, he sentido) que V. se molestase 

(molestara) I {See 1. N.B.) 
Likewise depending on the Conditional of the In- 

(a) with que in the above sentences: 
Desearía que consiguiera (consiguiese) V. 

(b) with si in conditional sentences: 
Conseguiría el empleo si tuviese (tuviera) amigos, or 

si tuviese (tuviera) amigos, conseguiría el empleo. 
He would obtain the situation if he had friends. 

3. The Future of the Subj. in a subordinate 
clause refers to a Future, Present of the Subj., or 7m- 


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340 Lesson 20. 

perative in the principal sentence. In English this tense 
is wanting, being commonly rendered by the Present 
Subjunctive. Ex. : 

Si el cielo diere fuerzas, cantaré aquí el dulce ccmto, 

If Heaven grant me strength, I shall sing here the 

sweet song .... 
En ¡0 que tocare á defender mi persona, no tendré 

mucha cuenta con esas leyes. 
Concerning the defence of my person, I shall not care 

much for these laws. 
Hazlo si pudieres. 
Do it, if you can (= if you mil be able to . . . .). 

N,B,—Yerj often the JFuttM'e of the Subj. may be re- 
placed by the :Bre8ent of the same Mood, without any 
essential alteration of the meaning. Thus we may as well 
say (in the second of the above sentences): en lo que toque 

á Only if, as in the first sentence, the future of the Siibj. 

is introduced by si, this change is not admissible. The 
student should be careful not to mistake conditional clauses 
like these for those which admit of the conditional. To be 
quite certain, he need but try whether they may be rendered 
by the present or not. Thus the sentence: 

Si ella fuere de tanta hermosura, de buena gana conr 

fesaremos la verdad, (Cervantes.) 

If she be so beautiful, we shall willingly confess the truth 
— might quite as well be expressed: 

Si ella es de tanta hermosura .... 
With the conditional, however (if she were or would 
be, etc.), the sense would be quite different. 

With the Compound Futttre of the Subju/nctive, which 
occurs very rarely, the same rules are to be observed as with 
the simple future in -re, of course taking into consideration 
the correlativeness of the tenses: 

Si ella hubiere sido de tanta hermosura, de buena 
gana confesaríamos (or huMéra/mos confesando) 
la verdad, 

4. The Compound Perfect of the Subj, is used 
in a subordinate clause*, if a Present or Future pre- 
cedes in the principal sentence [the same rule as in 
French], as: 

* We need not observe that these compound tenses may 

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The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 341 

Espero que el correo haya Uegado para fines de la 

I hope the post will have arrived by the end of the 


5. The JPltiperfect, as far as this tense is not 
concerned with the conditional (see this), is used in a 
subordinate clause, if the verb of the principal sentence 
stands in one of the past tenses, [the same rule as in 
French], as: 

Deseaba que lo hubiese (or httbiera) F. conseguido, 

I wished you might have succeeded. 


In Part I. (on the '*Auxiharies") we gave some ge- 
neral rules as to the uses of the Conditional. We now 
add further rules, at the same time stating that every- 
thing said there concerning the simple tenses must 
also be understood of the compound forms. 
1. Of the Indicative: 

(a) Simple Conditional. Preceded by que 
follows any Past tense (either simple or compound) 
of the Indicative of verbs of ''believing," "saying," 
''knowing^" or "affirming": 

Creía que me escribiría V, 

I thought you would write. 

Dijo V, que lo haría, you said you would do it. 

HoMa escrito que vendrían. 

They had written that they would come. 

Ta sahia yo que no to haría, 

I knew he would not do it. 

Ha prometido que lo mandaría. 

He has promised that he would send it. 

quite as well be used absolutely as the simple tenses (see on the 
Subjunctive\ as: 

Mañana^ haya venido ó no d socorro, ha de capitular la 

To-morrow, though relief may have come or not, the place 
must surrender. 
Or: El gobernador de la plaza era de opinión que, viniese 6 no 
el socorro, era necessario rendirse, 
The governor of the place was of opinion that he must 
surrender, though relief may have come, or not. 

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342 Lesson 20. 

It is also used in comparisons, preceded by canio, 
and with the verb repeated: 

Le hablo á F. como hablaría á tm amigo, 
I speak to you, as I would speak to a friend. 

(b) Compound ConditionaJ. It is used in Con- 
ditional sentences, the condition either preceding or 
following — in the Past tenses of the Subjunctive 
— and being opened by «Í, aunqtie: 

8i lo hubiera visto, se lo habría preguntado. 

If I had seen him, I should have asked him. 

Lo habría dicho, H lo supiese. 

He would have told, had he known it. 

Aunque lo supiera, no lo habría dicho (or hubiera 

Even if he had known it, he would not have told. 
Likewise, aunque lo supiera, no lo diría. 
It may, hke the simple Conditional, express either 
doubty probability, or inclination, or intense wish: 

Tal vez no habrían Uegado. 

Perhaps they had not yet arrived. 

Le habría comido á besos al niño. 

I could have devoured the child with kisses. 
N.B. — The conjunction si cannot precede any of the two 
Conditionals of the Indicative in Conditional sentences, though 
in other sentences, it may, as: 

¡Si lo contaría! I wonder if he has told! 

¡Si habría venido, mientras yo salí! 

I wonder if he might have come while I went out! 
But: Si hubiera venido, lo hubiera sabido. 

I should have known if he had come. 

2. Of the Subjunctive: 

(a) The Conditional may be used in all cases 
instead of the Imperfect of the Subjunctive, as: 

Deseé que lo consiguiera (or consiguiese) usted. 
I wished that you might succeed. 

Ü^.^.—The form in -ra (not in -se) is used in certain 
special cases, instead of the Conditional of the Indicative, 
especially with deber, poder, querer, and ser: 

Jurara yo que lo sabe, I would swear that he knows it. 

Debiera decirlo él, no V, 

He should have said it, not you. 

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The use of the Tenses. Sequence of Tenses. 343 

¡Quisiera ser rico! I wish I were rich! 

Eso fuera fácil de hacer. 

That would be an easy thing to do. 

(b) Very often the simple Conditional replaces the 
compound, as : 

Esta noticia me desazonó tanto como si estuviera (for 

hubiera estado) enamorado de veras. (Isla.) 

This news exasperated me as much as if I had been 

indeed in love. 
^.5.— Instead of the Compound Conditional of the In- 
dicativCy the Simple is sometiuo^s used, chiefly with ancient 
writers, as: 

Pasarían (for habrían pasado) ya tres semanas desde 

nuestra llegada. 
Three weeks might have elapsed since our arrival. 

Further Remarks on the Sequence of Tenses. 

1. In a series of sentences depending on a principal 
verb on any past tense, or on the Conditional of the 
Indicative, either the forms in ^ra and ^se are found 
together, or either of them repeated: 

Me suplicó qtie le viera á F. (viese á V.) y se lo 

dijese (dijera). 
He asked me to see you and tell you. 
Desearía que viniese Y. (vieniera V.) para que pasar 

sernos (pasáramos) unos días juntos. 
I wish you would come, that we might spend a few 

days together. 

2. The Conditional (or the Imperfect) of the Sub- 
junctive, as well as the Compound Perfect, the Pluper- 
fect, and the Compound Conditional of the same Mood, 
preceded by como si, may follow any tense of the 
Indicative— i.e.; 

Habla como si tuviese razón. 

He speaks as if he were right. 

Farecía como si le hubiera pasado algo. 

He looked as if something had happened to him. 

Tradnccion. 21. 

1. I did not yet know that the letter had arrived. The 
news (which) we had received set us at rest as to {tr. on) 
the fate of the fugitive. Scarcely had I entered the drawing- 
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344 Lesson 20. 

room, when he took my arm and began to talk to me. As 
soon as the bear had been seen (tr. dejarse ver) in the forest, 
they resolved to give him a general chase. As soon as we 
had heard (sabido) that your cousin had arrived, we went to 
pay him a visit. The general reconquered (tr. recuperar) all 
the fortresses of the country which the enemy had taken. 
When you have done your duty, you may quietly await what 
then will happen. The judge wants the witness to speak the 
truth. Ask him to pay (tr, ask that he pay) you your money. 
He will be here by the time the letter arrives, do not write 
to him. Oh, that he may come soon! 

2. The judge wanted the witness to speak the truth. I 
have not said that you had written to me; it was my foot- 
man who told your father so. The colonel permitted the sol- 
diers to give a ball at the barracks. You would work more 
easily if you studied more carefully. You may do (subj. pr.) 
what you please, I shall not obey you. You will tell me all 
(which) he will impart to you. Whatever it may be, I do not 
believe that he has told a falsehood. Cost what it may, I 
shall revenge myself. I hoped you would call on us more 
frequently (más á mentido). He did not know that we 
waited for him, otherwise he would have come. My uncle 
wished (tr, that) his son should at once set out for Paids. 

3. I want to do it, and I told my friend to recommend 
you, because I wish you to succeed. I should be sorry to 
trouble you. I was afraid of not getting it. I thought you 
would recommend me to him, because he said you would do 
it. I knew he would not do it, though he told you that he 
was speaking to you as a friend. Had I known it, I should 
not have relied upon him. I wish you would not believe 
everything they tell you. But he spoke as though he spoke 

Reading Exercise. 

Á Don Pedro Fernandez de Castro^ Conde de Lemos, 

Aquellas coplas antiguas que fueron en su tiempo tan 
celebradas, que comienzan : Puesto ya el pié en eZ estribo, qui- 
siera yo no vinieran tan á pelo en esta mi epístola, porque 
casi con las mismas palabras la puedo comenzar diciendo: 

Puesto ya el pió en el estribo. 

Con las ansias de la muerte, 

Gran Señor, esta te escribo. 
Ayer me dieron la Extrema- unción, y hoy escribo ésta: 
el tiempo es breve, las ansias crecen, las esperanzas menguan, 
y con todo esto llevo la vida sobre el deseo que tengo de 
vivir; y quisiera yo ponerle coto, hasta besar los pies á V. B., 
que podría ser fuese tanto el contento de ver á V. E. bueno 

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The Infinitive Mood. 345 

en España, que me volviese á dar la vida. Pero si está de- 
cretado que la haya de perder, cúmplase la voluntad de los 
Cielos, y por lo menos sepa V. E. este mi deseo, y sepa que 
tuvo en mi un tan aficionado criado de servirle que quiso 
pasar aún más allá de la muerte, mostrando su intención. 
Con todo esto, como en profecía, me alegro de la llegada de 
V. E. : regocijóme de verle señalar con el dedo, y realegróme 
de que salieron verdaderas mis esperanzas, dilatadas en la 
fama de las bondades de V. E. Todavía me quedan en el 
alma ciertas reliquias y asomos de la Semana del jardín, 
y del famoso Bernardo, Si á dicha, por buena ventura mía, 
que ya no sería ventura sino milagro, me diese el Cielo vida, 
las verá, y con ellas el fin de la Galatea, de quien sé está afi- 
cionado V. E. ; y con estas obras continuado mi deseo. Guarde 
Dios á V. E. como puede. De Madrid á 19 de Abril de 1616 
años. Criado de vuestra Excelencia 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

Twenty-first Lesson, 

The Inflnitive Mood. 

I. The Absolute Infinitive. 

The Infinitive, when called absolute, is used as a 
substantive, and appears with or without the article. 
Though considered a noun, this mood does not lose its 
verbal character, and may therefore govern a gramma- 
tical object as such a verb. In English the absolute In- 
finitive is rendered either by the Infinitive mood or, 
more frequently, by the present participle. The absolute 
Infinitive appears: 

1. As a substantive with the article, as: 
. El escribir, writing; el hablar, speaking. 

2. Likewise as a substantive, but without the article, 
and as a predicate, as : 

El reino de Dios no es comer ni beber, mas paz y 
justicia, (Granada.) 

The kingdom of God is neither eating nor drinking, 
but peace and justice. 

3. With adjectives and adverbs, as: 
El hablar bien, to speak well. 

El vivir mío, my life {Jit, living). 

El levantarse temprano, to rise early, rising early. 

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846 Lesson 21. 

4. With a grammatical object like the personal 
forms of the verb. These objects may be either direct 
or otherwise {ix,, English). Ex.: 

El comer manjo/res eacquisitos, to eat choice food. 

El murmurar las fuentes, the babbling of the springs. 

With an adverbial object, as: 
El escribir can atención^ to write with attention. 
Observations. — 1. It is a peculiarity of the Spanish lan- 
guage that the Infinitive very rarely governs the genitive case, 
as the present participle (''the babbling") does in English in 
the above example ("the babbling of the springs"), where the 
genitive has properly the value of a nominative {who babbles? 
the springs f nomin,). Whenever in English such a genitive 
occurs with the present participle, it must be placed after the 
infinitive as a nominative, as: At the entering (entrance) of 
the foreigner (who enters? — the foreigner, nom,) al entrar 
el extranjero. The eclipse (darkening) of the sun (who dark- 
ens? — the sun, nom.), el eclipsarse el sol. 

Whenever in Spanish the Infinitive governs the genitive 
case, this is to be considered as an irregularity which mast 
not be imitated, as: 

El murmurar de las fuentes. 
Al alborear del 3 de julio. 

2. Though infinitives have no plural, however, the infini- 
tive appears with the plural termination when it has entirely 
lost its verbal character and become a real substantive. 
Such are: 

Los placeres, the pleasures; los dares y tomares, things 

given and taken; los Cantares, Solomon's Song, etc. 

Note.— The infinitive with the article preceded by the 

preposition á imports simultaneousness, whereas the infinitive 

with á without the article expresses a condition, as: 

Al ceñirle la espada, whilst girding on his sword. 
But: A saber yo. 

If 1 knew, or: If I had known. 

A oirle, if one hears him. 

A no ser que esté dotado de . . . 

If he is not endowed with . . . (Trueba.) 

II. The Dependent Infinitive. 

The Infinitive when depending on another word 
is used either mth or without a preposition. 

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The Infinitive Mood. 347 

1. Without a preposition after those verbs which 
take their object likewise without a preposition. Such 
are: alegrarse^ gustar, to be glad; deber, to be obUged, 
must; dejar y to let; desear, to desire, to wish; dignarse, 
to deign; figurarse, to imagine; esperar, to hope, to ex- 
pect; hacer, to make, to cause to be done; llamarse, to 
be called; air, to hear; mandar, to order; parecer, to 
seem; pensar, to think; poder, to be able; proponer, 
to propose; procurar, to endeavour; querer, to be willing; 
saber, to know; sentir, to feel, to resent; ser, to be; 
servirse, to have the kindness, to please; soler, to use; 
temer, to fear; ver, to see, etc. Ex.: 

Le veo salir, I see him go out. 
Pienso salir, I have a mind to go out. 
¡D^ame dormir! let me sleep! 
Quiero imitar al pueblo en el vestido, 
En las costumbres sólo á los mejores, (Rioja.) 

lu (my) dress I'll imitate the people, 
In manners (I shall imitate) only the best. 
N,B. — Frequently the infinitive with que is used ellipti- 
cally^ nada or algo being understood, as: 

Déme F. que comer (== algo que comer). 
Give me something to eat. 
Aqui no hag que ver (= nada que ver). 
Here is nothing to be seen. 

2. The Infinitive with de is used after those verbs, 
adjectives, etc., which take likewise this preposition, as: 

L/uego que fueron capaces de amar. 
As soon as they were able to love. 
No d^aha el principe de lograr alguna ocasión, 
The prince did not omit (forget) to avail himself of 
any opportunity. 

Es tiempo de irse, it is time to be gone. 
JRemarTc,—(a) The locutions with acabar and venir de, 
mentioned Less. 17, Part II., fall under the same rule, but it 
must be born in mind that verUr de cannot be used unless 
motion is implied. Ex.: 

Vengo de hacerlo, 

I have done it just now (I am coming from doing it). 
Acaban de dar las 8, it has just struck 8 o'clock. 
(b) De is also used after deber, haber, and ser, with the 
signification "must," "ought," "to be obliged," etc. Ex.: 

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848 Lesson 21. 

Debe de estar enfermo, be must be ill. 
Ea de presumir, it is to be presumed. 
He de verle, 1 must (sball) see him.* 
(After deber, however, de may also be omitted without 
altering much the signification, i,e,, debe estar enfermo.) 

(c) If después (after) precedes an infinitive, it should be 
followed by de, as: 

Después de haber escrito la carta. 
After having written the letter. 

3. The Infinitive with á is used (besides the cases 
mentioned when speaking of this preposition, see 
Lesson 11, Part 11.), after such verbs as to teach or to 
learn, to begin**, to set oneself, as: 

Aprende á escribir, he learns writing. 

Comienza á nevar, it begins to snow. 

8e puso á reir, he began laughing. 

Echaron á correr, they started running. 

Este ministro se dedicó á dar á E. una enseñanza, (Isla.) 

This minister tried to give E. an education. 
Itemark,—k^ before mentioned, the Infinitive with á is 
used after ir, in order to express a future, close at hand, as: 

Voy á oir misa, I shall go to (hear) mass. 
The Infinitive with á is used after words implying ex- 
clusion, like solo, último, primero, etc. Ex.: 

Fui el solo á hablar. 

I was the only one to speak. 

* Haber de , . . . followed by an Infinitive very often ex- 
presses futurity. In all Romance languages this tense is nothing 
else but the Infinitive coupled with the Latin verb habere, to have, 
and contracted with it into one word. Thus: 

Spanish: amaré = armar-he, literally: I have to love = 

I sball love. 
Italian: sentiro = sentirhOf » I have to feel = 

I shall feel. 
French : parlerai = parler-ai, » I have to speak = 

I shall speak. 
Portuguese: partir ei = partir-hei, » I have to divide = 

I shall divide. 
** If, on the contrary, the starting point of an action or its 
final point is indicated (the latter with acabar), the prepos. par 
should be used, as: 

Comenzó por decirme, he began by telling me (= first he 

told me). 
Acabó por decirme, he finished by telling me. 

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The Infinitive Mood. 349 

4. The Infinitive with par is often used instead 
of an accessory sentence beginning with porque, because, 
as, etc. Ex.: 

Por ser pobre esta muchacha. 

As the girl is poor (in lieu of porque esta muchacha es 

^.^.—1. For por with dejar, estar, and quedar, as well 
as para after estar, see Lesson 12, Part II. 

2. It sometimes occurs that a whole accessory sentence 
is inserted between the infinitive and its preposition, as: 

Tenia una tropa de cabaUeria de respeto para, en caso 
que perdiese la jornada, poderse salvar. (Hen era.) 
He held a troop of cavalry in reserve, that he might 
save himself in case he should lose the battle. 

Tradncciéu. 22. 

1. Writing and drawing are useful accomplishments. Too 
much sleeping is quite as injurious as too much eating or 
drinking. Rising early is very good for the health. We 
heard the babbling of the rivulets and the singing of the 
birds in the wood. Reading bad books is a very bad thing 
(tr. very prejudicial) for young people. On the entrance (infin,) 
of the (nom,) monarch, the whole assembly rose. At daybreak 
(to break, rayar), the enemy began to bombard the fortress. 
The sowing of the grain takes place in (the) autumn, after 
the harvest. You must not tell your brother that I (have 
been) was here to-day. I wish to speak to your uncle; is 
he at home? Let me eat in peace! When I shall have had 
my dinner (tr, after having eaten), I shall tell you everything 
you want to know. Please (tr. servirse) walk in, sir! Why 
do you not let (go) out the dog? 

2. I saw the footman entering (in) the house, but I do 
not know whether he is still there. Come, children, it is time 
to go to bed! The intention to do one's duty is not suffi- 
cient, for we do not judge the intention (infin. querer)^ but 
the action (tr. the doing). What o'clock is it? It has just 
struck 9 o'clock. The king had just arrived when the can- 
nonade began. A priest must be adorned with all (the) virtues. 
I have nothing to do. Do give me something to do! I had 
still to write three letters when the servant told me that the 
post had already gone. After having read the novel, I forgot 
to send it to my sister. After having shut the door, he for- 
got to take the key out. Does the child begin to speak? 
Who teaches him singing? When he began to sing, they 
started laughing. He began by calling the footman a thief. 

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850 Lesson 21. 

and finished by giving him a box on the ear. As he is an 
impostor, he will be punished. He has been punished for 
haying been an impostor. 

Beading Exercise. 

Lope Félix de Vega Carpió, 
Hijo de ana familia de conocida nobleza, nació en Madrid 
en 1562. Anunciáronse ya en su más tierna infancia sus agi- 
gantadas disposiciones. Poeta desde la cuna, con una facili- 
dad extraordinaria componía versos, cuando aquellos á quienes 
la naturaleza trat-ó menos pródigamente, empiezan á articular 
palabras. Á los doce años había estudiado las Humanidades. 
Habiendo perdido á sus padres en tan tierna edad, se habrían 
acaso malogrado los talentos de este monstruo de la natura- 
leza, como le llama Cervantes, si en su orfandad no hubiera 
encontrado un apoyo en D. Gerónimo Manrique, obispo de 
Ávila, que le recibió en clase de familiar suyo. Estudió la 
filosofía en Alcalá, vino después á Madrid y sirvió de Secre- 
tario, al Duque de Alba. Casóse con D*^ Isabel de Urbina, y 
por un lance de honor en que hirió gravemente á su adver- 
sario, tuvo que andar por algunos años desterrado. A su re- 
greso perdió á su esposa, y parte obligado por la necesidad, 
y parte aburrido por las desgracias, tomó servicio en la aciaga 
espedición naval de Felipe II contra Inglaterra, cuando nuestra 
Invencible quedó vencida. Disgustado sin duda de esta carrera, 
volvió de nuevo á su patria, y casóse segunda vez ; pero habiendo 
también perdido á su esposa, abrazó el estado eclesiástico. La 
consideración que le dio esta nueva situación, y el sosiego de 
que la acompañaba, contribuyeron mucho á multiplicar sus 
obras y extender sus relaciones y celebridad. Llegó ésta á 
tal término que el Papa Urbana VIII, nada amigo de Fe- 
lipe IV ni de España, y mas apasionado del jesuíta Santa- 
relia que de Homero ni Virgilio, le escribió de su puño con- 
firiéndole el título de Doctor en teología y el hábito de 
S. Juan, y nombrándole Fiscal de la Cámara Apostólica. Col- 
mado de honores, lleno de aplausos, y en el seno de la abun- 
dancia vivió Lope de Vega hasta que, en 1635, terminó sus 
días de edad de setenta y tres años, recibiendo un suntuoso 
entierro por dirección y á costa de su testamentario el Duque 
de Sesa. 

[P. Mendibil y M. Silvela. — «Biblioteca Selecta Española.'»] 


¿De quién era hijo Lope de Vega? 

¿Dónde y cuando nació? 

¿Demostró pronto sus disposiciones? Dése una prueba. 

¿Cómo le llama Cervantes? 

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The Infinitive. 351 

¿Quién le protegió? ¿Cómo? 

¿Dónde estudió Lope de Vega? 

¿Cuántas veces se casó? ¿Con quién la primera vez? 

¿Por qué estuvo desterrado? 

¿Qué hizo después de haber perdido ásu primera esposa? 

¿Y qué después de perder á la segunda? 

Consecuencias de su nuevo estado. 

Prueba de su celebridad. 

¿Cómo murió, y cuándo? 

Twenty-second Lesson. 

The iDflnitive. (Conclusion.) 

in. The Infinitive taking the place of an acces- 
sory sentence. 

As the Infinitive specifies neither person nor number, 
it is peculiarly suited for the forming of such contrac- 
ted accessory sentences where the references to person 
and number are so evident as not to need to be ex- 
pressed. These contracted sentences are introduced: 

1. When both the principal and the accessory sent- 
ence have the same subject (the same as in French), as: 

Figurábase ver á Enrique ya en el trono. 

Lit. He fancied he saw Henry already on the throne. 

(Without contraction: He fancied that he saw etc.) 

2. When the subject of the subordinate clause 
stands in the principal sentence as a dative or accu- 
sative case: 

Castigué al niño, por hctberme dicho una mentira. 
I punished the child for having told me a falsehood. 
( Without contracton : I punished the child because it had 

told me, etc.) 
Here the subject of the subordinate clause (it) occurs as 
an accusative (the child) (in Spanish al niño) in the principal 

N.B,—MiQY the verb decir, to say, to tell, the direct 
form is used, just as in English; thus: 

Bice que ha visto á tu primeo en el teatro (and not 

haber visto, etc.). 
He says he has seen your cousin at the theatre. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

852 Lesson 22. 

Remark, — It must be well understood that the con- 
traction of a subordinate sentence by means of the Infinitive 
is not imperative; and that the speaker wishing to lay a 
greater stress on the accessory idea may do so by employing 
the direct form. Thus the phrase: He did not know whom 
to apply to, may be translated: 

No supo á quién volverse, 
or, in a direct form: 

No supo á quién debía volverse. 

He did not know to whom he should apply. 

3. When the subordinate sentence is practically 
but the Subject of the principal one — i.e.: 

Es notorio ser este hombre tm picaro. 

This man is known to be a rogue. 
(A misconception cannot arise in such a case, because 
the contracted subordinate clause has its own subject: este 

4. With other subordinate sentences the contracted 
form is also possible, even when the subject of the 
accessory sentence stands only indirectly in the prin- 
cipal one ; but not if any misconception could arise. Ex. : 

Su misantropía proviene de no haber tenido nunca un 

verdadero amigo. 
His misanthropy is caused by his never having had a 

true friend. 

Here the subject of the principal sentence *'misan- 
thropy," could not possibly be considered as the subject 
of the contracted accessory sentence. 

If, however, a misconception could arise, the sub- 
ject of the subordinate sentence ought to be added to 
the Infinitive, as in 2 (see above); thus: 

Antes de salir yo, llegó mi amigo. 

Before I went out, my friend arrived. 

{Antes de salir llegó mi amigo, before going out, my 
friend arrived, would suggest that it was the friend who 
went out.) 

^.^.— After antes (before), and después (after) the In- 
finitive should be preceded by de, as: 

Después de haber pesado bien las razones .... 
After having well weighed the reasons .... 
Antes de hacer algo, hay que pensarlo bien. 
Before doing anything, one must think it over. 

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The Infinitive. 353 

Tradnccién. 23. 

(The subordinate sentences are to be rendered by the Infinitive.) 

1. I gave (have given) the gardener a tip, because he 
has taken my letter to the post. I do not know how I shaU 
get rid of this tedious company (how to get , . .) My poor 
friend, you never know how to spend your time! I know my 
brother too (muy) well, to think he could have done such a 
tbing. Did you not tell me yesterday, that your cousin (f,) 
bad gone to England? I have told you that you must be 
quiet. The footman affirmed that he had not seen his master 
(all day long) the whole day. You will do well if you (en) 
do not send him more money than he wants for his journey. 
It is well known (admitido) that Cervantes and Calderón art 
tbe greatest Spanish writers {or: C. and C. are known to 
"be . . . .). When I arrived in Paris, I did not know which 
of my relations / should go to see first. Bring me some- 
thing to drink! Is there anything to be seen in this church? 
Before I have received his letter, I cannot go away. Before 

mj uncle has arrived, I cannot start. 

2. After having arrived, we visited the cathedral, the 
museum, and the public gardens of the town. As (por) the 
rain was so heavy, my friend lent me his umbrella. By (con) 
always doing our duty, we gain the esteem of people. If (á) 
you take (tomar) this way, you will attain your end. If (á) 
one hears him, he knows everything better than other people. 
If (á) I had not seen it with my own eyes, I should not 
believe it. It is not enough that he (sobre) does not work, 
he also wants to be paid better than the others. If (para) 
one wishes to attain one's end, one must carefully examine 
every circumstance. After having teased me long, he finally 
desisted from his request. It is enough for me that I know 
it. Before the physician arrived, the patient had died. You 
have offended me too much* for me to (para) forgive you. 

Beading Exercise. 

Retrato del Duque de Wellington. 
Representaba Wellington cuarenta y cinco años, y esta 
era su edad, la misma exactamente que Napoleón, pues am- 
bos nacieron en 1769, el uno en mayo, y el otro en agosto. 
El sol de la India y el de España habían alterado la blancura 
de su color sajón. Era la nariz, cómo antes he dicho, larga 
y un poco bermellonada ; la frente, resguardada de los rayos 
del sol por el sombrero, conservaba su blancura y era her- 

* Too much with that following is simply translated muy 
or mucho. 

Spanish Conv. -Grammar. 28 

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854 Lesson 23. 

mosa 7 serena como la de ana estatua griega, revelando nn 
pensamiento sin agitación y sin fiebre, ana imaginación en- 
cadenada 7 gran facaltad de ponderación y cálcalo. Ador- 
naba sa cabeza un mechón de pelo ó tup^ que no usaban 
ciertamente las estatuas griegas, pero que no cala mal, sir- 
viendo de vértice á una mollera inglesa. Los grandes ojos 
azules del general miraban con frialdad, posándose vagamente 
sobre el objeto observado, y observaban sin aparente interés. 
Era la voz sonora, acompasada, medida, sin cambiar de tono, 
exacerbaciones, ni acentos duros, y el conjunto de su modo 
de expresarse, reunidos el gesto, la voz y los ojos, producía 
grata impresión de respeto y cariño. 

[B. Pérez Galdós.— «Xa Batalla de los Arapile8.y>] 


¿Qué edad tenia Wellington? ¿La representaba? 
¿Había mncba diferencia de edad entre él y Napoleón? 

¿Por qué? 
¿Cuál es en general el color de la raza sajona? ¿Lo 

era el de Wellington? ¿Por qué no? 
Describase la fisonomía de Wellington. 
Descríbase su modo de mirar y de hablar. 
¿Cuál era el resultado de este conjunto? 

Twenty-third Lesson. 

The Gerand. 

§ 1. This invariable form either replaces an acces- 
sory sentence introduced by one of the conjunctions 
hecaicse, as^ whilst, if, etc., or corresponds exactly to the 
English present participle*. It commonly refers to the 
subject of the principal sentence^ and expresses an action 
simultaneous ,with that of the principal sentence. At 
the same time it loses nothing of its verbal character 
and may, therefore, govern an object If we consider 
the following sentence: 

Los cabreros, tendiendo por él suelo unas pieles de 

ovejas, aderezaron su rústica cena, 
The goat-herds, spreading on the ground some sheep- 
skins, prepai*ed their simple supper. 

• Or, rather, to the English gerund, commonly misnamed 
"Present participle," bacause it has the same form. 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

The Gerund. 355 

we observe: 

1. that the gerundio tendiendo (spreading) refers 
to the subject, los cabreros (the goat-herds); 

2. that the action expressed by tendiendo is simul- 
taneous with that which the principal sentence, Los 
cabreros aderejsaron su rústica cena, imports; 

3. that the gerundio has retained its verbal character, 
and thus governs its own object, unas pieles (some 

It must be distinctly understood that the Spanish 
Gerund cannot take the place of the English present 
participle if this latter be* employed as an equivalent 
for an adjective, as in the sentence: 

He sent four parcels containing 20 pieces of cloth. 
It is true that Spaniards likewise often say: 
Envió cuatro fardos conteniendo veinte piezas de paño, 
exactly as in English, but this mode of speaking is in- 
correct and must be considered a Gallicism, The re- 
lative que should be used instead: 

Envió cuatro fardos que contenían .... 
§ 2. Where no misconception can possibly arise, 
the Spanish Gerund may quite as well refer to the 
accusative case**, especially if this accusative is a per- 
sonal pronoun and not a substantive. Thus : 

Le hallaron durmiendo, they found him sleeping. 
Here * 'sleeping" can by no means refer to the subject 
"they," but only to "him," i.e., the accusative case, and thus 
any misconception is impossible. 

§ 3. If the Spanish Gerund is used instead of an 
accessory sentence whose subject is a substantive, this 
substantive should be added to the gerundio, as: 

Faltándoles los víveres, los sitiados se rindieron á 

As provisions were wanting, the besieged surrendered 

(Here the subordinate clause: as provisions, etc., has its 
own subject, which is therefore added to the gerundio.) 

* No gerund, but a participle. 

** The Spanish Gerund often does refer to the accusative in 
Spanish, whilst in Italian such constructions (see our Italian 


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856 Lesson 23. 

§ 4. If the Gerund refers to the subject (nomina- 
tive) y it takes its place before the verb; when referring 
to the accusative^ it follows the verb, as: 

SaUendo me dijo. 

Going out, he told me (saliendo refers to the nomina- 
tive él [he], suppressed in dijo). 


Le oigo hdblando con un hombre desconocido. 

I hear him speaking with an unknown man (hablando 

refers to the accusative le [him]). 
Note.— In the latter case, however (i.e., where the Gerund 
refers to the accusative case), the Infinitive is preferred, pro- 
vided no peculiar stress be laid on the duration of the action 
(see 8). 

§ 5. Commonly the Spanish Gerund is used in- 
stead of the Infinitive with verbs of ''seeing" "hearing" 
''feeling," etc. But it cannot be used with these verbs 
if the verb of the principal sentence is in a past tensCy 
or if the accusative is a substantive (see § 2). Thus: 

La VÍ* escribir (and not la vi escribiendo). 
I saw her writing (Vi is a past tense). 
Oigo habUir á mi hermano (and not oigo hablando á....). 
I hear my brother speaking. (The accus. my brother is 
a substantive.) 

§ 6. Sometimes the Infinitive conveys another 
meaning than the Gerund: the former being passive 
(and therefore never taking an object) , the latter active 
(sometimes, with an object). Thus: 

Le vi dibujando (una cosa). 
I saw him drawing (something). 

Le vi dUyujar, I saw him as he was drawing. 

§ 7. The English Participles (both Present and 

Past) are often preceded by 9i preposition^ as: On seeing 

him; whilst reflecting; after having said; when bom, etc. 

In Spanish en precedes the Gerund if it is to be meant 

Grammar y 5th edit. : On the Gerund) are carefully avoided, being 
now quite obsolete. — In English the present participle frequently 
refers to the accusative, as in the above sentence: They found 
him sleeping. 

"^ If the áuration is to be emphasized with a past tense, the 
corresponding tense of estar is coupled with the gerundio of the 
prvncvpal verb (see 8). 

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The Gerund. 357 

that the action imported by the principal sentence is sub- 
sequent to, and closely connected with the action expressed 
by the Gerund, otherwise, al with the Infinitive is 
employed. Ex. : 

En Uegando^ le veré. 

As soon as I arrive, I shall see him. 

Lo primero que en naciendo* hacemos^ es llorar. 

The first thing we do, on being born, is to cry. 

Al verlCy le abrazó, on seeing him, he embraced him. 
^.^.— In no case, but the above, is a Spanish preposition 
used with the Oernnd: 

JPracticándolo, el lector lo aprenderá. 

By practising it, the reader will learn it. 

§ 8. In order to express duration, the verbs andar, 
estar, ir, ser, and venir are joined to the Gerund; if 
the continuation of the action is to be emphasized, 
caminar, continuar, and seguir are used in the same 
way. Ex. : 

Le aconsejaba redoblase su ternura para ir dispo^ 

fiiendo el corazón de Blanca, 
He advised him to redouble his tenderness, in order to 

soften Blanca's heart. 
La grave enfermedad que le iba consumiendo. 
The severe illness by which he was consumed (which 

was consuming him). 
Los grandes del reino están aguardando vuestras 

The grandees of the kingdom are awaiting your orders. 
8e va haciendo tarde, it is growing late. 
El ave vino volando, the bird flew hither. 
Siguieron durmiendo. 
They slept on (they continued sleeping). 
Poco á poco fué Tiaciéndose rico. 
Little by little he became rich. 

§ 9. A pecuharity of the Spanish Gerund is that 
it receives — in a very few cases — the masculine dimi- 
nutive ending, as: corriendito, callandito. These Ge- 

** In Italian the gerundio with in only occurs in ancient 
writers. Thus: 

Se Vardor fallace. 

Duró molfanni in aspettando un giorno. (Petrarca, Son. 21.) 

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358 Lesson 28. 

mnds have lost their signification as verbs and are 
simply adverbs. 

Note the following: 

Hágalo F. volando, do it this very moment 

Vuelva F. corriendo, come back at once. 

Callandito, que hay enfermos. 

Keep (or come in) very quietly, somebody is ill here. 

Matarlas caUando, to do things on the quiet 

¿Cómo sigue F? — Pasando. 

How are you getting on y — Middling. 

Bemark. — In modern Spanish, the Gerund, which by its 
nature can only express a time preceding to, or simultaneous 
with, the time of the principal sentence, is also sometimes 
erroneously employed in such cases where the action denoted 
by the Gerund must be logically considered as following that 
implied by the principal sentence. If we analyse the sentence: 
Las tropas se hicieron fuertes en tm c&nvento, teniendo 
pronto que rendirse, después de una vigorosa rcsís- 
tencia .... 
The troops entrenched themselves in a convent, beifi^ 
soon obliged to surrender, after a vigorous resist- 
ance .... 
it may be easily seen that the action of "entrenching 
themselves" must be previous to the action of "surrendering." 

The gerund teniendo qus is therefore incorrect. A logical 

construction of the sentence would be: 

Las tropas, qus se habían hecho fuertes en un con' 
vento, tuvieron pronto que rendirse, después de 
una vigorosa resistencia. 

Tradnccién. 24. 

1. Handing me the letter, he requested me to read it and 
send it at once (adverbial gerund) to you. Whilst uttering 
these words, she began to sob. I found him smoking his cigar. 
Alfonso XII. died after having said these significant words: 
''What a responsibility r These people spend their nights 
(in) gambling. Whilst we were (estar) talking, we heard an 
alarm of fire. By always speaking the truth, we obey the 
voice of our conscience. If you study (ger.) with zeal, you 
will soon make great progress in anything. As he entered 
(infin.), he told me to shut the window. I saw him talking 
to your aunt. This is your father's portrait; I saw him 
sitting for it. Yesterday the painter was in this drawing- 

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The Gerund. 359 

room; I saw him painting. Yesterday I heard the new singer 
singing. Whilst (mientras) I listened to the singer (f.) 
[tr. Whilst I heard (with estar) the singer singing], the foot- 
man entered (in) the room. 

2. This man is a sluggard; in order to avoid working 
[tr. for (para) not working (infin.)'], he will (tr. ir) sell (ger7) 
all (ciumio) he possesses. The agent is (tr. andar) running 
about the town all day long. By following his advice, I have 
sustained a great loss. On leaving the room, he went out 
(use irse); I saw him shutting (¿nf.) the door. After having 
read the letter to the end (tr. acabar, preposit. gerund), he 
gave it back, saying: **As soon as I get (tr. llegar) to the 
office, I will see to (tr. ocuparse de) this business." -á^ the 
singer (m,) is ill to-day, the opera cannot be performed. 
Speaking thus to me (tr. al with infin.), he gave me his (the) 
hand. I looked everywhere (ir with ger.) for my hat, but I 
could not find it. I have been (fr. estar) waiting for yon 
three hours, but you did not come. What are you doing 
there (tr. estar)? I am waiting for my master. It kept on 
raining the whole (seguir with gerund) night. The heat is 
increasing (ir with ger.) from hour to hour. Let us go; it 
is growing (tr. irse haciendo) night. Do it this very moment 
(gerund) and come back at once (gerund). How is the 
invalid? Middling (gerund); come in quietly (gerund) , he is 
asleep (gerund) now. 

Beading Exercise. 

No era antipática, ciertamente, la cara de aquella sir- 
viente, y hasta se hallaban en ella vestigios de haber sido 
hermosa en su juventud. Respondía con agrado á las pre- 
guntas que me arriesgué á hacerla, por hablar de algo y 
alegrar un poco el tedioso colorido de mis ideas. Así supe que 
se llamaba Facia; que desde muy joven servia en casa de mi 
tío, y que en ella pensaba morir, si esa era la voluntad de 
su amo, á quien quería y respetaba como á padre y señor, y 
aun con eso no le pagaba bastante los grandes beneficios que 
le debía. El y su señora la habían recogido huérfana y des- 
amparada, dándola desde entonces buena enseñanza y poco 
trabajo, pan abundante, y lo que vale más que eso, cariño y 
sombra. Todo esto me lo iba declarando como á la descui- 
dada, en períodos cortados y sin mirarme á la cara, pero 
reflejando en la suya cierta expresión de dulzura melancólica 
que la hacía muy interesante, mientras se movía lentamente 
de acá para allá, poniendo aquí un plato después de pasarle 
con un lienzo blanquísimo, y allí un vaso ó tenedor. 

[José M.a de Pereda. — «Peñas Arriba.»] 

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860 Lesson 24. 


¿Qué era Facia, y cómo era su cara? 

¿Había sido hermosa? ¿Cómo se conocía? 

¿Por qué la habló? 

¿Qué supo? 

¿Cómo ñié declarando todo aquello Facia? 

¿Qué hacía Facia entretanto? 

Twenty-fourth Lesson. 

Past Participle, 

In Lesson 11, Part I., we have already treated the 
Present as well as the Past Participle. We now add 
a few remarks as to the use of the latter. 

§ 1. As stated in Lesson 9, Part L, the past parti- 
ciple coupled with haber is always invariable'^, as: 
He visto una hermosa comedia, 
1 have seen a fine comedy. 

Les he referido el suceso y no me lo han creído, 
I have informed them of the event, and they have 

not believed me. 
Las cerezas que he comprado son buenas. 
The cherries which I have bought are good. 

§ 2. On the contrary, joined to ser or estar, or to 
one of the auxiliaries dejar, llevar, quedar (see Part II, 
Lesson 17), it becomes an adjective, and must therefore 
agree with the substantive in gender and number, as: 

La casa fué edificada en 1901, 

The house was built in 1901. 

La carta está acabada^ the letter is finished. 

Los asesinos fueron muertos. 

The murderers were killed. 

Yo quedé muy agradecida á sus beneficios, 

I (f,) was very thankful for his kindness. 

* In ancient Spanish, however, examples are met with where 
the past participle, coupled with haber, agrees with its foregoing 
object, as in French and Italian. Thus: 

Ayquellas (= aquellas) lees (= leyes) que habernos (= hemos) 

fechas (= hechas). 
These laws which we have made. 

(Partidas del rey D, Alfonso X.) 

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Past Participle. 361 

§ 3. If the participle is coupled with tener instead 
of haber, it hkewise agrees in gender and number with 
its object, as: 

Tengo leida la carta. 
I have already read the letter. 
Tengo comprados algunos libros, 
I have bought some books. 

§ 4. Tener may be used with a participle that 
governs no accusative; in which case the participle is 
invariable, as: 

Les tengo escrito largamente sobre esta materia, 

I have written them in fall about this matter. 

Note, — The student should be well aware, that in such 
a case tener may only be used with verbs that are not ge- 
nerally neuter, but which are only used as such, so that the 
direct object of the verb is understood from the context. In 
the above sentence, the direct object of tengo escrito would be 
lo que era menester, that which was necessary, or lo que con- 
venía, or something similar. As this object is not a word, 
but a subordinate sentence, the participle cannot, of course, 
agree with it. The whole sentence would be properly: 

Les tengo escrito largamente sobre esta materia lo que 
era menester. 

Neuter verbs do not admit of the construction with tener, 
as such verbs can never govern a direct object. Thus it 
would be utterly impossible to say: Tengo sido cónsul en 
Hamburgo, I have been Consul at Hamburg, or tenían en- 
fermado de la epidemia reinante, they were taken ill with 
the prevailing epidemic; the only correct rendering of which 
would be: He sido cónsul, etc., and habían enfermado. 

Note, — Nor is the construction with tener admissible with 
reflective verbs. Thus we may say: Les tiene instruidos, he 
has instructed them, but never: Él se tiene instruido, he has 
instructed himself. The sentence may only be: Él se ha 

§ 5. Very often the participle replaces an accessory 
sentence (the Latin Ablativus absolutus). In such a case 
the participle agrees in gender and number with the 
word to which it refers, and the auxiliary is omitted, 
bnt the participle mnst always precede. Ex.: 
Becobrados* los espíritus, volvió Blanca en si. 
After having recovered her senses, Blanca came again 
to herself. 

* Properly: habiendo recobrado^ etc. 

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862 Lesson 24. 

Abracada esta idea, quedó un poco más tranquilo. 
After having taken this resolution, he became a little 
more tranquil. 

§ 6. Very often these participles are preceded by 
después de ... . (less frequently by antes de, before and 
luego de, as soon as), for the sake of greater emphasis, as: 
La hija de aquel Manfredo, á quien después de ven- 
cido y muerto el padre, había tratado con una 
barbarie sin ejemplo .... 
The daughter of that Manfred whom, after having con- 
quered and killed her father, he had treated with a 
barbarity without example .... 
Antes de dada la arden, before the order was given. 
iMcgo de acabada la misa, as soon as mass was over. 

Again, the personal pronoun in the nominative case 
sometimes occurs with such participles, though, in the 
modem language, it must follow the participle, as: 
Después de yo muerta (i.e., de muerta yo). 

(Santa Teresa.) 
When I shall be dead. 

§ 7. Constructions like: Tomado que fuese uno de 
ellos (i.e., castillos, as soon as one of them would have 
been taken) have been explained in LfCsson 14, Part 11. 
("On the Subordinate Conjunctions"). It must be dist- 
inctly understood, that this is not an instance of an 
absolute participle, like those mentioned under 5, but 
simply of an inversion, where que is used instead of a 
compound conjunction. The ordinary construction of 
the above sentence would be: 

lAiego que uno de ellos fuese tomado etc. 

Finally, we add now a further list of the participles 
mentioned on p. 191, Parti, which, besides their j^assive form, 
have an active signification, and are therefore adjectives most 
frequently used with ser\ 
Acomodado, comfortable and well-to-do. 

atrevido, dared » bold. 

avisado, advised » cautious. 

callado, (having) been silent » taciturn. 

cansado, fatigued, tired » tiresome. 

cenado, supped » having supped. 

comido, eaten » having eaten. 

comedido, measured » prudent. 

desarreglado, disarranged » careless. 

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Past Participle. 


desconfiado, mistrasted 
desesperadOy despaired 
determinadOy resolved 
disimulado, concealed 
distinguido, distinguished 
entendido, understood 
esforzado, encouraged 
fingido, feigned 
(bien) hablado, spoken 
leido, read 
medido, measured 
mirado, looked 
moderado, moderated 
necesitado, needed 
ocasionado, caused 
ordenado, ordered 
osado, dared 
parado, arrested 
parecido, seemed 
pausado, paused 
pesado, weighed 
porfiado, persisted, quarrelled 
precavido, taken care or heeded 
preciado, appreciated 
presumiclo, presumed 
recatado, concealed 
sabido, known 
sacudido, hit, hurt, etc. 
sentido, felt 
sufrido, suffered 
válido, esteemed 
versado, versed 

and mistrustful (person). 

» desperate. 

» very resolute. 

» malignant. 

» distinguished (person). 

» intelligent. 

» bold. 

» fallacious. 

» eloquent. 

» learned, well-read. 

» cautious. 

» circumspect. 

» moderate, temperate. 

» a poor, indigent person. 

» causing . . . 

» methodical person. 

» daring, dauntless. 

» slow, lazy. 

» similar, seeming. 

» deliberate. 

» tiresome, a bore. 

» stubborn. 

» cautious. 

» vain, affected. 

» . presuming, haughty. 

» chaste, modest, cautious. 

» intelligent, prudent. 

» harsh, audacious. 

» sensible. 

» hardy. 

» beloved, favourite. 

» very conversant. 

N.B.—Wiih ancient authors, and even now sometimes in 
poetry, some verbal adjectives derived from intransitive verbs, 
like nacido, born; muerto, died, dead; ido, gone; venido, come; 
vuelto, come back, returned; llegado, arrived, occur with the 
auxiliary ser. The difference is exactly as in English. Ex.: 
Son idos, they are gone; han ido, they have gone. 
Es vuelto, he is returned (a good while); ha vuelto, he 

has returned. 
JEs musrto, he is dead; ha muerto, he has died. 
Son llegados, they are arrived; han llegado, they have 

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864 Lesson 24.. 

Further Remarks on the use of the Past Participle. 

1. Some denoting state, condition, eaunot be used 
with estar, but are replaced by the corresponding 

8e ha alegrado, but está alegre, he is pleased. 

se ha calentado, » está caliente, he is hot, warm. 

ha enfriado (el dio), » esta frió, it is cold. 
se ha entristecido, » está triste, he is sad. 

ha enviudado, » está muda (viudo), she (he) is a 


And such others as flaco (thin), gord4} (fat), 
mudo (dumb), pobre (poor), rico (rich), seco (dry), 
sordo (deaf), sucio (dirty), turbio (stirred), húmeda 
(damp), and libre (free), the corresponding participles 
of which are enflaquecido, engordado, enmudecido, em- 
pobrecido, enriquecido, ensordecido, ensuciado, enturbiado, 
humedecido, and librado. 

2. Some others susceptible of an active meaning 
(see Lists pages 191, 362), and therefore used with ser, 
may also be used trith estar when referring to a 
pecuhar case, moment, or circumstance — i.e.: 

Au/nque es timido, ha estado muy osado hoy. 

Although timid, he has behaved very daringly to-day. 

/ Qué presumida estaba porque todos la miraban en d 

baile ! 
How haughtily she behaved, because all were looking at 
her at the dance. 

3. Ser and estar are never followed by their 
own participles, which are used with haber; thus: 

He sido acusado injustamente. 
I am accused unjustly. 

El niño no viene porque está castigado (or ha sido 

The child does not come, because he is being punished. 

4. Verbs with two past participles have one of 
them irregular, in a contracted form, with the force of 
an adjective (sometimes with a meaning different to that 
of the regular participle), and used with estar; such 
are, among others: 

Absorber, absorbido, absorbed; absorto, astonished. 

bendecir, bendecido, blessed ; bendito, blessed, holy. 

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Past Participle. 



completado,comp\etedí ; 

completo, complete. 


confundido, confound- 

contentado, pleased; 

confuso, confused. 


contento, happy. 


desnudado, undressed; 

desnudo, naked. 


despertado, awaken; 

despierto, awake. 


expedido, sent; des- 

expedito, free, cleared 

patched ; 

(of roads). 


fijado, fixed; 

jftjo, fixed, immovable. 


juntado, joined; 

junto(s), together. 


limpiado, cleaned; 

limpio, clean, neat. 


llenado, filled; 

Ueno, full. 


maldecido, cursed; 

maldito, cursed. 


matado, killed; 

m>uerto, dead. 


prendido, caught; 

preso, (put) in prison. 

5. The contracted forms of the following — among 

others — 

are used as: 

(a) Adjectives that do not join estar: 


abstraido, abstracted; 
absorbed ; 

abstrcicto, abstract. 


concretado, concreted 

concreto, special (as 

(not abstracted); 

of a case). 


expresado, manifested; 

eocpreso, express. 


extendido, prolonged; 

eoctenso, large. 

(b) Substantives: 


extraído, extracted; 

un extracto, an ab- 


favorecido, favoured; 

el favorito, the fa- 


impelido, impelled; 

el impulso, the im- 


permitido, permitted; 

el permiso, the con- 

(c) Participles, or in adverbial phrases: 


exceptuado, excluded; 

excepto hoy, but to- 


improvisado, impro- 

de im,proviso, sud- 

vised ; 



salvado, saved; 

salvo mañana, but to- 


visto, seen; 

por lo visto, un- 


by Google 

866 Lesson 24. 

Tradnceión. 25. 

1. Have you read the letter (which) my sister wrote 
(has written) to me? No, I have not yet read it. The apples 
which the (maid-) servant has bought are finer than those 
which you have bought. Is the new church already conse- 
crated? No, it will be consecrated next Sunday. At these 
words he became (tr. quedar) very sad. The enemies were 
pursued to the very ramparts of the fortress. Have you read 
the book which I (have) sent you by the footman? No, I 
have bought several new novels which I shall read before I 
begin (if^.) reading your book. He has spoken much with 
my father about the matter, but I do not know what he has 
resolved. After supper was (part,) over, we all went home. 
After the king had died (part,), his son ascended the throne. 
When I ivas informed of this accident, I at once departed 
for Paris. After (después de . , , ,) having satisfied his curio- 
sity, he repented of what he had done. 

2. The town having been conquered, the daring defenders 
were put in prison. Though we are forsaken by all onr 
fiiends, we shall nevertheless do our duty. Tormented by 
remorse, the criminal at last confessed his guilt. It is diffi- 
cult to reconcile people oflFended (hurt) in their vanity. Ill- 
bred children are the hardest punishment of their parents. 
After (the) peace had been re-established, the troops returned 
to their homes. Scarcely had the word been spoken when 
the whole assembly broke forth into an enormous uproar. 
Have you spoken to the judge? I spoke (have spoken) to 
him to-day, but he gave me little hope for the prisoner. 
After having paid the bill, I told the waiter to send my trunk 
to the station. After these preparations had been made, we 
went to (meet) the company. 

3. He has been very pleased, but she is not pleased. Is 
it true that she has become a widow? Yes, she is a widow. 
Come near the fire, the day has turned cooler. No, thanks; 
I got warm walking, and I am warm now. How thin she 
has becomel She is thin, because she does not eat. Do you 
not think she is very timid? Timid? She has behaved very 
daringly on many occasions. I have been told that they have 
caught the murderer. Yes, he is in prison; but the man is 
not dead. Oh! I thought he had killed him. I am speaking 
of a special case, but undoubtedly (partic. used adverbially) 
you do not understand me. 

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Past Participle. 36í7 

Reading Exercise. 

Cartas de mi Sobrino, 

22 de Marzo. 

Querido tío y venerado maestro: Hace cuatro días que 
llegué con toda felicidad á este lugar de mi nacimiento, donde 
he hallado bien de salud á mi padre, al sefíor vicario j á los 
amigos j parientes. El contento de verlos y de hablar con 
ellos, después de tantos afíos de ausencia, me ha embargado 
el ánimo y me ha robado el tiempo, de suerte que hasta ahora 
no he podido escribir á usted. 

Usted me lo perdonará. 

Como salí de aquí tan niño y he vuelto hecho un hombre, 
es singular la impresión que me causan todos estos objetos 
que guardaba en la memoria. Todo me parece más chico, 
mucho más chico, pero también más bonito que el recuerdo 
que tenia. La casa de mi padre, que en mi imaginación era 
inmensa, es sin duda una gran casa de un rico labrador, pero 
más pequeña que el Seminario. Lo que ahora comprendo y 
estimo mejor es el campo de por aquí. Las huertas, sobre 
todo, son deliciosas. ¡Qué sendas tan lindas hay entre ellas I 
A un lado, y tal vez á ambos, corre el agua cristalina con 
grato marmullo. Las orillas de las acequias están cubiertas 
de hierbas olorosas y de flores de mil clases. En un instante 
puede uno coger un ramo de violetas. 

[J. Valera.— «Pcpiía Jimenez.:»] 


¿Qué fecha tiene la carta? 

¿Á quién la escribe? 

¿Cuánto tiempo hace que llegó? 

¿Qué le ha embargado el ánimo y le ha robado el 

¿Cuál es la razón de sus singulares impresiones? 
¿Qué le parece todo? Cítese un ejemplo. 
¿Qué es lo que comprende y estima mejor? 
¿Describase el campo? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Oda moral. 

¡Qué descansada vida 
la del que huye el mundanal ruido, 
j sigue la escondida 
senda por donde han ido 
los pocos sabios que en el mundo han sido! 

Que no le enturbia el pecho 
de los soberbios grandes el estado, 
ni del dorado techo 
se admira, fabricado 
del sabio moro, en jaspes sustentado. 

No cura si la fama 
canta con voz su nombre pregonera, 
ni cura si encarama 
la lengua lisonjera 
lo que condena la verdad sincera. 

¿Qué presta á mi contento 
si soy del vano dedo señalado? 
si en busca de este viento 
ando desalentado, 
con ansias vivas, con mortal cuidado? 

I Oh monte, oh fuente, oh río, 
oh secreto seguro, deleitoso! 
roto casi el navio, 
á vuestro almo reposo 
huyo de aqueste mar tempestuoso. 

Un no rompido sueño, 
un día puro, alegre, libre quiero; 
no quiero ver el ceño 
vanamente severo 
de á quien la sangre ensalza ó el dinero. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Poesías. ^G9 

Despiértenme las aves 
<K>n su cantar sabroso no aprendido; 
no los cuidados graves, 
de que es siempre seguido 
el que al ajeno arbitrio está atenido. 

Vivir quiero conmigo, 
gozar quiero del bien que debo al cielo, 
á solas, sin testigo, 
libre de amor, de ceJo, 
de odio, de esperanzas, de recelo. 

Del monte en la ladera 
por mi mano plantado tengo un huerto, 
que con la primavera 
de bella flor cubierto, 
ja muestra en esperanza el fruto cierto. 

Y como codiciosa, 

por ver y acrecentar su hermosura, 

desde la cumbre airosa 

una fontana pura 

hasta llegar corriendo se apresura. ' 

Y luego, sosegada, 

el paso entre los árboles torciendo, 

el suelo de pasada 

de verdura vistiendo, 

j con diversas flores va esparciendo. 

El aire el huerto orea, 
j ofrece mil olores al sentido, 
los árboles menea 
eon un manso ruido, 
que del oro y del cetro pone olvido. 

Ténganse su tesoro 
los que de un falso lefio se confían; 
no es mío ver el lloro 
de los que desconfían 
<;uando el cierzo y el ábrego porfían. 

La combatida antena 
■cruje, y en ciega noche el claro día 
se torna, al cielo suena 
-confusa vocería, 
y la mar enriquecen á porfía. 

Á mí una pobrecilla 
mesa, de amable paz bien abastada, 
me basta, y la vajilla 

Spanish Con v. -Grammar. 24 


by Google 

870 Poesías. 

de fino oro labrada 

sea de quien la mar no teme airada. 

Y mientras miserable- 
mente se están los otros abrasando 
con sed insaciable 
del peligroso mando, 
tendido yo á la sombra esté cantando. 

k la sombra tendido, 
de hiedra y lauro eterno coronado, 
puesto el atento oído 
al son dulce, acordado, 
del plectro sabiamente meneado. 

[Fr. Luis de León} 

Epístola Moral. 

Fabio, las esperanzas cortesanas 
prisiones son do el ambicioso muere, 
y donde al más astuto nacen canas; 

y el que no las limare ó las rompiere, 
ni el nombre de varón ha merecido, 
ni subir al honor que pretendiere. 

El ánimo plebeyo y abatido 
elija en sus intentos temeroso, 
primero estar suspenso que caído: 

Que el corazón entero y generoso 
al caso adverso inclinará la frente, 
antes que la rodilla al poderoso. 

Más triunfos, más coronas dio al prudente,, 
que supo retirarse, la fortuna, 
que al que esperó obstinada y locamente. 

Esta invasión terrible é importuna 
de contrarios sucesos nos espera 
desde el primer sollozo de la cuna. 

Dejémosla pasar, como á la fiera 
corriente del gran Bétis, cuando airado 
dilata hasta los montes su ribera. 

Aquel entre los héroes es contado 
que el premio mereció, no quien le alcanza^ 
por vanas consecuencias del Estado. 

Peculio propio es ya de la privanza, 
cuanto de Astrea fué, cuanto regía 
con su temida espada y su balanza. 

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Poesías. 371 

El oro, la maldad, la tiranía 
del inicuo procede, j pasa al bueno: 
¿qué espera la virtud, ó en qué conña? 

Vén y reposa en el materno seno 
de la antigua Bomúlea, cuyo clima 
t-e será más humano y más sereno. 

Adonde por lo menos, cuando oprima 
nuestro cuerpo la tierra, dirá algnno: 
blanda le sea, al derramarla encima: 

Donde no dejarás la mesa ayuno 
cuando te falte en ella el pece raro, 
ó cuando su pavón nos niegue Juno. 

Busca, pues, el sosiego dulce y caro, 
como en la oscura noche del Egeo 
busca el piloto el eminente faro: 

Que si acortas y ciñes tu deseo, 
dirás, lo que desprecio he conseguido, 
' que la opinión vulgar es devaneo. 

Más precia el ruiseñor su pobre nido, 
de pluma y leves pajas, más sus quejas 
en el bosque repuesto y escondido. 

Que agradar lisonjero las orejas 
de algún príncipe insigne, aprisionado 
en el metal de las doradas rejas. 

¡Triste de aquel que vive destinado 
á esa antigua colonia de los vicios, 
augur de los semblantes del privado! 

Cese el ansia y la sed de los oficios; 
que acepta el don, y burla del intento 
el ídolo á quien haces sacrificios. 

Iguala con la vida el pensamiento, 
y no le pasarás de hoy á mañana, 
ni quizá de un momento á otro momento. 

Casi no tienes ni una sombra vana 
de nuestra antigua Itálica: ¿y esperas? 
¡Oh error perpetuo de la suerte humanal 

Las enseñas grecianas, las banderas 
del senado, y romana monarquía 
murieron, y pasaron sus carreras. 


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872 Poesías. 

¿Qaé es nuestra vida más que un breve día 
do apena sale el sol, cuando se pierde 
en las tinieblas de la noche fría? 

¿Qué es más que el heno, á la mañana verde, 
seco á la tarde? ¡Oh ciego desvario! 
¿será que de este sueño me recuerde? 

¿Será que pueda ver que me desvío 
de la vida viviendo, j que está unida 
la cauta muerte al simple vivir mío? 

Como los ríos en veloz corrida 
se llevan á la mar, tal soy llevado 
al último suspiro de mi vida. 

De la pasada edad ¿qué me ha quedado? 
¿O qué tengo yo, á dicha, en la que espero, 
sin ninguna noticia de mi hado? 

;0h si acabase, viendo como muero, 
de aprender á morir, antes que llegue 
aquel forzoso término postrero! 

¡Antes que aquesta mies inútil siegue 
de la severa muerte dura mano, 
y á la común materia se la entregue! 

Pasáronse las flores del verano, 
el otoño pasó son sus racimos, 
pasó el invierno con sus nieves cano: 

Las hojas que en las altas selvas vimos, 
cayeron: ¡y nosotros á porfía 
en nuestro engaño inmóviles vivimos! 

Temamos al Señor que nos en via 
las espigas del año y la hartura, 
y la temprana pluvia y la tardía. 

No imitemos la tierra siempre dura 
á las aguas del cielo y al arado, 
ni la vid cuyo fruto no madura. 

¿Piensas acaso tú que fué criado 
el varón para el rayo de la guerra, 
para sulcar el piélago salado, 

para medir el orbe de la tierra, 
y el cerco donde el sol siempre camina? 
¡Oh, quien así lo entiende, cuánto yerra! 

Esta nuestra porción, alta y divina, 
á mayores acciones es llamada, 
y en más nobles objetos se termina. 

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Poesías. 373 

Así aquella, que al hombre sólo es dada, 
sacra razón y pura me despierta, 
de esplendor y de rayos coronada; 

y en la fría región dura y desierta 
de aqueste pecho enciende nueva llama, 
y la luz vuelve á arder que estaba muerta. 

Quiero, Fabio, seguir á quien me llama, 
y callado pasar entre la gente, 
que no afecto los nombres ni la fama. 

El soberbio tirano del Oriente, 
que maciza las torres de cien codos 
del candido metal, puro y luciente, 

apenas puede ya comprar los modos 
de pecar; la virtud es más barata, 
ella consigo mesma ruega á todos. 

Pobre de aquel que corre y se dilata 
por cuantos son los climas y los mares, 
perseguidor del oro y de la plata. 

Un ángulo me basta entre mis lares, 
un libro y un amigo, un sueño breve 
que no perturben deudas ni pesares. 

Esto tan solamente es cuanto debe 
naturaleza al parco y al discreto 
y algún manjar común, honesto y leve. 

No, porque así te escribo, hagas conecto 
que pongo la virtud en ejercicio: 
que aun esto fué diñcil á Epíteto. 

Basta, al que empieza, aborrecer el vicio, 
y el ánimo enseñar á ser modesto, 
después le será el cielo más propicio. 

Despreciar el deleite no es supuesto 
de sólida virtud, que aun el vicioso 
en sí propio le nota de molesto. 

Mas no podrás negarme cuan forzoso 
este camino sea al alto asiento, 
morada de la paz y del reposo. 

No sazona la fruta en un momento 
aquella inteligencia, que mensura 
la duración de todo á su talento: 

Flor la vimos primero hermosa y pura, 
luego materia acerba y desabrida, 
y perfecta después, dulce y madura. 

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874 Poesías. 

Tal la humana pmdenoia es bien que mida, 
7 dispense j comparta las acciones 
que han de ser compafieras de la vida. 

No quiera Dios que imite estos varones 
que moran nuestras plazas macilentos, 
de la yirtud infames histriones: 

Esos inmundos trágicos, atentos 
al aplauso común, cuyas entrañas 
son infaustos y oscuros monumentos. 

I Cuan callada que pasa las montañas 
el aura respirando mansamente! 
¡Qué gárrula y sonante por las cañas! 

I Qué muda la virtud por el prudente! 
I Qué redundante y llena de ruido 
por el vano, ambicioso y aparente! 

Quiero imitar al pueblo en el vestido, 
en las costumbres sólo á los mejores, 
sin presumir de roto y mal ceñido. 

No resplandezca el oro y los colores 
en nuestro traje, ni tampoco sea 
igual al de los dóricos cantores. 

Una mediana vida yo posea, 
un estilo común y moderado, 
que no lo note nadie que lo vea. 

En el plebeyo barro mal tostado 
hubo ya quien bebió tan ambicioso 
como en el vaso múrico preciado: 

Y alguno tan ilustre y generoso 
que usó, como si fuera plata neta, 
del cristal trasparente y luminoso. 

¿Sin la templanza viste tú perfeta 
alguna cosa? ¡Oh muerte, vén callada 
como sueles venir en la saeta! 

No en la tonante máquina preñada 
de fuego y de rumor; que no es mi puerta 
de doblados metales fabricada. 

Asi, Fabio, me muestra descubierta 
su esencia la virtud, y mi albedrio 
con ella se compone y se concierta. 

No te burles de ver cuánto confío, 
ni al arte de decir vana y pomposa 
el ardor atribuyas de este brio. 

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Poesías. 875 

¿Es por ventora menos poderosa 
<[ue el vicio la virtud? ¿Es menos fuerte? 
no la arguyas de flaca y temerosa. 

La codicia en las manos de la suerte 
«e arroja al mar: la ira á las espadas, 
j la ambición se ríe de la muerte: 

¿Y no serán siquiera tan osadas 
las opuestas acciones, si las miro 
<de más ilustres genios ayudadas? 

Ya, dulce amigo, huyo y me retiro 
<de cuanto simple amé: rompí los lazos: 
vén y verás al alto fin que aspiro, 
Antes que el tiempo muera en nuestros brazos. 

[Francisco de Biqja.] 

El Silencio. 

(Armonia nocturna.) 
El Llobregat corría 
<5on movimiento blando 
á mis piás murmurando; 
yo no sé qué decía 
desde su oscuro lecho, 
sólo sé que su voz sonó en mi pecho 
<K)n vaga y melancólica armonía. 

Aun el beso fugaz siento del aura 
que el ánimo restaura, 
y el olor de los pinos solitarios 
que coronan los montes, 
limite de serenos horizontes; 
oigo el débil quejido 
del pájaro nocturno 
en las breñas perdido, 
y su sordo aleteo; 
y el insecto que zumba; 
y aun hoy la luna veo, 
cual lámpara colgada ante la tumba 
que un ser amado encierra, 
bafiando las profundas soledades 
del cielo y de la tierra. 

Pero no, este silencio no es lo muerte 
helada, inmóvil, muda, 
la que el alma sin fé sueña y advierte: 
Desde la dura piedra 

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376 Poesías. 

que el musgo cubre y la amorosa hiedra, 

basta la pefia colosal desnuda; 

la quietud de los campos, y la sombra; 

el lucero; la nube 

(gracioso y casto velo 

tras el cual ceutellea); 

el Monserrat, que sube 

soberbio escalonándose hasta el cielo, 

pilar robusto aquél, y éste corona 

de la santa patrona 

que al pueblo catalán tiende su manto, 

forman todos el canto 

sublime del silencio, 

con palabras sin voz, de poder tanto 

que el alma las entiende, 

y, embriagado por ellas, 

su movimiento el corazón suspende. 

¡Oh noche! I Oh soledad! i Oh gran concierto 
que oye sólo el espíritu despierto, 
y no el torpe sentido! 
á tu conjuro misterioso, vuelve 
á ser, y se levanta lo que ha sido; 
las dormidas memorias, 
los dias y los años, 
fantasmas de dolores y de glorias, 
de placer, de esperanza y desengaños. 

Aquí, el hogar paterno, 
templo de la alegría 
que iluminaba el sol de medio día, 
ó el rayo de la luna; 
y en un rincón la cuna, 
ayer tranquila nave 
que arrulló la niñez de un inocente, 
á quien hoy arrebata la corriente 
en los revueltos mares de la vida, 
por furiosas tormentas combatida. 

Allá, la verde alfombra 
del valle solitario; 
el árbol, fiel amigo 
que fruta daba y sombra; 
el viejo campanario, 
que la oración cantaba 
con acento monótono y profundo, 
y el tránsito de un alma á mejor mundo, 
ó bien desde la aurora 

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Poesías. 377 

las fiestas celebraba 

del pueblo, y de la patria vencedora. 

Por aquí bulle inquieta 
la alegre romería; y en los huecos 
de la colina escueta 
y el espacioso llano, 
repiten, alejándose, cien ecos 
del tamboril los rústicos sonidos 
con cantares y danzas confundidos. 

Y en faz dulce, halagüeña, 
como niño que suena con las hadas, 
ó con su madre y con el cielo sueña, 
van pasando, en su féretro acostadas, 
reinas de otros festines ¡ay! hermosas, 
que vivieron la vida de las rosas; 
y pasan allá lejos . . , allá lejos . . ., 
donde la luna apenas da reflejos, 
al triste suspirar del bosque umbrío 
y el sollozo del río. 

En el aire y el cielo 
hay ojos que nos miran, 
y bocas que suspiran, 
y manos que nos llaman, 
y genios invisibles que nos aman; 
y de la selva oscura 
por la intrincada y lóbrega espesura, 
de su paso veloz sin dejar huellas, 
fantásticas visiones cruzan bellas, 
quizá recuerdos pálidos de amores, 
formas, tal vez, de sueños seductores, 
de nuestro corazón, tal vez, pedazos, 
tendiéndonos los brazos, 
y virginal sonrisa 
mandándonos en alas de la brisa. 

En tanto, por el piélago infinito 
de esos mundos que en letras de luz tienen 
de Dios el nombre escrito, 
su alto vuelo el espíritu desplega; 
ansioso de luz llega, 
y, abismándose en él, ve más cercana 
la majestad de Dios, y compadece 
la pequenez de -la grandeza humana. 

[Ventura Raíz Aguilera.] 

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878 Poesías. 

La Dada. 

A mi querido amigo el distinguido Poeta 
Don Antonio Hurtado, 
Desde esta soledad en donde vivo, 
y en la cual de los hombres olvidado 
ni cartas ni periódicos recibo; 
donde reposo en apacible calma, 
lejos, lejos del mundo que ba gastado 
con la del cuerpo la salud del alma; 
antes de que el torrente desbordado 
de la ambición con ímpetu violento 
me arrebate otra vez; desde la orilla 
donde yace encallada mi barquilla, 
libre ya de las ondas y del viento, 
como recuerdo de amistad te escribo. 

¡Ay! Aunque salvo del peligro, siento 
la inquietud angustiosa del cautivo, 
que rompiendo su férrea ligadura, 
traspasa fatigado á la ventura 
montes, llanos y selvas, fugitivo. 
El rumor apagado que levantan 
las hojas secas que á su paso mueve, 
las avecillas que en el árbol cantan, 
el aire que en las ramas se cimbrea 
con movimiento reposado y leve, 
el río que entre guijas serpentea, 
la luz del día, la callada sombra 
de la serena noche, el eco, el ruido, 
la misma soledad ¡todo le asombra! 

Y cuando ya de caminar rendido 
sobre la yerta piedra se reclina 

y le sorprende el sueño y le domina, 
oye en torno de si, medio dormido, 
vago y siniestro son. Despierta, calla, 
y fija su atención despavorido; 
las tinieblas le ofuscan, se incorpora 
y el rumor le persigue.— ¡Es el latido 
de su azorado corazón que estalla! — 

Y entonces ¡ay! desesperado llora. 
Porque es la libertad don tan querido, 
que en el humano espíritu batalla, 

más que el placer de conseguirla, el miedo 
de volverla á perder. 

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Poesías. 879 

Yo quQ no puedo 
recordar sin espanto la agonía, 
la dura y azarosa incertidumbre 
en que mi triste corazón gemía 
sometido á penosa servidumbre, 
cuando, arista á merced del torbellino, 
sin elección ni voluntad seguía 
los secretos impulsos del destino, 
y en ese pavoroso desconcierto 
de la social contienda, consumía 
la paz del alma ¡la esperanza mía! 
boj que la tempestad arrojó al puerto 
mi navecilla rota j quebrantada, 
temo ¡infeliz de mí! que otra oleada 
la vuelva al mar donde mi calma ba muerto. 

Para vencer su furia desatada 
¿qué soy yo? ¿qué es el hombre? Sombra leve, 
partícula de polvo en el desierto. 
Guando el simún de la pasión le mueve, 
busca el átomo al átomo, y la arena 
es nube, es huracán, es cataclismo. 
Gigante mole los espacios llena, 
bajo su peso el mundo se conmueve, 
obscurece la luz, llega al abismo 
y al sumo Dios que la formó se atreve. 
Vértigo arroUador todo la arrasa; 
pero después que el torbellino pasa 
y se apacigua y duerme la tormenta, 
¿qué queda? Polvo misero y liviano 
que el ala frágil del insecto aventa, 
que se pierde en la palma de la mano. 
¡Oh grata soledad, yo te bendigo, 
tú que al náufrago, al triste, al pobrQ grano 
de desligada arena das abrigo! 

Muchas veces, Antonio, devorado 
por ese afán oculto que no sabe 
la mente descifrar, me he preguntado, 
—cuestión á un tiempo inoportuna y grave— 
¿qué busco? ¿á dónde voy? ¿porqué he nacido 
en esta Edad sin fe?— Yo soy un ave 
que llegó sola y sin amor al nido. 
A este nido social en que vegeta, 
mayor de edad, la ciega muchedumbre, 
al infortunio y al error sujeta 
entre miseria y sangre y podredumbre. 

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Comtémplala, si pnedes, tú que al cielo 
con tos radiantes alas de poeta 
tal vez quisiste remontar al vnelo, 
7 si este el mnndo que soñaste ba sido 
nunca el encanto de tn dicha acabe . . . 
¡Ayl pero tú también eres un ave 
que llegó sola y sin amor al nido. 

Desde la altura de mi siglo, tiendo 
alguna vez con ánimo atrevido, 
mi vista á lo pasado, y removiendo 
los deshechos escombros de la historia, 
en el febril anhelo que me agita 
sus ruinas vuelvo á alzar en mi memoria. 

Y al través de las capas seculares 
que el aluvión del tiempo deposita 
sobre columnas, pórticos y 'altares; 
del polvo inanimado con que cubre 
la loca vanidad del polve vivo, 
que arrebata á su paso fugitivo, 
como el viento las hojas en Octubre; 
mudo de admiración y de respeto 
busco la antigüedad— roto esqueleto 
que entre la densa lobreguez asoma— 
y ofrecen á mi absorta fantasía 

sus dioses Grecia, sus guerreros Roma, 
sus mártires la fe cristiana y pía, 
el patriotismo su grandeza austera, 
sus monstruos la insaciable tiranía, 
sus vengadores la virtud severa. 

Y llevado en las alas del deseo 
que anima mi ilusión, á veces creo 
volver á aquella Edad. — En la espesura 
del bosque, en el murmullo de la fuente, 
en el claro lucero que fulgura, 

en el escollo de la mar rujíente, 

en la espuma, en el átomo, en la nada, 

Apolo centellea, alza su frente 

de luminoso lauro coronada. 

Por él la luna que entre sombras gira, 

la. luz que en rayos de color se parte, 

la ola que bulle, el viento que suspira, 

todo es Dios, todo es himno, todo es arte. 

¡Ay! ¿No es verdad que en tus eternas horas 

de desaliento y decepción, recuerdas 

esa dorada Edad, y que te inspira 

el coro de sus musas voladoras, 

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Poesías. '881 

que murmuran y gimen en las cnerdas 

de la ya rota y olvidada lira? 

Aunque las llames, np vendrán; ¡han muerto! 

la voz del interés grosera y ruda 

anuncia que el Parnaso está desierto 

y la naturaleza triste y muda. 

Que en este siglo de sarcasmo y duda 
sólo una musa vive. Musa ciega, 
implacable, brutal. ¡Demonio acaso 
que con los hombres y los dioses juega! 
La Musa del análisis, que armada 
del árido escalpelo, á cada paso 
nos precipita en el obscuro abismo 
ó nos asoma al borde de la nada. 
¿No la ves? ¿No la sientes en tí mismo? 
¿Quién no lleva esa víbora enroscada 
dentro del corazón? ¡Ay! cuando llena 
de noble ardor la juventud florida 
quiere surcar la atmósfera serena, 
quiere aspirar las auras de la vida, 
esa Musa fatal y tentadora 
en el libro, en la cátedra, en la escena 
se apodera del alma y la devora. 
¡Si á veces imagino que envenena 
la leche maternal! En nuestros lares, 
en el retiro, en el regazo tierno 
del amor, hasta al pié de los altares 
nos persigue ese aborto del infierno. 

¡Cuántas noches de horror, conmigo á solas, 
ha sacudido con su soplo ardiente 
los tristes pensamientos de mi mente 
como sacude el huracán las olas! 
¡Cuántas, ay, revoleándome en el lecho 
he golpeado con furor mi frente, 
he desgarrado sin piedad mi pecho, 
y entre visiones lúgubres y extrañas, 
su diente de reptil, áspero y frío, 
he sentido clavarse en mis entrañas! 
¡Noches de soledad, noches de hastío 
en que, lleno de angustia y sobresalto, 
se agitaba mi ser en el vacío 
de fe, de luz y de esperanza falto! 
¿Y quién mantiene viva la esperanza 
si donde quiera que la vista alcanza 
ve escombros nada más? Por entre ruinas 
la humanidad desorientada avanza; 

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382 Poesías. 

becbos, leyes, costumbres y doctrinas 
como edificio envejecido y roto 
desplomándose van; sordo y profundo 
no sé qué irresistible terremoto 
moral, conmueve en su cimiendo el mundo. 

Ruedan los tronos, ruedan los altares: 
reyes, naciones, genios y colosos 
pasan como las ondas de los mares 
empujadas por vientos borrascosos. 
Todo tiembla en redor, todo vacila. 
Hasta la misma religión sagrada 
es moribunda lámpara que oscila 
sobre el sepulcro de la edad pasada. 

Y cual turbia corriente alborotada, 
libre del ancho cauce que la encierra, 
la duda audaz, la asoladora duda 
como una inundación cubre la tierra. 

—¡Es que el manto de Dios ya no la escuda I — 

No la defiende el varonil denuedo 

de la fe inexpugnable y de las leyes, 

y el dios de los incrédulos, el miedo, 

rige á su voluntad pueblos y reyes. 

Él los rumores bélicos propala, 

él organiza innúmeras legiones 

que buscan la ocasión, no la justicia. 

Mas ¿qué podrán hacer? No se apuntala 

con lanzas, bayonetas ni cafiones, 

el templo secular que se desquicia. 

En medio de este caos, como un arcano 

impenetrable, pavoroso, obscuro, 

yérguese altivo el pensamiento humano 

de su grandeza y majestad seguro. 

Y semejante al árbol carcomido 
por incansable y destructor gusano, 
que cuando tiene el corazón roldo, 
desenvuelve su copa más lozano, 

al través del social desasosiego 
cruza la tierra en su corcel de fuego, 
hasta los cielos atrevido sube, 
pone en la luz su vencedora mano, 
el rayo arranca á la irritada nube 
y horada con su acento el Océano. 
¡Mas, ay, del árbol que frondoso crece 
sostenido no más por su corteza! 
Tal vez la brisa que las flores mece 
derribará en el polvo su grandeza. 

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— I Tal vezl ¿Lo sabes tú? ¿ Quién el misterio 
logra profundizar? Esta sombría 
turbación, esta lóbrega tristeza 
que invade sin cesar nuestro hemisferio, 
¿es acaso el crepúsculo del día 
que se extingue, ó la aurora del que empieza? 
¿Es iayl renacimiento ó agonía? 
Lo ignoras como yo. ¡Nadie lo sabe! 
Solo só que la dulce poesía 
va enmudeciendo, y cuando calla el ave 
es que su obscuridad la noche envía. 
Oigo el desacordado clamoreo 
que alza doquier la muchedumbre inquieta 
sin freno, sin antorcha que la guie; 
ando entre iniínas, y espantado veo 
cómo al sordo compás de la piqueta 
la embrutecida indiferencia ríe. 

— También en Roma, torpe y descreída, 
la copa llena de espumoso y rico 
licor, gozábase desprevenida, 
hasta que de improviso por la herida 
que abrió en su cuello el hacha de Alarico 
escapósele el vino con la vida. — 
Todo el cercano cajtaclismo advierte; 
pero en esta ansiedad que nos devora 
ninguno habrá que á descifrar acierte 
la gran transformación que se elabora. 

¿Y qué más da? Resurrección ó muerte, 
vespertino crepúsculo ó aurora, 
los que siguen llorando su camino 
por medio de esta confusión horrenda, 
con inseguro paso y rumbo incierto, 
¿dónde levantarán su débil tienda 
que no la arranque el raudo torbellino 
ni la envuelva la arena del desierto? 
En otro tiempo el ánimo doliente, 
atormentado por la duda humana, 
postrábase sumiso y penitente 
en el regazo de la fe cristiana, 
y allí bajo la bóveda sombría 
del templo, el corazón desesperado 
se humillaba en el polvo y renacía. 
Cristo en la cruz del Gólgota clavado 
extendía sus brazos, compasivo, 
al dolor sublimado en la plegaria, 
y para el pobre y triste fugitivo 

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884 Poesías. 

rdel mundo, era la celda solitaria 
puerto de salvación, sepulcro vivo, 
anulación del cuerpo voluntaria. 

¡Ay! En aquella paz santa y profunda 
todo era austero, reposado, grave. 
La elevación de la gigante nave, 
la luz entrecortada y moribunda, 
la sencilla oración de un pueblo inmenso 
uniéndose á los cánticos del coro, 
la armonía del órgano sonoro, 
las blancas nubes de quemado incienso, 
el frío y duro pavimento, fosa 
común, perpetuamente renovada, 
de la cual cada tumba, cada losa 
es doble puerta que limita y cierra 
por debajo el silencio de la nada, 
por encima el tumulto de la tierra; 
aquella majestad, aquel olvido 
del siglo, aquel recuerdo de la muerte, 
parecian decir con infinita 
dulzura al corazón desfallecido, 
al espíritu ciego, al alma inerte: 
Ego sum via, et veritas et vita. 
Aquí en su pequenez el hombre es fuerte. — 
Mas ¿dónde iremos ya? Torpes y obscuros 
planes hallaron en el claustro abrigo, 
y Dios airado desató el castigo 
y con el rayo derribó sus muros. 
¿Dónde posar la fatigada frente? 
¿Dónde volver los afligidos ojos, 
cuando ha dejado el corazón creyente 
prendidos en los ásperos abrojos 
su fe piadosa y su interés mundano? 

¡En tí, soledad ! Yo te bendigo, 
porque al náufrago, al triste, al pobre grano 
de desligada arena das abrigo. 

[Gaspar Nuilez de Arce.] 

Consuelo celestial. 

Dime, Padre común, pues eres justo, 
¿por qué ha de permitir tu providencia, 
que, arrastrando prisiones la inocencia, 
suba la fraude á tribunal augusto? 

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Prosa. 385 

¿Quién da fuerzas al brazo, que robusto 
hace á tus leyes firme resistencia? 
¿Y que el celo, que más las reverencia, 
gima á los pies del vencedor injusto? 

Vemos que vibran victoriosas palmas 
manos inicuas; la virtud gimiendo 
del triunfo en el injusto regocijo. 

Esto decía yo, cuando riendo 
celestial ninfa apareció, y me dijo: 
¿Ciego, es la tierra el centro de las almas? 



Armas y Letras. 

Quítenseme delante los que dijeren que las letras hacen 
ventaja á las armas, que les diré, y sean quien se fueren, 
que no saben lo que dicen: porque la razón que los tales 
suelen decir, y á lo que ellos más se atienen, es que los tra- 
bajos del espíritu exceden á los del cuerpo, y que las armas 
sólo con el cuerpo se ejercitan; como si fuese su ejercicio 
oficio de ganapanes, para el cual no es menester más de 
buenas fuerzas; ó como si en esto, que llamamos armas los 
que las profesamos, no se encerrasen los actos de la fortaleza, 
los cuales piden para ejecutallos mucho entendimiento; ó como 
sí no trabajase el ánimo del guerrero que tiene á su cargo 
un ejército, ó la defensa de una ciudad sitiada, así con el 
espíritu, como con el cuerpo. Si no, véase si se alcanza con 
las fuerzas corporales á saber y conjeturar el intento del ene- 
migo, los designios, las estratajemas, las dificultades, el pre- 
venir los daños que se temen, que todas estas cosas son 
acciones del entendimiento en quien no tiene parte alguna 
el cuerpo. Siendo pues ansí, que las armas requieren espíritu 
con las letras, veamos ahora cual de los dos espíritus, el del 
letrado ó el del guerrero, trabaja más: y esto se vendrá á 
conocer por el fin y paradero á que cada uno se encamina, 
porque aquella intención se ha de estimar en más, que tiene 
por objeto más noble fin. Es el fin y paradero de las letras 
(y no hablo ahora de las divinas, que tienen por blanco llevar 
y encaminar las almas al cielo, que á un fin tan sin fin como 
este ninguno otro se le puede igualar), hablo de las letras 
humanas, que es su fin poner en su punto la justicia distri- 
Spaoish Conv.-Grammar. 2^ ^ 

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886 Prosa. 

butiya, y dar á cada uno lo que es suyo, entender y hacer 
que las buenas leyes se guarden: fin por cierto generoso y alto, 
y digno de grande alabanza; pero no de tanta como merece 
aquel á que las armas atienden, las cuales tienen por objeto 
y fin la paz, que es el mayor bien que los hombres pueden 
desear en vista vida: y asi las prinoieras buenas nuevas que 
tuvo el mundo y tuvieron los hombres, fueron las que dieron 
los ángeles la noche que fué nuestro día, cuando cantaron en 
los aires : Gloria sea en las cUturaSy y paz en la tierra á los 
hombres de buena voluntad: y la salutación que el mejor Maestro 
de la tierra y del cielo enseñó á sus allegados y favorecidos, 
fué decirles que cuando entrasen en alguna casa dijesen: Pae 
sea en esta casa; y otras muchas veces les dijo: Mi paz os 
doy y mi paz os dejo, paz sea con vosotros: bien como joya y 
prenda dada y dejada de tal mano, joya que sin ella en la 
tierra ni en el cielo puede haber bien alguno: Esta paz es 
el verdadero fin de la guerra, que lo mismo es decir armas 
que guerra. Prosupuesta pues esta verdad, que el fin de la 
guerra es la paz, y que en esto hace ventaja al fin de Jas 
letras, vengamos ahora á los trabajos del cuerpo del letrado, 
y á los del profesor de las armas, y véase cuales son mayores. 
De tal manera y por tan buenos términos iba prosiguiendo 
en su plática Don Quiote, que obligó á que por entonces nin- 
guno de los que escuchándole estaban le tuviesen por loco: 
antes, como todos los más eran caballeros, á quien son anexas 
las armas, le escuchaban de muy buena gana, y él prosiguió 
diciendo: digo pues, que los trabajos del estudiante son estos: 
principalmente pobreza, no porque todos sean pobres, sino 
por poner este caso en todo el extremo que pueda ser; y en 
haber dicho que padece pobreza, me parece que no había que 
decir más de su mala ventura, porque quien es pobre no tiene 
cosa buena: esta pobreza la padece por sus partes, ya en 
hambre, ya en frío, ya en desnudez, ya en todo junto; pero 
con todo eso no es tanta que no coma, aunque sea un poco 
más tarde de lo que se usa, aunque sea de las sobras de los 
ricos; que es la mayor miseria del estudiante esto que entre 
ellos llaman andar á la sopa, y no les falta algún ageno brasero, 
ó chimenea que si no calienta, á lo menos entibie su frío, y en 
fin la noche duermen muy bien debajo de cubierta. No quiero 
llegar á otras menudencias, conviene á saber, de la falta de 
camisas y no sobra de zapatos, la raridad y poco pelo del 
vestido, ni aquel ahitarse con tanto gusto cuando la buena 
suerte les depara algún banquete. Por este camino que he 
pintado, áspero y dificultoso, tropezando aquí, cayendo allí, 
levantándose acullá, tornando á caer acá, llegan al grado que 
desean; el cual alzando á muchos, hemos visto que habiendo 
pasado por estas Sirtes, y por estas Scilas y Caribdis, como 

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Prosa. 387 

llevados en vuelo de la favorable fortuna, digo que los hemos 
visto mandar y gobernar el mundo desde una silla, trocada 
su hambre en hartura, su frío en refrigerio, su desnudez en 
galas, y su dormir en una estera en reposar en holandas 
y damascos: premio justamente merecido de su virtud; pero 
contrapuestos y comparados sus trabajos con los del milite 

guerrero, se quedan muy atrás en todo Pues comenzamos en 

el estudiante por la pobreza y sus partes, veamos si es más 
rico el soldado, y veremos que no hay ninguno más pobre en 
la misma pobreza, porque está atenido á la miseria de su 
paga, que viene ó tarde ó nunca, ó á lo que garbeare por 
sus manos con notable peligro de su vida y de su conciencia : 
y á veces suele ser su desnudez tanta, que un coleto acu- 
chillado le sirve de gala y de camisa, y en la mitad del in- 
vierno se suele reparar de las inclemencias del cielo, estando 
en la campaña rasa, con solo el aliento de su boca, que como 
sale de lugar vacío, tengo por averiguado que debe de salir 
frío contra toda naturaleza. Pues esperad que espere que 
llegue la noche, para restaurarse de todas estas incomodidades 
en la cama que le aguarda, la cual si no es por su culpa, 
jamás pecará de estrecha, que bien puede medir en la tieiTa 
los pies que quisiere, y revolverse en ella á su sabor sin 
temor que se le encojan las sábanas. Llegúese pues á todo 
esto el día y la hora de recibir el grado de su ejercicio: lle- 
gúese un día de batalla, que allí le pondrán la borla en la 
cabeza, hecha de hilas para curarle algún balazo que quizá 
le habrá pasado la$ ^ienes, ó le dejará estropeado de brazo ó 
pierna: y cuanda esto no suceda, sino que el cielo piadoso le 
guarde y conserve sano y vivo, podrá ser que se quede en la 
misma pobreza que antes estaba, y que sea menester que 
suceda uno y otro reencuentro, una y otra batalla, y que de 
todas salga vencedor para medrar en algo; pero estos milagros 
vense raras veces. Pero decidme, señores, si habéis mirado 
en ello: ¿cuan menos son los premiados por la guerra, que 
los que han perecido en ella? Sin duda habéis de responder 
que no tienen comparación, ni se pueden reducir á cuenta los 
muertos, y que se podrán contar los premiados vivos con tres 
letras de guarismo. Todo esto es al revés en los letrados, 
porque de faldas, que no quiero decir de mangas, todos tienen 
en que entretenerse: así que, aunque es mayor el trabajo del 
soldado, es mucho menor el premio. Pero á esto se puede 
responder que es más fácil premiar á dos mil letrados, que 
á treinta mil soldados; porque aquellos se premian con darles 
oficios que por fuerza se han de dar á los de su profesión, 
y á estos no se pueden premiar sino con la misma hacienda 
del señor á quien sirven, y esta imposibilidad fortifica más 
la razón que tengo, Pero dejemos esto aparte, que es labe- 

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888 Prosa. 

rínto de muy dificultosa salida, sino volvamos á la preemi- 
nencia de las armas contra las letras : materia que hasta ahora 
está por averiguar según son las razones que cada una de 
su parte alega. Y entre las que he dicho, dicen las letras que 
sin ellas no se podrían sustentar las armas, porque la guerra 
también tiene sus leyes y está sujeta á ellas, y que las leyes 
caen debajo de lo que son letras y letrados. Á esto responden 
las armas que las leyes no se podrán sustentar sin ellas, porque 
con las armas se defienden las repúblicas, se conservan los 
reinos, se guardan las ciudades, se aseguran los caminos, se 
despojan los mares de corsarios; y finalmente, si por ellas no 
fuese, las repúblicas, los reinos, las monarquías, las ciudades, 
los caminos de mar y tierra estarían sujetos al rigor y á la 
confusión que trae consigo la guerra el tiempo que dura, j 
tiene licencia de usar de sus privilejios y de sus fuerzas: j 
es razón averiguada que aquello que más cuesta, se estima 
y debe de estimar en más. Alcanzar alguno á ser eminente 
en letras, le cuesta tiempo, vijilias, hambre, desnudez, vaguido 
de cabeza, indigestiones de estómago, y otras cosas á estas 
adherentes, que en parte ya las tengo referidas; mas llegar 
uno por sus términos á ser buen soldado, le cuesta todo lo 
que á el estudiante, en tanto mayor grado, que no tienen 
comparación, porque á cada paso está á pique de perder la 
vida: ¿Y quó temor de necesidad y pobreza puede llegar ni 
fatigar al estudiante, que llegue al que tiene un soldado que 
hallándose cercado en alguna fuerza y estando de posta ó 
guarda en algún rebellín, ó caballero, siente que los enemigos 
están minando hacia la parte donde él está, y no puede apar- 
tarse de allí por ningún caso, ni huir el peligro que de tan 
cerca le amenaza? Sólo lo que puede hacer, es dar noticia 
á su capitán de lo que pasa para que lo remedie con alguna 
contramina, y él estarse quedo temiendo y esperando, cuando 
improvisamente ha de subir á las nubes sin alas y bajar al 
profundo sin su voluntad; y si este parece pequeño peligro, 
veamos si se le iguala ó hace ventaja el de embestirse dos 
galeras por las proas en mitad del mar espacioso, las cuales 
enclavijadas y trabadas, no le queda al soldado más espacio 
del que conceden dos pies de tabla del espolón; y con todo 
esto, viendo que tiene delante de si tantos ministros de la 
muerte que le amenaza, cuantos cañones de artillería se 
asestan de la parte contraria, que no distan de su cuerpo 
una lanza, y viendo que al primer descuido de los pies irla 
á visitar los profundos senos de Neptuno, y con todo esto, 
con intrépido corazón, llevado de la honra que le incita, se 
pone á ser blanco de tanta arcabucería, y procura pasar por 
tan estrecho paso al bajel contrario : y lo que más es de 
admirar, que apenas uno ha caldo donde no se podrá levantar 

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Prosa. 389 

hasta el fin del mundo, cuando otro ocupa su mismo lugar, 
y si este también cae en el mar que como á enemigo le 
aguarda, otro, y otro le sucede, sin dar tiempo al tiempo de 
sus muertes: valentía y atrevimiento el mayor que se puede 
hallar en todos los trances de la guerra, i Bien hayan aque- 
llos benditos siglos que carecieron de la espantable furia de 
aquestos endemoniados instrumentos de la artillería, á cuyo 
inventor tengo para mí que en el infierno se le está dando 
el premio de su diabólica invención, con la cual dio causa 
que un infame y cobarde brazo quite la vida á un valeroso 
caballero, y que sin saber como ó por donde, en la mitad del 
coraje j brío que enciende y anima á los valientes pechos, 
llega una desmandada bala, disparada de quien quizá huyó 
y se espantó del resplandor que hizo el fuego al disparar la 
maldita máquina, y corta y acaba en un instante los pensa- 
mientos y vida de quien la merecía gozar luengos siglos! 


El castellano yiejo. 

Ya en mi edad pocas veces gusto de alterar el orden 
que en mi manera de vivir tengo hace tiempo establecido; y 
fundo esta repugnancia en que no he abandonado mis lares 
ni un solo día para quebrantar mi sistema, sin que haya 
sucedido el arrepentimiento más sincero al desvanecimiento 
de mis engañadas esperanzas, ün resto, con todo eso, del 
antiguo ceremonial que en su trato tenían adoptado nuestros 
padres, me obliga á aceptar á veces ciertos convites á que 
parecería el negarse grosería, ó por lo menos ridicula afecta- 
ción de delicadeza. 

Andábame días pasados por esas calles á buscar mate- 
riales para mis artículos. Embebido en mis pensamientos, me 
sorprendí varias veces á mí mismo riendo como un pobre 
hombre de mis propias ideas y moviendo maquinalmente los 
labios; algún tropezón me recordaba de cuando en cuando 
que para andar por el empedrado de Madrid no es la mejor 
circunstancia la de ser poeta ni filósofo; más de una sonrisa 
maligna, más de un gesto de admiración de los que á mi lado 
pasaban, me hacía reflexionar que los soliloquios no se deben 
hacer en público; y no pocos encontrones que al volver las 
esquinas di con quien tan distraída y rápidamente como yo 
las doblaba, me hicieron conocer que los distraídos no entran 
en el número de los cuerpos elásticos, y mucho menos de los 
seres gloriosos é impasibles. En semejante situación de mi 
espíritu, ¡qué sensación no debería producirme una horrible 
palmada que una gran mano, pegada (á lo que por entonces 
entendí) á un grandísimo brazo, vino á descargar sobre uno 

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de mis hombros, que por desgracia no tienen punto algmio 
de semejanza con los de Atlante! 

No queriendo dar á entender que desconocía este enér- 
gico modo de anunciarse, ni desairar el agasajo de quien 
sin duda había creído hacérmele más que mediano dejándome 
torcido para todo el día, traté sólo de volverme por conocer 
quién fuese tan mi amigo para tratarme tan mal; pero mi 
castellano viejo es hombre que, cuando está de gracias, no se 
ha de dejar ninguna en el tintero. ¿Cómo dirá el lector que 
siguió dándome pruebas de confianza y carifio? Echóme las 
manos á los ojos, y sujetándome por detrás, ¿quién soj? 
gritaba, alborozado con el buen éxito de su delicada travesura. 
¿Qaién soy? — Un animal, iba á responderle; pero me acordé 
de repente de quién podría ser, y sustituyendo cantidades 
iguales : — Braulio eres, le dije. Al oirme, suelta sus manos, 
ríe, se aprieta los ijares, alborota la calle, y pónenos á en- 
trambos en escena. — ¡Bien, mi amigo! ¿Pues en qué me 
has conocido? — ¿Quién pudiera sino tú . . .? — Has venido 
ya de tu Vizcaya? — No, Braulio, no he venido. — Siempre 
el mismo genio. — ¿Qué quieres? es la pregunta del español. 
— ¡Cuánto me alegro de que estés aquí! ¿Sabes que mañana 
son mis días? — Te los deseo muy felices. — Déjate de 
cumplimientos entre nosotros; ya sabes que yo soy franco y 
castellano viejo; el pan pan, y el vino vino; por consiguiente, 
exijo de ti que no vayas á dármelos, pero estás convidado. — 
¿Á qué? — Á comer conmigo. — No es posible. — No hay 
remedio. — No puedo, insisto ya temblando. — ¿No puedes? 
T- Gracias. — ¿Gracias? Vete á paseo; amigo, como no soy 
el duque de F., ni el conde de P. — ¿Quién se resiste á una sor- 
presa de esta especie? ¿Quién quiere parecer vano? — No 
es eso, sino que ... — Pues si no es eso, me interrumpe, te 
espero á las dos; en casa se come á la española; temprano. 
Tengo mucha gente: tendremos al famoso X., que nos impro- 
visará de lo lindo; T. nos cantará de sobremesa una rondefia 
con su gracia natural; y por la noche, J. cantará y tocará 
alguna cosilla. — Esto me consoló algún tanto, y fué preciso 
ceder: un día malo, dije para mí, cualquiera lo pasa; en este 
mundo para conservar amigos es preciso tener el valor de 
aguantar sus obsequios. — No faltarás, si no quieres que 
riñamos. — No faltaré, dije con voz exánime y ánimo decaído, 
como el zorro que se revuelve inútilmente dentro de la trampa 
donde se ha dejado coger. — Pues hasta mañana; y me dio 
un torniscón por despedida. Víle marchar como el labrador 
ve alejarse la nube de su sembrado, y quédeme discurriendo 
cómo podían entenderse estas amistades tan hostiles y tan 

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Prosa. 391 

Ya habrá conocido el lector, siendo tan perspicaz como 
yo lo imagino, que mi amigo Braulio está muy lejos de per- 
tenecer á lo que se llama gran mundo y sociedad de buen 
tono; pero no es tampoco un hombre de la clase inferior, 
puesto que es un empleado de los de segundo orden, que 
reúne entre su sueldo y su hacienda cuarenta mil reales de 
renta, que tiene una cintita atada al ojal y una crucecita á 
la sombra de la solapa; que es persona, en fin, cuya clase, 
familia y comodidades de ninguna manera se oponen á que 
tuviese una educación más escogida y modales más suaves ó 
insinuantes. Mas la vanidad le ha sorprendido por donde ha 
sorprendido casi siempre á toda ó la mayor parte de nuestra 
clase media, y á toda nuestra clase baja. Es tal su patrio- 
tismo, que dará todas las lindezas del extranjero por un dedo 
de su país. Esta ceguedad le hace adoptar todas las respon- 
sabilidades de tan inconsiderado cariño: de paso que defiende 
que no hay vinos como los españoles, en lo cual bien puede 
tener razón, defiende que no hay educación como la española; 
en lo cual bien pudiera no tenerla; á trueque de defender que 
el cielo de Madrid es purísimo, defenderá que nuestras manólas 
son las más encantadoras de todas las mujeres; es un hombre, 
en fin, que vive de exclusivas, á quien le sucede poco más ó 
menos lo que á una parienta mía, que se muere por las joro- 
bas sólo porque tuvo un novio que llevaba una excrescencia 
bastante visible sobre entrambos omoplatos. 

No hay que hablarle, pues, de estos usos sociales, de 
estos respetos mutuos, de estas reticencias urbanas, de esa 
delicadeza de trato que establece entre los hombres una pre- 
ciosa armonía, diciendo sólo lo que debe agradar y callando 
siempre lo que puede ofender. Él se muere por plantarle una 
fresca al lucero del alba, como suele decir, y cuando tiene un 
resentimiento se le espeta á uno cara á cara: como tiene 
trocados todos los frenos, dice de los cumplimientos que ya 
sabe lo que quiere decir cumplo y miento; llama á la urba- 
nidad hipocresí^i, y á la decencia monadas ; á toda cosa buena 
le aplica un mal apodo; el lenguaje de la finura es para él 
poco menos que griego : cree que toda la crianza está reducida 
á decir Dios guarde á ustedes al entrar en una sala, y añadir 
con permiso de usted cada vez que se mueve; á preguntar á 
cada uno por toda su familia, y á despedirse de todo el 
mundo; cosas todas que asi se guardará él de olvidarlas como 
de tener pacto con franceses. En conclusión, hombre de estos 
que no saben levantarse para despedirse, sino en corporación 
con alguno ó algunos otros; que han de dejar humildemente 
debajo de una mesa su sombrero, que llaman su cabeza, y 
que cuando se hallan en sociedad, por desgracia, sin un so- 
corrido bastón, darían cualquier cosa por no tener manos ni 

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892 Prosa. 

brazos, porque en realidad no saben en dónde ponerlos, ni qué 
cosa se puede hacer con los brazos en ana sociedad. 

Llegaron las dos, y como yo conocía ya á mi Braulio, 
no me pareció conveniente acicalarme demasiado para ir á 
comer: estoy seguro de que se hubiera picado: no quise, sin 
embargo, excusar un frac de color y un pañuelo blanco, cosa 
indispensable en un día de días en semejantes casas: vestime, 
sobre todo, lo más despacio que me fué posible, como se re- 
concilia al pió del suplicio el infeliz reo, que quisiera tener 
cien pecados más cometidos que contar para ganar tiempo; 
era citado á las dos, y entré en la sala á las dos y media. 

No quiero hablar de las infinitas visitas ceremoniosas 
que antes de la hora de comer entraron y salieron en aquella 
casa, entre las cuales no eran de despreciar todos los emple- 
ados de su oficina, con sus señoras y sus niños, y sus capas 
y sos paraguas, y sus chanclos y sus perritos; dejóme en 
blanco los necios cumplimientos que dijeron al señor de los 
días ; no hablo del inmenso circulo con que guarnecía la sala 
el concurso de tantas personas heterogéneas, que hablaron de 
que el tiempo iba á mudar, y de que en invierno suele hacer 
más frío que en verano. Vengamos al caso: dieron las cuatro, 
y nos hallamos solos los convidados. Desgraciadamente para 
mí, el señor de X., que debía divertimos tanto, gran cono- 
cedor de esta clase de convites, había tenido la habilidad de 
ponerse malo aquella mañana: el famoso T. se hallaba opor- 
tunamente comprometido para otro convite; y la señorita que 
también había de cantar y tocar, estaba ronca en tal dispo- 
sición que se asombraba ella misma de que se la entendiese 
una sola palabra, y tenía un panadizo en un dedo. ¡Cuántas 
esperanzas desvanecidas ! 

Supuesto que estamos los que hemos de comer, exclamó 
D. Braulio, vamos á la mesa, querida mía. — Espera un mo- 
mento, le contestó su esposa casi al oído: con tanta visita yo 
he faltado algunos momentos de allá dentro y ... — Bien, 
pero mira que son las cuatro ... — Al instante comeremos. 

— Las cinco eran cuando nos sentábamos á la mesa. 

— Señores, dijo el anfitrión al vemos titubear en nues- 
tras respectivas colocaciones: exijo la mayor franqueza: en mi 
casa no se usan cumplimientos. ¡Ah Fígaro! quiero que estés 
con toda comodidad: eres poeta, y además estos señores, que 
saben nuestras íntimas relaciones, no se ofenderán si te pre- 
fiero; quítate el frac, no sea que le manches. — ¿Qué tengo 
de manchar? le respondí mordiéndome los labios. — No im- 
porta, te daré una chaqueta mía: siento que no haya para 
todos. — No hay necesidad. — I Oh, sí, sí, mi chaqueta! 
Toma, mírala: un poco ancha te vendrá. — Pero, Braulio... 

— No hay remedio; no te andes con etiquetas. — En esto 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Prosa. , 393 

me quita él mismo el frac, velis nolis, y quedo sepultado en 
una cumplida chaqueta rayada, por la cual sólo asomaba los 
pies y la cabeza, y cuyas mangas no me permitirían comer 
probablemente. Dile las gracias; al fin el hombre creía ha- 
cerme un obsequio. 

Los días en que mi amigo no tiene convidados se con- 
tenta con una mesa baja, poco más que banqueta de zapatero, 
porque él y su mujer, como dice, ¿para qué quieren más? 
Desde la tal mesita, y como se sube el agua del pozo, hace 
subir la comida hasta la boca, adonde llega goteando después 
de una larga travesía; porque pensar que estas gentes han de 
tener una mesa regular, y estar cómodos todos los días del 
año, es pensar en lo excusado. Ya se concibe, pues, que la 
instalación de una gran mesa de convite era un acontecimiento 
en aquella casa; así que se había creído capaz de contener 
catorce personas que éramos, una mesa donde apenas podrían 
comer ocho cómodamente. Hubimos de sentarnos de medio 
lado, como quien va á arrimar el hombro á la comida, y 
entablaron los codos de los convidados íntimas relaciones entre 
sí con la más fraternal inteligencia del mundo. Colocáronme 
por mucha distinción entre un niño de cinco años, encaramado 
en unas almohadas, que era preciso enderezar á cada momento, 
porque las ladeaba la natural turbulencia de mi joven ad 
latere, y entre uno de esos hombres que ocupan en el mundo 
el espacio y sitio de tres, cuya corpulencia por todos lados 
se salía de madre de la única silla en que se hallaba sentado, 
digámoslo así, como en la punta de una aguja. Desdobláronse 
silenciosamente las servilletas, nuevas á la verdad, porque 
tampoco eran muebles en uso para todos, los días, y fueron 
izadas por todos aquellos buenos señores á los ojales de sus 
fraques, como cuerpos intermedios entre las salsas y las solapas. 
— Ustedes harán penitencia, señores, exclamó el anfitrión 
una vez sentado, pero hay que hacerse cargo de que no esta- 
mos en Genieys; frase que creyó preciso decir. Necia afec- 
tación es ésta, si es mentira, dije yo para mí; y si es verdad, 
gran torpeza convidar á los amigos á hacer penitencia. Des- 
graciadamente no tardé mucho en conocer que había en 
aquella expresión más verdad de lo que mi buen Braulio se 
figuraba. Interminables y de mal gusto fueron los cumpli- 
mientos con que para dar y recibir cada plato nos aburrimos 
unos á otros. — Sírvase usted. — Hágame usted el favor. — 
De ninguna manera. — No lo recibiré. — Páselo usted á la 
señora. — Está bien ahí. — Perdone usted. — Gracias. — 
Sin etiqueta, señores, exclamó Braulio, y se echó el primero 
con su propia cuchara. Sucedió á la sopa un cocido surtido 
de todas las sabrosas impertinencias de este engorrosísimo, 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

394 Prosa. 

aunque buen plato: cruza por aquí la carne; por allá la ver- 
dora; acá los garbanzos ; allá el jamón; la gallina por derecba; 
por medio el tocino; por izquierda los embuchados de Extre- 
madura: siguióle un plato de ternera mechada, que Dios mal- 
diga, 7 á éste otro, j otros, j otros: mitad traídos de la 
fonda, que esto basta para que excusemos hacer su elogio; 
mitad hechos en casa por la criada de todos los días, por una 
vizcaína auxiliar tomada al intento para aquella festividad, y 
por el ama de la casa, que en semejantes ocasiones debe estar 
en todo, j por consiguiente suele no estar en nada. 

— Este plato hay que disimularle, decía ésta de unos 
pichones; están un poco quemados. — Pero, mujer . . . — 
Hombre, me aparté un momento, y ya sabes lo que son las 
criadas. — i Qué lástima que este pavo no haya estado media 
hora más al fuego! — Se puso algo tarde. — ¿No les parece 
á ustedes que está algo ahumado este estofado? — ¿Qué 
quieres? una no puede estar en todo. — I Oh, está excelente! 
exclamábamos todos dejándonoslo en el plato, excelente! — Este 
pescado está pasado. — Pues en el despacho de la diligencia 
del fresco dijeron que acababa de llegar: ¡el criado es tan 
bruto! — ¿De dónde se ha traído este vino? — En eso no 
tienes razón, porque es ... — Es malísimo. — Estos diálogos 
cortos iban exornados con una infinidad de miradas foi'tivas 
del marido para advertirle continuamente á su mujer alguna 
negligencia, queriendo darnos á entender entrambos á dos que 
estaban muy al corriente de todas las fórmulas que en seme- 
jantes casos se reputan finura, y que todas las torpezas eran 
hijas de los criados, que nunca han de aprender á servir. 
Pero estas negligencias se repetían tan á menudo, servían 
tan pOjCO ya las miradas, que le fué preciso al marido recurrir 
á los pellizcos y á los pisotones ; y ya la señora, que á duras 
penas había podido hacerse superior hasta entonces á las per- 
secuciones de su esposo, tenia la faz encendida y los ojos 
llorosos. — Señora, no se incomode usted por eso, le dijo el 
que á su lado tenía. — ¡Ah! Les aseguro á ustedes que no 
vuelvo á hacer estas cosas en caso; Ustedes no saben 
lo que es esto; otra vez, Braulio, iremos á la fonda y no 
tendrás ... — Usted, señora mía, hará lo que . . . — 
I Braulio! | Braulio! — Una tormenta espantosa estaba á punto 
de estallar; empero todos los convidados á porfía probamos á 
aplacar aquellas disputas, hijas del deseo de dar á entender 
la mayor delicadeza, para lo cual no fué poca parte la manía 
de Braulio y la expresión concluyente que dirigió de nuevo 
á la concurrencia acerca de la inutilidad de los cumplimientos, 
que asi llama él al estar bien servido y al saber comer. ¿Hay 
nada más ridiculo que estas gentes que quieren pasar por 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Prosa. 395 

fínas en medio de la más crasa ignorancia de los usos sociales? 
¿que para obsequiarle le obligan á usted á comer y beber por 
fuerza, y no le dejan medio de hacer su gusto? ¿Por qué 
habrá gentes que sólo quieren comer con alguna más limpieza 
los días de días? 

A todo esto, el niño que á mi izquierda tenía, hacía 
saltar las aceitunas á un plato de magras con tomate, j una 
vino á parar á uno de mis ojos, que no volvió á ver claro 
en todo el día; y el sefiior gordo de mi derecha había tenido 
la precaución de ir dejando en el mantel, al lado de mi pan, 
los huesos de las suyas, y los de las aves que habla roído; 
el convidado de enfrente, que se preciaba de trinchador, se 
habla encargado de hacer la autopsia de un capón, ó sea 
gallo, que esto nunca se supo; fuese por la edad avanzada de 
la víctima, fuese por los ningunos conocimientos anatómicos 
del victimario, jamás parecieron las coyunturas. — ¡Este 
capón no tiene coyunturas! exclamaba el infeliz sudando y 
forcejeando, más como quien cava que como quien trincha. 
¡Oosa más rara I En una de las embestidas resbaló el tenedor 
sobre el animal como si tuviese escama, y el capón, violenta- 
mante despedido, pareció querer tomar su vuelo como en sus 
tiempos más felices, y se posó en el mantel tranquilamente 
como pudiera en un palo de un gallinero. 

El susto fué general, y la alarma llegó á su colmo 
cuando un surtidor de caldo, impulsado por el animal furioso, 
saltó á inundar mi limpísima camisa: levántase rápidamente 
á este punto el trinchador con ánimo de cazar el ave prófuga, 
y al precipitarse sobre ella, una botella que tiene á la derecha, 
con la que tropieza su brazo, abandonando su posición per- 
pendicular, derrama un abundante caño de Valdepeñas sobre 
el capón y el mantel; corre el vino, auméntase la algazara, 
llueve la sal sobre el vino para salvar el mantel, para salvar 
la mesa se ingiere por debajo de él una servilleta, y una 
eminencia se levanta sobre el teatro de tantas ruinas. Una 
criada toda azorada retira el capón en el plato de su salsa; 
al pasar sobre mi hace una pequeña inclinación, y una lluvia 
maléfica de grasa desciende, como el rocío sobre los prados, 
á dejar eternas huellas en mi pantalón color de perla: la 
angustia y el aturdimiento de la criada no conocen término; 
retírase atolondrada sin acertar con las excusas; al volverse 
tropieza con el criado, que traía una docena de platos limpios 
y una salvilla con las copas para los vinos generosos, y toda 
aquella máquina viene al suelo con el más horroroso estruendo 
y confusión. ¡Por San Pedro! exclama dando una voz Braulio, 
difundida ya sobre sus facciones una palidez mortal, al paso 
que brota fuego el rostro de su esposa. — Pero sigamos, se- 
ñores, no ha sido nada, añade volviendo en sí. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

396 Prosa. 

¡Oh honradas casas, donde un modesto cocido y un 
principio final constituyen la felicidad diaria de nna familial 
Huid del tumulto de un convite de días. Sólo la costumbre 
de comer y servirse bien diariamente puede evitar semejantes 

¿Hay más desgracias? ¡Santo cielo! ¡Sí las hay para 
mi, infeliz! Dofía Juana, la de los dientes negros y amarillos, 
me alarga de su plato y con su propio tenedor una fineza, 
que es indispensable aceptar y tragar; el niño se divierte en 
despedir á los ojos de los concurrentes los huesos disparados 
de las cerezas; D. Leandro me hace probar el manzanilla ex- 
quisito, que he rehusado, en su misma copa, que conserva 
las indelebles sefiales de sus labios grasientos; mi gordo fama 
ya sin cesar y me hace cafión de su chimenea; por fin ¡oh 
última de las desgracias! crece el alboroto y la conversación; 
roncas ya las voces piden versos y décimas, y no hay más 
poeta que Fígaro. — Es preciso. — Tiene V. que decir algo, 
claman todos. — Désele pió forzado; que diga una copla á 
cada uno. — Yo le daré el pió: Á don Braulio en este dk. 
— ¡Señores, por Dios! — No hay remedio. — En mi vida 
he improvisado. — No se haga usted el chiquito. — Me mar- 
charé. — Cerrad la puerta. — No se sale de aquí sin decir 
algo. Y digo versos por fin; y vomito disparates; y los cele- 
bran, y crece la bulla, y el humo, y el infierno. 

Á Dios gracias logro escaparme de aquel nuevo Pande- 
monio, Por fin, ya respiro el aire fresco y desembarazado de 
la calle; ya no hay necios, ya no hay castellanos viejos á mi 

¡Santo Dios! Yo te doy gracias, exclamo respirando, 
como el ciervo que acaba de escaparse de una docena de 
perros y que oye ya apenas sus ladridos; para de aquí en 
adelante no te pido riquezas, no te pido empleos, ni honores; 
líbrame de los convites caseros y de días de días; líbrame de 
estas casas en que es un convite un acontecimiento; en qne 
sólo se pone la mesa decente para los convidados; en que 
creen hacer obsequios cuando dan mortificaciones; en que se 
hacen finezas; en que se dicen versos; en que hay niños; en 
que hay gordos ; en que reina, en fin, la brutal franqueza de los 
castellanos viejos. Quiero que, si caigo de nuevo en tenta- 
ciones semejantes, me falte un roast-heef, desaparezca del 
mundo el heef-steah, se anonaden los timbales de macarrones, 
no haya pavos en Perigueux, ni pasteles en Perigord, se se- 
quen los viñedos de Burdeos, y beban, en fin, todos, menos 
yo, la deliciosa espuma del Champagne. 

Concluida mi deprecación mental, corro á mi habitación 
á despojarme de mi camisa y mi pantalón, reflexionando en 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Prosa. 397 

mi interior que no son unos todos los hombres, puesto que 
los de un mismo país, acaso de un mismo entendimiento, no 
tienen las mismas costumbres ni la misma delicadeza, cuando 
ven las cosas de tan distinta manera. Vistome y vuelvo á 
olvidar tan funesto dia entre el corto número de gentes que 
piensan, que viven sujetas al provechoso yugo de una buena 
educación libre y desembarazada, y que fingen acaso estimarse 
y respetarse mutuamente para no incomodarse, al paso que 
las otras hacen ostentación de incomodarse, y se ofenden y se 
maltratan, queriéndose y estimándose tal vez verdaderamente. 

[Mariano José de Larra,] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Yerbs. 

^.B.— The verbs printed in holder type are entirely irregular. 
Excluded are the verbs with double participles, enumerated at the 
end of Part I. 


AhasteceTy to supply with pro- 
visions, to victual (a ship); 
conjujjT. 159. 

ahnegary to deny oneself 148. 

abolir, to abolisAi 192. 

ahorrecery to abhor 159. 

abrir y to open 187. 

absolver^ to absolve 153, 187. 

abstenerse^ to abstain 35. 

abstraer, to abstract 179, 188. 

abuñolar, to puff out 153. 

acaecer^ to happen 159, 192. 

acertar, to guess 145 

aclocar, to brood 153. 

acollar, to earth up 153. 

acontecer, to happen 159, 192. 

acordar, to agree; — se, to re- 
collect 153. 

acornar, to gore 153. 

acostar, to convey to bed; —se, 
to go to bed 163. 

acrecentar, to increase 148. 

adestrar, to direct, to put to 
rights 148. 

adherir, to adhere 167. 

adolecer, to fall ill 159. 

adormecer, to lull to sleep 159. 

adormecerse, to fall asleep 159. 

adormir, to lull 176. 

adquirir, to acquire 148. 

aducir, to bring about 160. 

advertir, to inform, to warn 167. 

aferrar, to grapple 148. 

aflaquecerse, to get thin 159. 

afluir, to run into 168. 

afollar, to blow against, to 

breathe at 153. 
aforar, to enfeoff, to rent 153. 
agorar, to foretell 153. 
agradecer, to be grateful 159. 
aguerrir, to train in war 169. 
alborecer, to dawn 125, 159. 
alebrarse, to crouch 148. 
alentar, to breathe 148. 
aliquebrar, to break a wing 148. 
almorzar, to breakfast 153. 
amanecer, to dawn 125, 159. 
amoblar, to furnish 153. 
amolar, to grind, to sharpen 153. 
amortecer, to benumb 159, 192*. 
andar, to go, to walk 172. 
aneblar, to get foggy 125, 148. 
anochecer, to grow dark 125, 159. 
antedecir, to foresay 178. 
anteponer, to prefer, to place 

before 178. 
antojarse, to covet, to fancy 192. 
apacentar, to graze, to pasture 

aparecer, to appear 159. 
apetecer, to desire 159. 
aporcar, to cover with earth 153. 
aportar, to go ashore 153. 
apostar, to bet 153. 
apretar, to press together 148. 
aprobar, to approve 153. 
argüir, to argue 168. 
arrecirse, to become numb 192*. 
arrendar, to lease, to rent 148. 
arrepentirse, to repent 167 
ascender, to ascend 148. 
asentar, to set 148. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 


asentir J to consent 167. 
aserrar, to saw 148. 
asestar, to aim (hit) 148. 
ے8ir, to seize 172. 
asolar, to destroy, to desolate 

asoldar, to hire 158. 
asonar f to accord, to chime in 158. 
atañer, to appertain 164, 192. 
atender, to wait 148. 
atentar, to grope, to fumble 148. 
aterecerse, to grow stiff with cold 

159, 192*. 
aterrar, to fling down 148. 
atestar, to fill with 148. 
atraer, to attract 179. 
atravesar, to perforate, to bar, 

to block 148. 
atribuir, to attribute 168. 
atronar, to make a great noise 

avenirse, to agree 180. 
aventar, to fan, to kindle; —se, 

to run away 148. 
avergonzar, to shame 153. 
azolar, to work with the axe 153. 

Bendecir, to bless 173, 174. 
bienquerer, to esteem 178, 188. 
blanquecer, to blanch coin 153. 
bruñir, to polish 164. 
bullir, to bustle 164. 

Caber, to be contained (there 

is room for it in smthg.) 172. 
ca>er, to fall 173. 
calentar, to warm 148. 
carecer, to want, to lack 159. 
cegar, to blind, to dazzle 148. 
ceñir, to gird 163, 164. 
cerner, to bolt (meal) 148. 
cerrar, to shut 148. 
cimentar, to cement, to lay the 

foundation 148. ^ 

circuir, to surround 168. 
clarecer, to dawn 125, 159. 
clocar, to cluck 153. 
cocer, to cook 153, 156, 159*. 
colar, to filter, to bestow 153. 
colegir, to gather (infer) 163. 
colgar, to hang, to suspend 153. 

comedirse, to moderate oneself 

coinenzar, to begin 148. 

compadecer, to pity 159. 

comparecer, to appear 159. 

competir, to emulate 163. 

complacer, to please 159. 

compl^ñir, to take pity 164. 

componer, to compose 178, 187. 

comprobar, to prove 153. 

concebir, to conceive 163. 

concernir, to concern 167, 192***. 

concertar, to arrange; — ««, to 
concert 148. 

concluir, to finish 168. 

concordar, to accord, to agree 153. 

condescender, to condescend 148. 

condoler, to condole, to pity 158. 

conducir, to lead 160. 

conferir, to confer 167. 

confesar, to confess 148. 

confluir, to meet (of rivers) 168. 

conmover, to touch, to stir 153. 

conocer, to know 159. 

conseguir, to succeed 163. 

consentir, to consent 167. 

consolar, to console 153. 

consonar, to accord 153. 

constituir, to constitute 168. 

constreñir, to constrain 163, 164. 

construir, to build 168. 

contar, to count, to tell 153. 

contender, to fight 148. 

contener, to contain 35. 

contorcer, to distort 153. 

contradecir, to contradict 173. 

contraer, to contract, to incur 

confra/iacer, to counterfeit 177. 

contraponer, to compare (op- 
pose) 178. 

contravenir, to transgress 
(violate) 180. 

contribuir, to contribute 168. 

controvertir, to quarrel 167. 

convalecer, to be convalescent 

convenir, to agree 180. [159. 

convertir, to convert 167. 

corregir, to correct 163. 

corroer, to corrode 193. 

costar, to cost 153. 

crecer, to grow 159. 

cubrir, to cover 187. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 


Dar, to give 173. 

decaer^ to decay 173. 

decentar^ to cut 148. 

decir, to tell 173. 

decrecer^ to diminish 159. 

deducir, to deduct 160. 

defender, to defend 148. 

deferir, to defer 167. 

degollar, to behead 153. 

demoler, to demolish, to destroy 

demostrar, to prove 153. 

denegar, to deny 148. 

denostar, to offend, to injure 153. 

dentar, to indent, to cut teeth 

deponer, to depose 178, 187. 

derrenegar, to detest 148. 

derrengar, to lame 148. 

derretir, to melt 163. 

derrocar, to fling down, to render 
downcast 153 

derruir, to demolish 168. 

desacertar, to cheat 148. 

desacordar, to disagree, to put 
out of tune 153. 

desaforar, to deprive of a right 

desalentar, to discourage 148. 

desamoblar, to unfurnish 153. 

desandar, to go back the same 
road 172. 

desaparecer, to disappear 159. 

desapretar, to loosen 148. 

desaprobar, to disapprove 153. 

desarrendar, to unbridle 148. 

desasir, to let go 172. 

desasosegar, to trouble 153. 

desatender, to disregard 148. 

desatentar, to disconcert 148. 

desavenir (se), to disagree 180. 

descabullirse, to sneak off 164. 

descender, to descend 148. 

desceñir, to ungird 163, 164. 

descolgar, to take down 153. 

descollar, to overtop 153. 

descomedirse, to behave unman- 
nerly 163. 

desconcertar, to disconcert 153. 

desconocer, not to know 159. 

desconsolar, to render disconso- 
late 153. 

descontar, to discount 153. 
desconvenir(se), to disagree 

descornar, to break off horns 153. 
desdar, to untwist a rope 17S. 
desdecir, to countermand 173. 
desembravecer, to tame 159. 
desembrutecer, to lose one's 

roughness 159. 
desempedrar, to unpave (a street^ 

etc.) 148. 
desencerrar, to free, to set at 

liberty 148. 
desencordar, to unstring 153. 
desengrosar, to diminish (thin) 153. 
desenmohecer, to free from rust 

desentenderse, to feign ignorance 

desenterrar, to unbury, to dig 

out 148. 
desenvolver, to unroll 153, 187. 
deservir, to be disobliging 163. 
desfallecer, to faint 159. 
desflocar, to unravel 153. 
deshacer, to undo 177. 
deshelar, to thaw 125^ 148. 
desherrar, to unfetter, to take 

off a horse-shoe 148. 
desleír, to dissolve 163. 
deslucir, to tarnish 159. 
des^nembrar, to dismember 148. 
desmentir, to give the lie, to 

deny 167. 
desmerecer, to demerit 159. 
desnevar, to thaw 125, 148. 
desobedecer, to disobey 159. 
desobstruir, to clear away 168. 
desoír, not to listen to (disobey) 

desolar, to desolate (devastate) 

desoldar, to unsolder 153. 
desollar, to flay, to strip off 153. 
desosar, to take the bone out 

(of meat) 153. 
desovar, to lay eggs, to spawn 

desparecer, to disappear 159. 
despedir, to discharge (a servant) 

despedirse, to take leave, to say 

goodbye 163. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 


despernar^ to cut off a leg, to 

lame a leg 148. 
despertar, to awake 148, 189. 
desplacer, to displease 159, 193. 
desplegar J to unfold 148, 150^. 
despoblar, to depopulate 153. 
desteñir, to lose colour 163, 164. 
desterrar, to banish 148. 
destituir, to deprive, to dismiss 

destrocar, to break off a bargain 

destruir, to destroy 168. 
desvanecer, to vanish 159. 
desvergonzarse, to behave in a 

shameless manner 153. 
€let€ner, to stop 35. 
^etmer, to detract 179. 
devolver, to give back 153, 187. 
dezmar^ to pay tithe 148. 
diferir, to defer 167. 
digerir, to digest 167. 
diluir, to dissolve 168. 
discerner, to discern 148. 
discernir, to distinguish 167. 
disconvenir y to disagree 180. 
discordar y to be discordant 153. 
disentir, to dissent 167. 
disminuir^ to diminish 168. 
disolver, to dissolve 153, 187. 
disonar, to be dissonant 153. 
dispertar, to awake 148, 189. 
disponer, to dispose 178, 187. 
distender, to distend 148. 
distraer, to distract, to amuse 

distribuir, to distribute 168. 
divertir, to divert, to amuse 167. 
doler, to ache, to give pain 153. 
dormir, to sleep 176. 


Elegir, to select 163. 
embebecer, to astonish 159. 
embellecer y to embellish 159. 
embestir, to attack 163. 
embravecer, to become furious 159. 
enibrtctecer, to become brutal 159. 
emendar (enmendar), to correct, 

to mend 148. 
emparentar, to be related by 

marriage 148. 
empedrar, to pave 148. 
Spanish Cony.-Giammar. 

empequeñecer, to lessen 159. 
empezar, to begin 148. 
empobrecer, to become poor 159. 
emporcar, to soil 153. 
enaltecer, to elevate, to praise 159. 
enardecer, to inflame 159. 
encalvecer, to grow bald 159. • 
encandecer, to heat to a white 

heat 159. 
encanecer, to become grey 159. 
encarecer, to render dear 159. 
encender, to light, to set on fire 

encensar, to perfume 148. 
encerrar, to imprison, to shut in 

enclocar, to fish; to cluck 153. 
encoclar see enclocar, 
encomendar, to recommend 148. 
encontrar, to encounter, to meet 

encorar, to cover with leather 1 53. 
encordar, to string, to chord 153. 
encovar, to put in the cellar 153, 
encruelecerse, to become cruel 

enctibertar, to cover 148. 
endentar, to join with amortise 

endentecer, to cut the teeth 159. 
endurecer, to harden 159. 
enflaquecer, to get thin 159. 
enfurecerse, to get enraged 159. 
engrandecer, to enlarge 159. 
engreir, to intrude 163. 
engrosar, to become stout 153. 
engullir, to gobble 164. 
enhambrentar, to starve 148. 
enhestar, to raise, to put upright 

enloquecer, to madden 159. 
enmendar, to mend, to reform 148. 
ennegrecer, to blacken 159. 
ennoblecer, to make noble 159. 
enorgullecer, to make proud 159. 
enriquecer, to enrich 159. 
enrodar, to break upon or under 

the wheel 153. 
enrojecer, to redden 159. 
enronquecer, to become hoarse 

ensalmorar, to mingle with salt 


Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Alphabetical List of the Irregular V^erba. 

ensangrentar, to stain with blood 

ensoberbecer y to make proud 159. 
ensoñar, to dream 153. 
ensordecery to deafeu, to become 

deaf 159. 
entallecer, to sprout 159. 
entender, to understand 148. 
entenebrecerse, to grow dark 125, 
enternecer, to soften 159. [159. 
enterrar, to inter, to bury 148. 
entontecer, to grow foolish 159. 
entorpecer, to benumb, to stupefy, 

to hinder 159. 
entortar, to render tortuous 153. 
entredecir, to interdict 173. 
entregerir, to intermix 167. 
entrelucir, to glimmer 159. 
entremorir, to die away gra- 
dually 177. 
entreoir, to hear indistinctly 

entreparecerse, to be transparent 

entrepernar, to put one's legs 

between someone^s as in sitting 

entreponer, to interpose 178. 
entretener, to delay, amuse 35. 
entrever, to have a glimpse 180. 
entristecer, to sadden 159. 
entumecerse, to inflame 159. 
envanecer, to make vain 159. 
envejecer, to get old 159. 
enverdecer, to grow green 159. 
envestir, (pbsol^ to invest 163. 
envilecer, to degrade 159. 
envolver, to wrap up, to envelop, 

to involve 153, 187. 
equivaler, to be equivalent 179. 
erguir, to erect, to raise up 

haughtily (pres. y ergo) 167. 
errar, to be mistaken, to wander 

(pres. yerro) 148. 
escabullirse, to disappear 164. 
escarmentar, to sharpen one's wit, 

to take warning 148. 
escarnecer, to scoff 159. 
esclarecer, to lighten 125, 159. 
escocer, to smart 153. 
escribir, to write 187. 
esforzar, to encourage 153. 
establecer, to establish 159. 

estar, to be 43. 
estatuir, to establish (enact) 168. 
estercar, to manure 148. 
estregar, to rub 148. 
estremecer, to shake 159. 
estreñir, to obstruct, to constipate 

163, 164. 
excluir, to exclude 168. 
expedir, to forward 163, 189. 
exponer, to expose, to explain 

178, 187. 
extender, to stretch out 148, 189. 
extraer, to extract 179. 
extremecer, to tremble 159. 


Fallecer, to die 159. 
favorecer, to favour 159. 
florecer, to bloom, to flourish 159. 
fluir, to flow 168. 
foliar, to blow with the bellows 

fortalecer, to fortify 159. 
forzar, to force, to compel 153. 
fregar, to rub, to wash up 148. 
freir, to fry 167, 189. 


Gañir, to howl 164. 
gemir, to lament 163. 
gobernar, to govern 148. 
gruir, to crank 168. 
gruñir, to grunt, to grumble 164. 
guañir, to grunt 164. 
guarecerse, to shelter 159. 
guarnecer, to garnish, trim 159. 

Haber, to have 32. 
ha^^r, to do 177. 
heder, to stink 148. 
helar, to freeze 125, 148. 
henchir, to fill 163, 164. 
hender, to split 148. 
heñir, to knead 163, 164. 
herir, to wound 167. 
herrar, to shoe a horse 148. 
hervir, to boil, to seethe 167. 
holgar, to repose 153. 
hollar, to tread upon, to trample 

on 153. 
huir, to flee 168. 
humedecer, to moisten 159. 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 


Imbuir f to imbue 168. 
impedir, to prevent 163. 
imponer J to impose, to deposit 

178, 187. 
imprimir^ to print 187. 
improbar, to disapprove 153. 
incensarj to incense, to perfume 

incluir y to include, to enclose 168. 
incoar, to begin 192. 
indi^aner, to make ill dis- 
posed 178, 187. 
inducir, to induce 160. 
inferir, to follow infer 167. 
infernar, to vex, to make angry 

influir, to influence 168. 
ingerir, to intrude, to inject, to 

insert, to graft 167. 
inquirir, to inquire 148. 
inscribir, to inscribe 187. 
inseguir, to follow 163. 
instituir, to institute 168. 
instruir, to instruct, to teach 168. 
interdecir, to interdict 173. 
interponer, to interpose 178, 

intervenir, to intervene, to 

mediate 180. 
introducir, to introduce 160. 
invernar, to spend the winter 148. 
invertir, to turn round 167. 
investir, to invest 163. 
ir, to go 177. 

Jimenzar, to ripple flax 148. 
jugar, to play 148. 


Languidecer, to languish 159. 
liquefacer, to liquefy 177. 
loar, to praise 193. 
lobreguecer, to grow or make 

dark 125, 159. 
lucir, to shine 159. 
hiir, to free from taxes 168. 


Llover, to rain 125, 153. 

Maldecir, to curse 173, 174. 
malherir, to wound badly 167. 

malquerer, to dislike, to hate 

malsonar, to offend (one's ears) 

maltraer, to treat ill 179. 
mancornar^ to tie by the horns 

manifestar, to manifest 148. 
mantener, to maintain, to keep 

medir, to measure 163. 
melar, to make honey 148. 
mentar, to mention 148. 
mentir, to lie 167. 
merecer, to merit, to deserve 159. 
merendar, to take one's afternoon 

collation 148. 
moblar, to furnish 153. 
mohecer, to mould 159. 
moler, to grind 153. 
morder, to bite 153. 
morir, to die 177, 187. 
mostrar, to show 153. 
mover, to move 153. 
muir, to milk 168. 
mullir, to beat up, to soften 164. 
muñir, to call to a meeting 164. 

Nacer, to be born 159. 
negar, to deny 148. 
negrecer, to blacken 159. 
nevar, to snow 125, 148. 


Obedecer, to obey 159. 
obscurecer, to darken, to grow 

dark 125, 159. 
obstruir, to obstruct 168. 
obtener, to obtain, get 35. 
ofrecer, to offer 159. 
oir, to hear 173. 
oler, to smell (pres. huelo etc., 

olemos etc.) 153. 
oscurecer, to darken, to grow 

dark 125, 153. 


Facer, to pasture 159, 193. 
padecer, to suffer 159. 
'palidecer, to become pale 159. 
jparecer, to seem 159. 
pedir, to ask for, to order 163. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 

pensar, to think 148. 
perder f to lose 148. 
perecer, to perish 159. 
permanecer, to remaio 169. 
pemiqu^rarj to break (the) legs 

pergtttrtr, to search for 148. 
perseguir, to persecute 163. 
pertenecer^ to belong 159. 
pervertir J to pervert 167. 
pesar, to repent, to weigh 193. 
pimpollecer, to bud 159. 
placer, to please 159, 193. 
plañir, to lament 164. 
plastecer, to size 159. 
plegar, to fold 148. 
poblar, to populate 153. 
poder, to be able, can 177. 
podrir, to rot 178. 
poner, to put, to place 178, 187. 
posponer, to postpone 178, 187. 
predecir, to predict 173. 
predisponer, to predispose 178, 

preferir, to prefer 167. 
premarir, to die before another 

177, 187. 
presentir, to forebode 167. 
presuponer, to presuppose 178, 

prevaler, to prevail 179. 
prevalecer, to prevail 159. 
prevenir, to warn, to order 180. 
prever, to foresee 180. 
probar, to prove, to try 153. 
producir, to produce 160. 
proferir, to proffer 167. 
promover, to promote 153. 
proponer, to propose 178, 187. 
proscribir, to proscribe 187. 
proseguir, to continue 163. 
prostituir, to prostitute 168. 
pudrir, to rot 178. 


Quebrar, to break 148. 
qiierer, to like, want, will, wish 

Baer, to scrape, to grate 193. 
rarefacer, to rarify 177. 
readvertir, to warn again 167. 
reaparecer, to reappear 159. 

reblandecer, to soften 159. 

rebullir, to stir 164. 

recasr, to fall back, to relapse 

recalentar, to warm again 148. 
recentar, to leaven 148. 
receñir, to gird tight 163, 164. 
recluir, to seclade 168. 
recocer, to boil again 153, 156. 
recolar, to strain a second time 

recomendar, to recommend 148. 
recomponer, to mend again 178, 

reconducir, to renew a lease 

reconocer, to recognise 159. 
reconstituir, to re-establish 168. 
reconstruir, to rebuild 168. 
recontar, to count again 153. 
reconvalecer, to be convalescent 

reconvenir, to recriminate 180. 
recordar, to remind, to awake; 

— «e, to recollect 153. 
recostarse, to lie down on one 

side 153. 
recrudecer, to increase severely 

(an illness, etc.) 159. 
redargüir, to retort 168. 
reducir, to reduce 160. 
reelegir, to re-elect 163. 
referir, to refer 167. 
reflorecer, to blossom again 159. 
refluir, to flow back 168. 
reforzar, to reinforce 153. 
refregar, to rub hard 148. 
refreir, to fry well 163. 
regañir, to howl again 164. 
regar, to water 14§. 
rcigftmcniar, to organise 148. 
regir, to govern 163. 
regoldar, to eruct 153. 
regruñir, to grunt again 164. 
rehcuier, to do anew 177. 
rehenchir, to fill up again 163, 

reherir, to wound a second time 

reherrar, to shoe a second time 

rehervir, to boil again 167. 
rehollar, to tread upon 153. 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 


rehuir, to withdraw 168. 

rehumedecer, to moisten again 159. 

reir, to laugh 163. 

rejuvenecer, to grow young again 

relucir, to glitter 159. 

remendar^ to mend 148. 

remesar^ to pull out hair 148. 

remolar, to load dice 153. 

remoler, to grind 153. 

remover, to remove 153. 

remullir, to mollify 164. 

renacer^ to be born again, to 
regenerate 159. 

rendir, to render 163. 

renegar, to forswear 148. 

renovar, to renew 153. 

reñir, to fight, to scold 163, 164. 

reoir, to hear again 173. 

repacer, to graze up 159, 193. 

repadecer, to suffer extremely 159. 

repedir, to ask repeatedly 163. 

repensar, to think over 148. 

repetir, to repeat 163. 

replegar, to fold often, to fall 
back 148. 

repoblar, to repeople 153. 

repodrir, to rot excessively 178. 

reponer, to answer 178, 187. 

reprobar, to reprobate, to scold 

reproducir, to reproduce 160. 

repudrir, to rot excessively 178. 

requebrar, to break into little 
pieces, to flirt 148. 

requerer, to love intensely 178. 

requerir, to request 167. 

resaber, to know very well 179. 

resdlir, to jut out 179. 

rescontrar, to balance an (ac- 
count), to compare 153. 

resegar, to reap again 148. 

resembrar, to resow 148. 

resentirse, to resent 167. 

resollar, to breathe, to fan 153. 

resolver, to resolve 153, 187. 

resonar, to resound 153. 

resplandecer, to shine 159. 

resquebrar, to begin to break 148. 

restablecer, to re-establish 159. 

restituir, to restore 168. 

restregar, to rub, to scrub 148. 

restriñir, to bind 164. 

retallecer, to sprout again 159. 
retener, to retain 35. 
retemblar, to tremble again 148. 
retentar, to threaten with a new 

fit (of illness, etc.) 148. 
reteñir, to dye again 163, 164. 
retoñecer, to shoot again 159. 
retorcer, to twist, etc. (pres. 

retuerzo) 153. 
retostar, to toast again, to toast 

brown 153. 
retraer, to retract 179. 
retribuir, to reward 168. 
retronar, to thunder again 153. 
retrotraer, to bring back (past 

facts, etc.) 179. 
revejecer, to get prematurely old 

revenir, to come back 180. 
reventar, to burst 148. 
rever, to see again 180. 
reverdecer, to grow green again, 

to regain vigour 159. 
reverter, to pour 148. 
revestir, to clothe anew 163. 
revolar, to fly, to flee again 153. 
revolcarse, to welter, to roll, to 

wallow 153. 
revolver, to stir, to disarrange 

153, 187. 
robustecer, to invigorate 159. 
rodar, to roll 153. 
roer, to nibble 193. 
rogar, to beg 153. 

Saber, to know 179. 
salir, to go out 179. 
salpimentar, to season with salt 

and pepper 148. 
salpullir, to break out in pimples 

sarpullir^ see salpullir, 
sarmentar, to gather cut-off 

vine-shoots 148. 
satisfacer, to satisfy 177. 
seducir, to seduce 160. 
segar, to cut, to mow 148. 
seguir, to follow 163. 
sembrar, to sow 148. 
sementar, to sow 148. 
sentar, to put ; — se, to sit down 


Digitized by VaOOQlC 


Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs. 

sentir, to feel 167. 
ser, to be 40. 
serrar, to saw 148. 
servir, to serve 163. 
sobrecrecer, to outgrow 159. 
sobreentender, to understand 

something not actually ex- 
pressed 148. 
sobreponer, to exalt 178, 187. 
sobresembrar, to sow over again 

sobresolar, to pave anew 153. 
sobresalir, to surpass, to 

excel 179. 
sobrevenir, to happen 180. 
sobreventar, to gain the weather 

gauge of another ship 148. 
sobreverterse, to overflow 148. 
sobrevestir, to put on 163. 
sofreír, to fry slightly 163. 
solar, to sole 153. 
soldar, to solder 153. 
soler, to use 153. 
sollar, to blow (with bellows) 153. 
soltar, to loosen 153, 187. 
solver, to loosen 187. 
somover, to remove (earth) 153. 
sonar, to sound; — 5C, to blow 

one's nose 153. 
sonreír, to smile 163. 
soñar, to dream 153. 
sonrodarse, to stick in the mud 

(a carriage) 153. 
sorregar, to water in another 

direction 148. 
sosegar, to tranquilize 148. 
sostener, to hold, maintain, keep 

soterrar, to bury 148. 
subarrender, to sub-let 148. 
subentender, to understand what 

is tacitly meant 148. 
subseguir, to immediately follow 

substituir (sustituir^tto substitute 

substraer, to substract, to steal 

subtender, to subtend 148. 
subvenir, to provide 108. 
subvertir, to subvert 167. 
sugerir, to suggest 167. 
superponer 178, 187. 

supervenir 180. 
suponer 178, 187. 
sustituir see substituir 168. 
sustraer see substraer 179. 


Tallecer, to shoot, sprout 159. 
tañer, to play 164. 
temblar, to tremble 148. 
tender, to tend, to extend 148. 
tener, to hold, to have 35. 
tentar, to touch, to try 148. 
teñir, to dye 163, 164. 
torcer, to turn, to wring (pres. 

tuerzo) 153, 191. 
tostar, to toast 153. 
traducir, to translate 160. 
traer, to bring 179. 
transcender, to transcend, to 

transpire 148. 
transferir, to transfer 167. 
transfregar, to rub 148. 
translucir, to be transparent, to 

conjecture 159. 
transponer, to transpose, to 

set (of the sun) 178, 187. 
trascender, to mount over, to pass 

trascolar, to strain 153. 
trascordarse, to forget 153. 
trasegar, to pour over, to trans- 
fuse 148. 
trasferir, to transfer 167. 
trasfregar see transfregar 159. 
traslucirse, to shine through 159. 
trusoir, to misunderstand 173. 
trasoñar, to form a visionary 

scheme, to dream 153. 
trasponer see transponer 178, 

trastrocar, to invert the order 

of things 153. 
trasverter, to overflow 148. 
trasvolar, to fly across 153. 
trocar, to exchange 153. 
tronar, to thunder 153. 
tropezar, to stumble 148. 
tullir, to cripple 164. 
tumefacerse, to swell 177, 192*. 

Valer, to be worth 179. 
venir, to come 180. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs, 407 

ventar, to get wind of 148. Y. 

ver, to see 180, 187. Yacer, to lie 193. 

verdecer, to grow green 159. ytiactaponer, to put close by 

verter f to shed 148. 178, 187. 

vestir, to clothe 163. 

volar, to fly 153. Z. 

volcar, to upset (a carriage); Zabullir, to plunge 164. 

—se, to wallow, to welter 153. zaherir, to scold 167. 

volver, to turn back, to do once zambullir see zabullir 164. 

more 153, 187. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




á, at, in; to, for. 

— orinas, at the side (brink, 
border, edge, etc.). 

aborrecer f to abhor, to detest; 
pag. 161. ' 

abrigo^ n?., coat. 

abuelo, grandfather. 

acabar, to finish, to terminate. 

acasOy perhaps. 

aceite, m., oil. 

aceituna, f. olive. 

aceptar, to accept. 

acertar, to succeed in^ to guess ; 
page 148. 

acomodarse á, to conform one- 
self to ... . 

actor, tn.y actor. 

acusar, to accuse. 

adivinar, to guess. 

admirable, admirable, wonder- 

adornar, to adorn. 

afable, kind, friendly. 

afamado, -a, famous. 

afligir, to afflict; page 92, 4. 

agradar, to please. 

agradecido, -a, thankful, grate- 

ahora, now. 

al, contr. for á el, to the. 

— rededor, round, round about. 
alabar, to praise. 

alcanzar, to obtain, to get, page 

92, 3. 
aldea, f, village. 
alegre, merry. 

alentar, to encourage; page 149. 

alfonso (d), the alphonse (a gold 
coin) = 25 pesetas = 20 sh. 

algo, something. 

alma, (el), f, the soul. 

almacén, m., shop (store). 

almendra, f., almond. 

alto, -a, high. 

ama, (he, she) loves. 

amable, amiable. 

amado, loved. 

aman, (they) love. 

América, f, America, 

amigo, m., friend. 

amistad, f., friendship. 

amo, master. 

ancho, -a, broad, large. 

andar, to walk, to have inter- 
course with, to associate with; 
page 172. 

— con cuidado, to take care. 
ánimo, m., courage. 
anunciar, to announce, to im- 

año, m., year. 

apartarse, to stand away, to 
keep back. 

apenas, scarcely. 

apreciar, to appreciate, to es- 

aprender, to learn. 

apuesta, f., wager. 

apuro, m., want, necessity. 

aqui, here. 

— está, here is. 

— están, here are. 
árbol, m., tree. 
arquitectura, /"., architecture. 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 



arrabal, iw., suburb. 
arriesgar, to be at stake, to risk^ 

page 91, 2. 
asegurar, to assure. 
asesinar, to murder. 
asuntOj m., object, matter. 
atreverse, to dare. 
ausencia, f,, absence. 
Austria^ Austria. 
aulor, author. 
ave, (él)y f,, bird. 
avergonzar(se), to be ashamed, 

p¿. 92, 5; 154. 
ayer, yesterday. 
azúcar, m., sugar. 


laile, m., ball. 

bajo, a, low. 

balcón, m., balcony. 

barato, -a, cheap. 

barco, m., ship. 

barquero, tn., boatman. 

bebe, drinks. 

bd>edero, m., the trough, bird's 

bien, well, all right. 

— (el), the good. 
bienes (los), Üie fortune. 
billete de banco, m., bank note. 
bolsa, f., purse, the Exchange. 
bolsillo, m., pocket, purse. 
bondad, f,, the goodness. 
borrasca, f., thunderstorm. 
bota, f,, boot, cask. 

buey, m., (pi. bueyes) ox. 
Burdeos, Bordeaux. 
buscar, to seek, to look for, to 
search; page 91, 1, 


cabal juicio, él, the good sense. 

caballero, gentleman, Mr., Sir. 

caballo, m., horse. 

cadena, f., chain. 

café, «I., coffee, coffee-house. 

cojdj /•, hox. 

— de cerillas (de fósforos), f,, 
box of matches. 

— de cigarros, f., cigar-box. 
cajetilla de cigarrillos, f, packet 

of cigarettes. 
calor, m,, heat. 

collar, to be silent. 

calle, /I, street. 

camino, m., road, way. 

— real, m., (or carretera, f,) 

campestre, rural. 

campo, m., camp. 

canción, f., song. 

cansado, -a, tired. 

cansar, to tire; cansarse, to get 

capa, /"., the (Spanish) doak. 

capaz, capable. 

capital, f., the capital, metro- 

capital, m., the capital (money), 

capitán, captain. 

carga, f., burden, weight. 

carne, f., meat. 

carnicero, m., butcher. 

carpintero, joiner. 

carretera, f,, main-road. 

carta, f., letter. 

cartas, pL, playing-cards. 

ca^a, f., house. 

Casa Ayuntamiento, the Town- 

casado, -a, married. 

casi, almost. 

castillo, HI., castle. 

Cataluña, Catalonia. 

caudal, m., capital, fund. 

causa, f., cause. 

célebre, famous, renowned. 

céntimo, m., centime. 

cercanias(las) , the neighbour- 

cerdo, m., pig. 

cerilla, f., match. 

cerveza, f., beer. 

cetro, m., sceptre. 

ciencia, f,, science. 

cierto, -a, certain. 

cigarro (coUoq. puro), m,, cigar. 

cigarrillo (coUoq. un pitillo), m,, 
a cigarette. 

cinco, five. 

circunstancia, f,, the circum- 

ciudad, f., town. 

cobre, m,, copper. 

colmado, -a, filled. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



coloTy m., coloar. 

comenzar, to begin; pp. 92, 3\ 

corner^ to eat. 

comerciante, m., merchant 

comida, /*., dinner, food. 

compañero, m., companion. 

compañía, f., company. 

comprado, bought. 

comprar, to buy. 

comprender, to understand. 

como, as, as well as. 

cómo, how. 

¿cómo? y how? 

con, with. 

conceder, to allow, to concede. 

concierto, m., concert. 

conciudadano, m., citizen. 

concluir, to conclude, to finish ; 
page 168. 

conoce V., you know; page 159. 

conocer, to know; page 159. 

conocido, m., acquaintance. 

conozco, I know; page 159. 

conquistar, to conquer. 

consejo, m., advice. 

conservar, to preserve. 

constante, constant. 

continuar, to continue. 

contar, to count, to number, 
to tell (a story, etc.) ; page 153. 

contorno, m., outskirts; circum- 

coronar, to crown. 

corre, runs. 

corregir, to correct, to mend, 
pp. 92, 4; 163. 

correo, m., post, mail. 

corrompen, they corrupt, they 

cosa, f,, thing. 

costa, f., coast. 

costumbre, /*., custom, habit, man- 

creer, to believe, to think. 

criado, m,, footman, servant. 

Criador (él), Creator (the). 

criatura, /*., creature. 

crió (3rd s. def.), (he) created. 

cruz, f., cross. 

cuadro, m., picture. 

cuantioso, -a, considerable. 

cuarto, m., room. 

cuatro, four. 

cuchillo, m., knife. 

cuenta, f., account. 

cuerdo, -a, reasonable, prudent. 

cuero, m., leather. 

cuidar, to care. 

cumplimiento, m., compliment^s). 

chimenea, f., fireplace. 


dar, to give; page 173. 

dado, given. 

de, of, from; by. 

— paso, for the time being, ac- 

dehe, he (she) owes, must. 

debemos, we must. 

deber, to owe, must. 

decir, to tell; pp. 173, 187. 

dedicado, -a, dedicated. 

defecto, m., fault. 

degradar, to degrade. 

delicioso, -a, delicious. 

demás, other. 

demasiado, too, too much. 

déme V., give me; page 173. 

derrotar, to put to flight, to rout 
(an array). 

descansar, to repose. 

desconfiar, to distrust. [187. 

descubierto, -a, discovered; page 

descuido, m., negligence. 

desdichado, {el) unhappy man 

desear, to wish, to desire. 

deseo, m., wish, desire. 

desgracia, f., misfortune. 

desordenado, -a, disorderly. 

despacho, m., counting-house, 

destinado, -a, destined. 

deudor, m., debtor. 

di, tell (thou); pag. 173. 

diario, m., newspaper. 

dicha, f,, fortune. 

dicho, said p.p.; pp. 173, 187. 

dichoso, happy. 

diente, m., tooth; pi. dientes. 

diferencia, f., difíerence. 

difunto (el), the dead (man), the 
late . . . 

digno, -a, worthy. 

diligencia, f., diligence. 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 



diligente, diligent. 

dinero^ w., money. [173. 

dio (3rd sing, def.), gave; page 

DÍ08, God. 

dirigir, to direct; page 92, 4. 

discípulo, m., pupil, scholar. 

divertirse, to amuse oneself; 

page 167. 
doce, twelve. 
dócily obedient. 
Don, Mr. 
Doña, Mrs., Miss. 
dormir, to sleep; page 176. 
dos, two. 

dttdar, to hesitate. 
dudar de, to doubt about. 
dueño, master. 
dulce, sweet. 

duque, duke; f., duquesa, 
duro, m., dollar (=5 pesetas 

= 4 shillings). 


edad, /"., age. 

edificio, m., building, edifice. 

educación, /*., education. 

el, m., the. 

él, he. 

elección, f., choice, election. 

elevar, to elevate. 

ella, she. 

ellas, they, /". 

ellos, they, w. 

S, } '0»' *^«y »^«- 

fZZos tienen, they have, iw. 
eWas tienen, they have, /*. 
embajador, m., ambassador. 
embustero, m., liar, hypocrite, 
cheat. [148. 

empezar, to begin; pp. 92, 5; 
en, in. 

— casa de, in, at the house of. 

— medio, in the middle, amidst. 
encumbrar, to raise. 
enfadado, -a, cross. 
engañarse, to be mistaken. 
enojarse, to become angry. 
Enrique, Henry. 

enseñar, to teach, to show. 
entre, between, amongst. 
entregar, to deliver, to give. 
enviado, sent. 

eres, thou art; page 40. 
error, m., fault, mistake, 
es, he (she, it) is; page 40. 

— is; page 40. 

— excusado, it is superflous. 

— preciso, it is necessary, one 
must; we (te, le) es preciso, 
I (he, we, etc.) must 

escoba, f., broom. 
escoger, to choose; page 92, 4. 
escribir, to write i ^„„^ 107 
escrito, written / P^^^ ^^^- 
escritorio, m., counting-house, 

espacio m., space. 
España, f,, Spain. 
espejo, m., looking-glass. 
esperar, to expect, to wait for. 
está, is; page 43. 
— , he (she, it) is; page 43. 
estación, /*. , season; (railway) 

estado, m., state, condition. 
estáis, you are; page 43 
estamos, we are; page 43, 
estampa, f , engraving. 
están, are, they are; page 43. 
estanco, m., tabacconist-shop. 
estar, to be, page 43. 

— enterado, to be acquainted. 
estás, thou art; page 43. 
estimada, -a, esteemed. 
estoy, I am; page 43. 
estrecho, -a, narrow. 
estudia, studies. 

estudiar, to study. 
estudios (los); (the) studies. 
Exposición (la), (the) Exhibition. 
extranjero (el), \ ^^^ foreigner 
extranjera (la), ( ^ 

extranjero (el), the foreign coun- 
try; al extranjero, abroad. 


falta, f., fault. 
falleció, he (she) died. 
familia, /*., family. 
famoso, -sa, famous. 
farol^ m., (street) lamp ; lantern. 
favor, m., favour, kindness, ser- 
favorable, favourable. 
fecha (la), the date. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



felieidcuí, f., happiness. 

feo, -o, ugly. 

feroz, ferodooB, wild. 

firmar, to sign. 

firmeza, f., the firmness. 

flor, f, flower. 

florero, m., flower-pot 

floreciente, flourishing; page 159. 

flotar, to float. 

fluctúan, they fluctoate. 

fortuna, /., fortnne. 

fósforo, m,, match. 

fruta, f,, fruit 

fueron, were (3rd pers. plur.); 

pp. 40, 177. 
fuerza, f, force, strength. 
fumar, to smoke. 
fusil, n^., gun. 


gana fla), a mind (to do some- 
thing); the appetite. 

ganar, to earn, to gain, to win. 

gastar, to spoil, to spend, to 

género, m., the kind, species. 

generoso, -a, generous. 

gente, f., sing., (the) people. 

girar, to turn round. 

gloria, f,, glory. 

glorioso, illustrious. 

gozo, m., pleasure. 

grande, great. 

guante, m,, glove. 

Guillermo, William. 


ha, he (she, it) has. 

habéis, you have. 

haber, to have (auxil.); page 32. 

hábil, able, clever. 

habla, he (she) speaks. 

hablan, they speak. 

hablo, I speak. 

hace, makes, does; page 177. 

hacer, to make, do; page 177. 

—■frio (calor), to be cold (warm). 

hacienda, f, fortune, estate. 

hallado, found. 

hallar, to find. 

hambre (el), f, (the) hunger. 

han, they have; page 32. 


hay, there is, there are; 

34, 5. 
has, thou hast; page 32. 
hazaña, f, heroic deed. 
he, (I) have; page 82. 
hecho, done, made; page 177. 
hembra, female. 
hemos, we have; page 32. 
heredero, heir. 

herido, -a, wounded; page 167. 
hermano, brother. 
hermoso, beautiful. 
hierro, m., iron. 
holgazán, m., idler. 
honradez, f., honesty, decency. 
honrado, -a, honoured; honest. 
hora, f, hoar. 
hoy, to-day. 
huerto, m.. orchard. 
huir, to flee, to fly; page 168. 


iglesia, f., church. 

ignorancúi, f, ignorance. 

ignorar, not to be aware. 

ilusión, f, illusion. 

impaciencia, f., impatience. 

imperio, m., empire. 

incomodar, to molest, incom- 

incomodarse, to take pains, to 
trouble oneself. 

incuria, f., carelessness. 

influencia, f., inflijo, m., in- 

Inglaterra, f,, England. 

injuria, /"., offence. 

inventor, in., inventor. 

invierno, m., winter. 

invitar, to invite. 

ir, to go; page 177. 

, (to come to see, to 

- ^ ^^' / call, to visit 
isla, /*., island, isle. 


jabón, m., soap. 

jardín, m., garden. 

jaula, f, cage. 

jefe, m., chief. 

joven, m,, young man, youth- 

— adj., young. 

juego, m., game (French jeu)^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



jueZy m,y judge. 

jugar (á los naipes or á las 

cartas) y to play (cards); page 

junto, -a, together. 
Júpiter^ Jupiter. 
jusio, -a, just. 


Jcüógramo, m,, kilogramme. 

lacayo, footman. 

ladrón, m., thief, robber. 

lamentar, to lament. 

lámina, f,, engraving, picture. 

lana^ f,, wool. 

lápiz, m., pencil. 

lastimoso, -a, sorry, sad. 

legua, /*., league. 

lejos, far. 

leña, f., (fire) wood. 

levantarse, to get up. 

libertad, f., liberty, freedom. 

li^ra, f,, pound. 

libro, m., book. 

limón, m., lemon, citron. 

Undo, lovely, sweet. 

lino, m., flax, linen. 

lisonjear, to flatter. 

literato, literary man. 

locamente, in a foolish way. 

logrado, got, obtained. 

lograr, to obtain, to earn, to 

gain, to win. 
luego, adv., soon. 
— que, as soon as. 
lugar, m., village. 
lujo, m., luxury, magnificence. 
luna, /"., moon. 


llama, calls. 

llamado, called. 

llegar, to arrive; page 91, <2. 

llenar, to fill, to comply with 

(a wish). 
Ueva, wears (said of garments). 
llevar, to carry, to wear. 


madera, /"., wood. 
madre, mother. 

maestro, master. 
majestuoso, -a, majestic. 
maltratar, to ill-treat. 
manera, f., manner. 
mantenimiento, m,, the mainte- 
nance, livelihood. 
mantiene, maintains; page 35. 
mañana, to-morrow. 
marcha, /"., march. 
nujLS, but. 
más, more. 

matar, to kill, slaughter. 
materia, f., matter. 
me, me, to me. 

— falta I want 
médico, m., physician. 
medio, -a, half. 
mediodía, m., noon. 
memoria, f., (a) report (the) 

memoir, memory. 
menos, less. 

mercancía, f,, merchandise. 
Mercurio, Mercury. 
mes, m., month. 
mesa, f., table. 
meter, to put. 
mi, my. 

miedo, m., fear. 
ministro, minister. 
mirar, to look at. 
mire V., look! (3rd sing. Imper.) 
modestia, f., modesty. 
morir, to die; page 177. 
motivo, in., reason, motive. 
muchacho, m,, boy. 
mincho, -a, much. 

— tiempo ha, it is a good while. 
mudar, to change. 

muerte, f., death. 

muerto, died (p.p.), dead; page 

íwt*€síra, shows, proves; page 153. 
mundo, w., world. 
muy, very. 

— de mañana, very early (early 
in the morning). 

nación, f., nation. 
naipes, m., cards (playing). 
Ñapóles, Naples. 
naranja, f., orange. 
natural, native, born in. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



navegación, ^., navigation. 

necesidad, f., necessity. 

necesito, I want. 

negociante, w., merchant. 

negocio, m., business. 

niño, m., child, boy. 

no, no, not. 

— tener ningún inconveniente, 

to have no objection. 
nombre, m., name. 
nosotros, m., nosotras, /"., we. 
nosotros (-as) somos, we are. 
nosotros (-as) tenemos, we have. 
noticia, f., news. 
numeroso, -a, numerous. 


obispo, bishop. 

obra, f., work. 

obrar, to work. 

obrero, m., workman. 

ofender, to oflfend. 

oficial, m., officer. 

oler, to smell; page 156. 

olor, w., the smell. 

olvidar, to forget. 

onza, f, ounce. 

orador, m,, orator. 

orden, m,, order (succession). 

orden, f., order, command. 

ordenar, to order. 

orgidlo, m., pride. 

otro, -a, another (see Less. 18). 


paciencia, f., patience. 

padecer, to suffer; page 159. 

padecido, suffered. 

padre, father. 

padres, m. pi, collect, parents. 

pagado, paid. 

pais, m., country, land. 

pájaro, m., bird. 

palacio, m., palace. 

pan, m., bread; un —, a loaf. 

paño, w., cloth. 

pañuelo, m., handkerchief, 

papel, m., paper. 

parecer, to seem; page 159. 

pariente, m., relation. 

partir, to leave (for), to set out. 

pasa, spends (time). 

paseo, m., the public walk, pro 

paz, f.y peace. 

pedir, to ask, to demand; page 

pegar, to beat; page 91, 2. 

pensar, to think; page 148. 

pérdida, f,, loss. 

perdió, he (she) lost; page 148. 

perdona, pardons. 

perdonar, to pardon. 

periódico (or diario), m., the news- 

peinicioso, dangerous. 

pequeño, little, small, short. 

pero, but. 

perro, m., dog. 

perseguir, to persecute ; pp. 91, 
^; 163. 

pesado, -a, heavy. 

peseta (una), = 4 reals or 9^8 d» 

piadoso, -a, pious, charitable. 

piedra, f., stone. 

piensa, thinks; page 148. 

pintor, m., painter. 

plata, f., silver. 

plaza, f., square. 

pluma, f., pen. 

pobreza, f,, poverty. 

poco, -a, a little. 

podemos, we can; page 177. 

poder, to be able, can ; page 177. 

poder, m., power, might. 

poético, -a, poetical. 

por, by, through. 

— desgracia, unfortunately. 

¿por qué . . .? why? 

porque, because. 

portero, m., porter. 

potencia, f., power. 

precio, m., price. 

precioso, -a, precious. 

preguntar por, to ask for. 

preliminares {los), (the) preli- 

premiar, to reward. 

presumir dc . . ., to overrate. 

prima, f., cousin. 

primavera, f., the Spring. 

primo, m., cousin. 

primorosamente, first-rate, very 

principe, m., prince. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



produce^ produces; page 160. 

producir^ to produce, cause; 
page 160. 

promesa, f., promise. 

prometer, to promise. 

pronto, quick, swift, prompt. 

propio -a, proper. 

prosperidad^ f., happiness, pros- 

protector, protector. 

provincia, f., province. 

próocima, -a, near, next. 

prudencia, /*., prudence. 

prudente, reasonable, prudent. 

prudentemente, prudently. 

pudor, m., shame. 

pueblo, m,, the people. 

puente, m., bridge. 

puerta, f., door. 

puesto, w., place, situation. 

puro, m., cigar. 

qtie, than; that; to. 

¿ qué ? what? 

quejarse, to complain. 

querer, to wish, like, love; page 

quería, loved, wished; page 178. 

quien, s., quienes, pi., who. 

¿quién? s., ¿quiénes? pi., who? 

quiere, he (she) likes; page 178. 

quieren, (they) like; page 178. 

quieres, thou wilt, page 178. 

quiero, I want, I will ; page 178. 


raro, -a, rare, seldom. 

rajíón, f., reason. 

real, m., a real (= 25 cent. = 

2^4 pence). 
recibido, received. [148. 

recomendar, to recommend ; page 
recompensar, to reward. 
región, f,, region, country. 
reina, queen. 
reino, m,, kingdom. 
rejilla, /"., grating. 
reloj, m., watch, clock. 
reluce, shines; page 159. 
remedio, m., remedy. 
repasad, repeat (2nd plur. Im- 

retirar, to draw (or go) back, 


revolución, /"., revolution. 

rey, king. 

rico, rich. 

rio, m., river. 

riqueza, f., (the) riches, wealth. 


saber, to know; page 179; 321, í 5. 

sabido, learned. 

sabiduria, f., wisdom. 

sabroso, -a, savoury, delicious. 

sabio, -bia, wise. 

sacar, to take out, pull out; 
pag. 91, 1. 

Saturno, Saturne. 

se, one, one'self, himself, her- 
self, itself, yourself, them- 

— juega, one plays, they play, 

— llama, is named. 

— lleva, is worn. 
sed, f., thirst. 
seda, f., silk. 

seguridad, /"., safety, security. 
semana, f., week. 
sencillez, f., simplicity. 
sentarse, to sit down ; page 148. 
señas (las), the address. 
Señor, gentleman, Mr., Sir. 
Señora, lady, Mrs., Madam. 
señora, f., (a) lady. 
Señorita, Miss. 
ser, to be; page 40. 

— deudor, to be indebted, to 

— muy solicitado , to be in 
(great) demand. 

serio, -a, serious. 

severo, severe, strict. 

si, if. 

si, yes; indeed. 

siempre, always. 

siga, subj. pres. of seguir, to 

follow; pp. 91, 2; 163. 
siglo, m., century. 
silla, f,, chair. 
sincero, -a, sincere. 
situación, f., situation. 
soberbio, -a, proud. 
sois, you (ye) are; page 40. 
sombrero, m,, hat. 
son, are; pp. 40. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



sonorOy -a, sonorous. 

soportar, to bear. 

sostener, to maintain, to sustain; 

page 35. 
soy» 1 am; page 40. 
su, his, her, its, their. 
su . . . de usted, your . . . 
suave, soft, lovely. 
subdito, HI., subject; 
sucedió, succeeded, followed. 
sueño, «n., the sleep, dream. 
suerte, f., fate. 
sufrido, suffered. 
sujeto, adj,, subject. 
sus, his, her, its, their. 

tabaco, m,, tobacco. 
tarde, late. 

— (la), (the) afternoon, evening. 
té, thee, to thee. 

té, m,, tea. 
tenter, to fear. 
temor y m., fear. 

tener, to have (hold), possess; 
page 85. 

— (or no tener) hambre, to be 
(or not to be) hungry. 

— (or no tener) inconveniente, 
to have any (or to have no) 

— (or no tener) razón, to be 
{or not to be) right 

— (or no tener) sed, to be (or 
not to be) thirsty. 

ternero, m., calf. 

tia, aunt. 

tienda, f., shop. 

tiene, he (she, it) has; page 35. 

tienes, thou hast; page 35. 

tierra, f,, earth. 

tinta, f., ink. 

tintero, w., inkstand. 

tio, uncle. 

tocar, to touch; page 91, Í. 

todavía, yet; no . . . todavía 

(or todavía no), not yet. 
íoáo, -a, all, whole, 
íoáo cZ, toda la, the whole, 
íoáos, -as, all (plural), 
¿orno, wi., volume. [gent. 

trabajador, -a, laborious, dili- 
trabajar, to work. 

trabajo, m., labour, work. 
tratar, to treat. 

— con, to deal with, to treat 
ires, three. 

trigo, m, corn. 


único, -a, sole, only. 
u«¿cíí, you (polite form). 
ustedes (pi.), you. 


valentía, f., valour, bravery. 
valiente, brave, gallant. 
valor, m., bravery, valour. 
valle, m., valley. 
vano, -a, vain. 
vara, f., the (Spanish) yard. 
varón, male. 
vasallo, w., vassal. 
€C, sees; page 180. 
vecindad, f., neighbourhood. 
vecino, m., neighbour; inhabi- 
vela, f., sail. 
velar, to watch. 
vencedor, m., conqueror, 
vencer, to conquer; page 92, B. 
venir, to come; page 180. 

— bien, to fit. 

— á las manos, to come to 

— á ver, to come to see, to call, 
to visit. 

ventana, f., window. 

ventanillo, m., grating. 

Venus, Venus. 

ver (irr.), to see; page 180. * 

verano, m., summer. 

vergonzoso, -a, shameful. 

vestido, m., dress. 

vestir, to clothe, to dress; page 

viajar, to travel. 
viaje, m., journey. 
viajero, m., traveller. 
vicio, m., vice. 

vida, f., life. [man. 

viejo, vieja, old ; un — , an old 
Viena, Vienna. 
viene, comes; page 180. 
vienen, they come; page 180. 
vienes, thou comest. 
vino (el), (the) wine. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

English-Spanish . 


vino, he (she, it) came (fr. venir). 

virtud, /"., virtue. 

visto, seen; pp. 180, 187. 

viuda, widow. 

viudo, widower. 

vive, lives. 

víveres, m. pi., victuals. 

vivir, to live, to dwell. 

vivo, lively. 

volámen, m., volume, circum- 
ference, extent. 

voluntad, f., will, wish. 

volver, to return, come back; 
pp. 153, 187. 

vosotros, -OS, you (pi., non polite 

vosotros (-as) tenéis, you have. 

voy, I go; page 177. 

vudve, returns, comes back; 

pp. 153, 187. 
vuelto, p. p. volver; pp. 153, 



y, and. 

yo, I. 

— tengo, I have. 


zapatero, m., shoemaker. 
zapato, m., shoe. 



abhor (to), aborrecer, page 161. 

abhorred, aborrecido. 

able, hábil. 

abroad, al extranjero. 

absence, la ausencia, 

accept (to), aceptar. 

account, la cuenta. 

accuse (to), acusar, 

acquaintance, el conocido. 

actor, actor. 

actually, de paso. 

address (the), las señas. 

admirable, admirable. 

adorn (to), adornar. 

advice, el consejo. 

afflict (to), afligir, page 92, 4. 

afternoon, la tarde. 

age, la edad. 

all, todo, toda; pi. todos, todas. 

allow (to), conceder. 

almond, la almendra. 

almost, casi. 

alphonse (the), el alfonso = 25 

pesetas = 20 sh. 
always, siempre. 
ambassador, el embajador. 
America, América. 
amiable, amable. 
amidst, en medio. 

Spanish Conv.-Orammar. 

amongst, entre. 

amuse oneself (to), divertirse, 

page 167. 
and, y (sometimes é, see Con- 

announce (to), anunciar. 
another, otro, otra. 
appetite, el apetito, la gana. 
appreciate (to), apreciar. 
architecture, la arquitectura. 
are; son; están; we—, somos, 

estamos; you — , sois, estáis; 

see pp. 40, 43. 
army, el ejército. 
arrive (to), llegar. 

arrival Í ^^^ arribo) 
arrival, ^ ^^ ¡Ugada. 

art (thou), eres, page 40. 
as, como. 

— well as, como, asi como. 

— soon as, luego que. 
ask (to), pedir, page 163. 

— for (to), preguntar por. 
ass, el asno. 

associate with (to), andar con, 

page 172. 
assure (to), asegurar. 
at, á. 

— the side (brink, border, edge), 
á orillas. 

attention, la atención. 


Digitized by VaOOQlC 



aunt, tía. 
author, el autor. 


balcony, el halcón. 

baU, el haile. 

banknote, d biUete de banco. 

be (to), ser, page 40. 

— able (to), poder, page 177. 

— acquainted (to), estar enterado. 

— ashamed (to), avergongarse, 
pp. 92, 3; 154. 

— at stake (to), arriesgar, page 
91, 2. 

— aware (to), saber, pag. 179; 
not to — aware, ignorar. 

— cold (warm), to; hacer frío 

— (not to — ) hungry, or thirsty, 
to; tener (or no tener) hambre 
ó sed. 

— in great demand, ser muj^ soli- 

— indebted, ser deudor. 

— mistaken, equivocarse, en- 

— necessary, ser necesario. 

— right (to), tener razón. 

— silent (to), callar. 

— wrong (to), no tener razón. 

— (to), estar, page 43. 
bear (to), soportar. 

beat (to), pegar, page 91, ^. 

beautiful, hermoso, -sa. 

because, porque. 

become angry (to), enojarse. 

beef, la (carne de) vaca. 

beer, la cerveza. 

beggar, él mendigo. 

begin (to), comenzar, empezar; 

pp. 92, 3; 148. 
behaviour, la conducta. 
believe (to), creer. 
bet, la apuesta. 
between, entre. 
bill of exchange, la letra de 

bird, el ave (f.), el pájaro. 
— 's trough, él bebedero. 
bishop, obispo. 
blow, el golpe. 

blunt, embotado, -da, or boto, -ta. 
boatman, barquero. 

book, el libro. 
boot, la bota. 
Bordeaux, Burdeos. 
born in, natural de. 
bought, comprado. 
box, la caja, see cigar-box. 
— of matches, la caja de ceri- 
llas (or de fósforos). 
boy, el ftttio, el muchacho. 
brave, valiente. 
bravery, la valentía, el wilor. 
bread, el pan. 
broad, ancho^ ancha. 
bridge, el puente. 
broom, la escoba. 
brother, hermano. 
building, el edificio. 
burden, la carga. 
business, el negocio. 
but, pero, mas. 
butcher, el carnicero. 
buy (to), comprar. 
by, de, por. 

cage, la jaula. 

calf, el ternero, la ternera. 

cali (to), llamar. 

— on (to), ir á ver, venir á ver. 
came, vino {fromvenir, page 180). 
camp, él campo. 

can, poder, page 177. 

capable, capaz. 

capital, la capital (metropolis); 

el capital (money), 
capital (fund), el caudal. 
captain, capitán. 
cards (playing — ), los naipes, 

las cartas. 
care (to), cuidar. 
carelessness, la incuria. 
carry (to), llevar. 
cask, la bota. 
castle, el castillo. 
Catalonia, Cataluña. 
cause, la causa. 

— (to), causar; producir, page 

centime, el céntimo. 
century, el siglo. 
certain, cierto, cierta. 
chain, la cadena. 
chair, la silla. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



change (to), mudar. 

charitable, piadoso^ sa, 

chase, la caza. 

cheap, barato, barata. 

cheat, el embustero. 

chief, el jefe. 

child, el niño, 

choice, la elección. 

choose (to), escoger, page 92, 4. 

church, la iglesia. 

cigar, el cigarro, (coll.) el puro. 

— box, la caja de cigarros, 
cigarette, el cigarrillo (colloq. el 

circumference, el contorno, la 

circumstance, la circunstancia. 
citizen, el conciudadano. 
citron, el limón. 
clever, hábil, listo, lista, 
cloak (the Spanish — ), la capa, 
clock, el reloj. 
cloth, el paño. 

clothe (to), vestir (se), page 163. 
coast, la costa, 
coat, the, el abrigo. 
coffee, d café. 

— house, el café, 
colour, el color. 

come (to), venir, page 180. 

— back (to), volver, pp. 153, 

— to blows (to), venir á las 

— to see (to), ir (or venir) á ver. 
command, la orden. 

— (to), mandar, ordenar, 
companion, el compañero. 
company, la compañía. 
complain (to), quejarse. 
compliments, los cumplimientos, 
comply with (a wish) (to), llenar, 
concede (to), conceder. 
concert, el concierto. 
conclude (to), concluir, page 168. 
condition, la condición, el estado. 
conform oneself to (to), aco- 
modarse á, 

conquer (to), conquistar; veneer, 
page 92, 3. 

conqueror, el vencedor. 

considerable, considerable, cuan- 

constant, constante, 

continue (to), continuar. 

cook (f), la cocinera, 

copper, el cobre. 

corn, el trigo, 

correct (to), corregir, pp. 92, 
4; 163. 

corrupt (to), corromper. 

count (to), contar, page 153. 

counting-house, el despacho, es- 

country, el pais, 

courage, el ánimo. 

cousin, primo (m.), prima (f.). 

cow, la vaca, 

create (to), crear, criar. 

Creator (the), el Criador, 

creature, la criatura, 

cross, enfadado, -da. 

cross, la cruz. 

crown (to), coronar. 

custom, la costumbre. 


dangerous, pernicioso, -sa. 

dare (to), atreverse, 

date, la fecha. 

dead, p.p., muerto, page 187. 

dead (man, woman), the, el 
muerto, la muerta; el difunto, 
la difunta. 

deal with (to), tratar con. 

death, la muerte. 

debtor, el deudor, 

decency, la decencia, honradez. 

dedicate (to), dedicar, 

dedicated, dedicado. 

deed (heroic — ), la hazaña. 

degrade (to), degradar. 

delicious, delicioso, -sa; sabro- 
so, -sa. 

deliver (to), entregar, page 91, 2, 

demand (to), pedir, page 163. 

descend (to), bajar. 

desire, el deseo. 

•— (to), desear. 

despicable, despreciable. 

destined, destinado, -da. 

detest (to), aborrecer, page 161. 

detested, aborrecido. 

die (to), morir, pp. 177, 187; 
fallecer, pag. 159. 

difference, la diferencia. 

Digitized by ^ 




diligence, la diligencia. 
diligent, diligente ^ trabajador, 

dine (to), comer. 
dinner, la comida. 
direct (to), dirigir, page 92, é. 
discover (to), descubrir, page 187. 

— ed, descubierto, -ta. 
disorderly, desordenad, -da. 
distribute (to), distribuir, page 

distrust (to), desconfiar. 
do (to), hacer, page 177. 
dog, el perro. 
dollar, (un) duro [= 5 pesetas, 

or 4 shillings], 
done, hecho (see hacer). 
donkey, el burro. 
door, la puerta. 
doubt (to), dudar. 

— about (to), dudar de. 
draw back (to), retirar(se), 
dream, el sueño. 

dress, el vestido. 

— (to), vestir(se), page 163. 
drink (to), beber. 

duke, duque (/., duquesa). 
dwell (to), vivir. 


ear, la oreja. 

earn (to), ganar, lograr. 

earth, la tierra. 

eat (to), comer. 

edifice, d edificio. 

education, la educación. 

election, la elección. 

elevate (to), elevar. 

empire, el imperio. 

encourage (to), alentar, page 148. 

England, Inglaterra. 

engraving, \ la estampa, 

(copperplate)/ la lámina. 
escape (to), escapar. 
estate, la hacienda. 
esteem (to), apreciar, estimar. 
«steemed, estimado, -da. 
ovening, la tarde. 
ewer, él cubo. 
Exchange, the, la Bolsa. 
Exhibition, la Exposición. 
expect (to), esperar. 
expense, el gasto, el desembolso. 

extent, el volumen. 
eye, el ojo. 

family, la familia. 

famous, famoso, -sa, afamado, 

-áa; célebre. 
far, lejos. 

farrier, el herrador. 
fate, la suerte, el hado. 
father, padre. 
fault, el error, la falta. 
favour, el favor. 
favourable, favorable. 
fear, el temor, el miedo. 

— (to), temer. 
feeble, débil. 
female, hembra. 
ferocious, feroz. 
fill (to), llenar. 

filled, colmado, da; lleno, -na. 

find (to), hallar. 

finish (to), acabar. 

fire-place, la chimenea. 

firmness, la firmeza. 

first rate, primorosamente. 

fit (to), venir bien. 

five, cinco. 

flatter (to), lisonjear. 

flax, el lino. 

flee (to), huir, pag. 168. 

float (to), flotar. 

flourishing, floreciente. 

flower, la flor. 

— pot, el florero. 
fluctuate (to), fluctuar. 

fly (to), huir, page 168. [163. 
follow (to), suceder; seguir, page 
food, la comida, el alimento. 
foot, el pié (pi. los pies). 
footman, el criado, el lacayo. 
for, por, para. 

— the time being, de paso. 
force, la fuerza. 

foreign country (the), el extran- 

foreigner, el extranjero, la ex- 

forget (to), olvidar. 

fortune, la dicha.^ la fortuna, la 
hacienda, los bienes. 

found, hallado. 

four, cuatro. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



freedom, la libertad. 
friend, amigOy amiga. 
friendly, amable, afable. 
friendship, la amistad. 
frivolity, la ligereza. 
from, de. 
fruit, la fruta. 
fulfil (to), cumplir^ con. 
fund, el caudal. 
furious, enfurecido. 


gain (to), ganar, lograr. 
gallant, valiente. 
gallon, el galón, el cubo. 
game, el juego. 
garden, eljardin. 
gave, dio, page 173. 
generous, generoso. 
gentleman, caballero, señor. 
get (to), alcanzar, peg. 92, 3. 

— tired (to), cansarse. 

— up (to), levantarse. 

give (to), dar, pag. 173; entregar. 

given, dado. 

glass, el vaso. 

glory, la gloria. 

glove, el guante. 

go (to), ir, page 177. 

— back (to), retirarfse). 
God, Dios. 

good, bueno, na. 
good sense, el cabal juicio. 
goodness, la bondad. 
got, logrado. 
grand-father, abuelo. 

— -mother, abuela. 
grateful, agradecido. 
grating, la rejilla, el ventanillo. 
great, grande. 

guess (to), acertar, page 148; 

gun, el fusil. 


habit, el hábito, la costumbre. 
hair, el cabello, el pelo. 
half, medio, -dia. 
hand, la mano. 
handkerchief, el pañuelo. 
happiness, la felicidad, la di- 
cha, la prosperidad. 
happy, dichoso, -sa. 

hat, el sombrero. 
have (to), haber (auxil. p. 32); 
tener, p. 35; poseer. 

— intercourse with (to), andar 
(con), page 172. 

— no objection (to), no tener 
ningún inconveniente. 

head, la cabeza. 
heavy, pesado, -da. 
he, él. 

— is, (él) es. 
heat, el calor. 
heir, heredero. 
Henry, Enrique. 
her, su, sus. 
here, aquí. 

— is, aqui está. 

— are, aquí están. 
herself, se. 
hesitate (to), dudar. 
high, alto, alta. 
himself, se. 

his, su, sus. 
honest, honrado, -da. 
honesty, la honradez, decencia. 
honoured, honrado, -da. 
horse, el caballo. 
hour, la hora. 
house, la casa. 
how, como. 
how?, ¿cómo? 
hunger, el hambre (f.). 
hungry [See to be — ]. 
hunting, la caza. 
hypocrite, el embustero, el hipó- 

I, yo. 

idler, el holgazán. 
if, si. 

ignorance, la ignorancia. 
ill, adj., enfermo, -ma. 
ill-treat (to), maltratar. 
illusion, la ilusión. 
illustrious, glorioso, -sa. 
impart (to), anunciar. 
impatience, la impaciencia. 
in, en, á. 

— a foolish way, locamente. 

— the middle, en medio. 
incommode (to), incomodar, mo- 

indeed, si; ciertamente. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



infamoas, infame, 
inflaeDce, la influencia, el in- 
inhabitant, el vedno. 
ink, la tinta. 

— stand, el tintero. 
intention, la intención. 
inventor, el inventor. 
invite (to), invitar, convidar. 
iron, él hierro. 

i8, e«, page 40. 

— , estay page 43. 

— mistaken, se engaña, se 

— named, se Hama. 

— worn, se lleva. 
island, (una) isla. 
isle, la isla (de). 
it, 7o, la. 

— is, es, lo es. 

a good while, mucho tiem- 
po há. 

cold, hace frió. 

necessary, es preciso. 

its, su, sus. 
itself, se. 

joiner, le carpintero. 
journey, el viaje. 
judge, el juez. 
just, justo, 'ta. 


keep (to), guardar; cumplir con. 

— back (to), apartarse. 
kilogramme, el kilogramo. 
kill (to), matar. 

kind, el género. 

kind, amable, afable. 

kindness, el favor, la bondad. 

king, rey. 

kingdom, el reino, 

knife, el cuchillo. 

know (things) to, saber, page 179. 

— (persons), to, conocer, page 

knowledge, d conocimiento. 


labour, el trabajo. 
laborious, trabajador, -dora. 
lament (to), lamentar. 

ten, } «' f-rol. 

land, eUpais, el terreno, la tierra. 

large, ancho, ancha. 

late, adv., tarde. 

— (the), el difunto, la difunta. 
league, la legua. 

learn (to), aprender. 

learned, sabido. 

leather, el cuero. 

leave for (to), partir (or salir) 

lemon, el limón, 
less, menos. 
letter, la carta. 
levity, la ligereza, 
liar, el embustero, el mentiroso, 
liberty, la libertad. 
lie, la mentira. 
life, la vida. 

like (to), querer, pp. 148, 178. 
likewise, también, igualmente. 
line, el lino. 
literary man, el literato. 
little, pequeño, -ña. 

— (a), poco, poca. 
live (to), vivir. 
lively, vivo; lindo. 
livelihood, el mantenimiento. 
look at (to), mirar. 

— for (to), buscar, page 91, 1. 
looking-glass, el espejo. 

loose (to), perder, page 148. 

loss, la pérdida. 

love (to), amar; querer, pp. 148, 

loved, amado. 
low, bajo, baja, 
luxury, el lujo, 


Madam, Señora. 

made, hecho (see hacer). 

magnificence, el lujo. 

mail, el correo. 

main-road, el camino real, la 

maintain (to), sostener, mantener, 

pag. 85. 
maintenance, el mantenimiento, 
majestic, majestuoso, -sa. 
male, varón. 
manner, la costumbre, la manera^ 

Digitized by vaOOQlC 



march, la marcha. 

— carefully (to), andar con cui- 

married, casado, -da. 
master, el dtieño, el amo. 

— (teacher), maestro. 
match, la certUa, el fósforo, 
matter, el asuntOy la materia. 
me, to — ; me. 

meat, la came. 

memoir, \ , 

memorj^, / ^ ^^mona. 

mend (to), corregir y pp. 92, 4; 

merchandise, la mercancía. 

merchant, el comerciante, el ne- 

merry, alegre. 

might, el poder. 

mind (to do something), a, la 

minister, el ministro. 

misfortune, la desgracia. 

Miss, señorita, doña. 

mistake, la falta^ el error. 

modesty, la modestia, 

molest (to), incomodar, molestar. 

money, el dinero. 

month, el mes. 

moon, la luna. 

more, má^. 

— than, más que^ (with nume- 
rals and sentences) más de» 

mother, madre. 
motive, él motivo, la razón. 
mouth, la boca. 
movement, el ejercicio. 
Mr., Señor, don. 
Mrs., Señora, doña. 
much, mucho; mucho, -cha. 
murder (to), asesinar. 
must, ser preciso, deber. 
mutton, el carnero. 
my, mi. 


name, el nombre. 
narrow, estrecho, -cha. 
nation, la nación. 
native, natural. 
navigation, la navegación. 
near, próximo, -ma. 
— , adv., cerca. 

necessity, la necesidad, el apuro. 
negligence, el descuido. 
neighbour, el vecino. 
— hood, las cercanías, la vecindad. 
news, la noticia. 

— paper, el diario, el periódico. 
next, próximo, -ma. 

no, no. 

noise, el ruido. 
noon, (el) mediodía. 
nose, la nariz. 
not, no. 

— yet, no . . . todavía, or to- 
davía no. 

now, ahora. 

noxious, dañoso, nocivo. 
number (to), contar, page 153. 
numerous, numeroso, -sa. 


obedient, obediente, dócil. 

object, el asunto. 

obtain (to)^ obtener, page 35; 

lograr', alanzar, page 92, 3. 
obtained, logrado, obtenido. 
of, de. 

oflfence, la injuria, la ofensa. 
offend (to), ofender. 
office, el despacho, la oficina, 

el escritorio. 
officer, el official. 
oil, el aceite. 
old, viejo, vieja. 
olive, la aceituna. 
one (impers.), se. 

— must, es preciso. 
oneself, se. 

only, único, única. 

— (adv.), únicamente. 
opportunity, la ocasión. 

or, ó (sometimes ú; see Coii- 

orange, la naranja. 
orator, el orador. 
orchard, el huerto. 
order, el orden (succession). 
— , la orden (^command>. 

— (to), mandar, ordenar. 
other, otro, otra. 
other(s), the, lo(s) demás. 
ounce, la onza. 
outskirts, el contomo. 
overrate (to), presumir de. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



owe (to), deber, ser deudor, ser 

ox, el buey (pl. los bueyes). 

packet of cigarettes, la cajetilla 

de cigariUos. 
paid, pagado. 
pains, el trabajo, 
painter, el pintor. 
palace, el palacio. 
paper, el papel. 
pardon (to), perdonar. 
parents, los padres. 
patience, la paciencia. 
pay (to), pagar, page 91, 2. 

— a visit (to), ir á ver, venir 
á ver. 

payment, el pago, salario. 

peace, la paz. 

pen, la pluma. 

pencil, el lápiz. 

people^ la gente (eiug.\ el pueblo. 

perhaps, acaso, taUvez, quizá. 

persecute (to), perseguir, pp. 

91, 2; 163. 
peseta, la peseta = 100 cents, 

or 9Vs d. 
physician, él médico. 
picture, él cuadro. 
pig, el cerdo. 
pious, piadoso, -sa. 
pipe, la pipa. 
pitiful, piadoso, 'Sa. 
place, el lugar; el puesto. 
play (to), jugar, page 91, ;^; 158. 

— cards (to), jugar á las cartas 
(or á los naipes). 

please (to), agradar. 

pleasure, el gozo placer. 

pocket, él bolsillo. 

poetical, poético, poética. 

policeman, el municipal. 

poor,. pobre. 

porter, portero. 

position, la posición. 

post, él correo. 

pound, la libra. 

poverty, la pob eza. 

power, el poder; la potencia. 

praise (to), alabar. 

precious, precioso, -sa. 

preliminaries, los preliminares. 

preserve (to), conservar. 
price, el precio. 
pride, él orgullo. 
prince, él principe. 
produce (to), producir ^ page 160. 
projectile, él proyectil. 
promenade, el paseo. 
promise, la promesa. 

— (to), prometer. 
prompt, pronto. 
proper, propio, -a. 
property, la propiedad. 
prosperity, la prosperidad. 
protector, el protector. 
proud, soberbio, -bia. 
proof, la prueba. 

— (to), mostrar, probar, page 153. 
province, la provincia. 
prudence, la prudencia. 
prudent, prudente, cuerdo. 
prudently, prudentemente. 

pull out (to), sacar, page 91, 1. 
punishment, él castigo. 
pupil, el discípulo. 
purse, la b(^a, el bolsillo. 
put (to), meter: poner, pp. 178, 

— to flight (to), derrotar. 

quarrel (to), reñir, page 163, 164 

note; regañar. 
queen, reina. 
quickly, ligero, deprisa; pronto. 


raise (to), encumbrar. 

rampart, la valla. 

rare, raro, rara. 

read (to), leer. 

reason, la razón, él motive. 

reasonable, razonable, cuerdo, 

receive (to), recibir. 
received, recibido. 
recommend (to), recomendar, 

page 148. 
region, la región. 
relation (a), el pariente. 
remedy, d remedio. 
renowned, famoso, -sa; célebre. 
repeat (to), repasar; repetir, page 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



report, la memoria. 
repose (to), reposar, descansar. 
respectable, respetable, honrado. 
retire (to), retirar (se). 
return (to), volver, pp. 153, 187. 
revolution, la revoltmón. 
reward (to), premiar, recom- 
rich, rico, rica. 
riches, laCs) riquezafs). 
risk (to), arriesgar, page 91, 2. 
river, el rio. 
road, el camino. 
robber, el ladrón. 
room, el cuarto. 

-"ab¿ut, } «^ re^euor. 
rout (an army) (to), derrotar. 
run (to), correr. 
rural, campestre, rural. 

sad, lastimoso, triste. 
safety, la seguridad. 
sage, sabio, sabia. 
said, dicho, pp. 173, 187. 
sail, la vela. 
savoury, sabroso, -sa. 
say (to), decir, page 173, 187. 
scarcely, apenas. 
sceptre, el cetro. 
scholar, el discípulo. 
science, la cienda. 
scold (to), reñir, page 163, 164 

note; regañar. 
sea, el mar. 

search (to), buscar, page 91, 1. 
season, la estación. 
security, la seguridad. 
see (to), ver, page 180. 
seem (to), parecer, page 159. 
seen, visto (fr. ver), pp. 180, 187. 
seldom, raro, raramente. 
send (to), enviar. 
sent, enviado. 
serious, serio, seria. 
servant, la criada; (man) — , el 

service, el favor, el servicio. 
set out (to), partir. 
severe, severo, -ra. 
shame, el pudor; la vergüenza. 
shameful, vergonzoso, -sa. 

she, ella. 

— is, (ella) es. 

shine (to), relucir, page 159. 
ship, el barco, el buque. 
shoe, el zapato. 

shop, la tienda, (store) el al- 
short, pequeño, -ña; corto, -ta. 
show (to), mostrar, page 153. 
sick, adj. enfermo, -ma. 
sign (to), firmar. 
silk, la seda. 
silver, la plata. 
simplicity, la sencillez. 
sincere, sincero, -ra. 
Sir, caballero. 

sit down (to), sentarse, page 148. 
situation, la situación, el puesto. 
slaughter (to), matar. 
sleep, el sueño. 
— - (to), dormir, page 177. 
slowly, lentamente, despacio. 
small, pequeño, -ña. 
smell, el olor. 

— (to), oler, pag. 156. 
smoke (to), fumar. 
soap, el jabón. 

soft, suave. 

sole, único, única. 

something, algo. 

song, la canción. 

sonorous, sonoro, -ra. 

soon, luego. 

sorry, lastimoso, triste. 

soul, el alma (f.). 

southern, meridional. 

space, el espacio. 

Spain, España. 

speak (to), hablar. 

species, el género, la especie. 

spend (to), gastar. 

— (time), (to), pasar el (tiempo). 
spoil (to), gastar, echar (se) á 

spring, la primavera. 
square, la plaza. 
stand away (to), apartarse. 
state, el estado. 
stomach, el estómago. 
stone, la piedra. 
store, el amacén, 
straw, la paja. 
street, la calle. 


Digitized by VaOOQlC 



streetlamp, d farol. 
streDgth, la fuerza, 
strict, severo, -ra; estricto, -ta, 
study, el estudio. 

— (to), estudiar. 

subject, el subdito; el sujeto. 
suburb, el arrabal. 
succeed (to), suceder. 

— in (to), acertar, page 148. 
suffer, sufrir, padecer, page 159. 
— ed, padecido, sufrido. 
sugar, el azúcar. 

summer, el verano. 
superfluous, excusado, supérfluo. 
superior (tbe), el jefe. 
sustain (to), sostener, mantener, 

page 35. 
sweet, dulce, (pretty) Undo. 
swift, pronto. 
sword, la espada. 


table, la mesa. 
taint (to), corromper, 
take (to), tomar. 

— care (to), tener cuidado, cui- 
dar (se). 

— out (to), sacar, page 91, J. 

— pains (to), incomodarse. 
tea, el té. 

terminate (to), terminar, acabar. 
tell (to), decir, pp. 173, 187. 

— me, dime, dígame V. 

tell (a story, etc.), (to), contar, 

page 153. 
than, que, (with numerals and 

sentences) de. 
thankful, agradecido. *• 

thanks, gracias. 
that (conj.), que. 

— (pron.), ese, esa, eso; aquel, 
aquella, aquéllo. 

the, el, la, los, las; — (m. sing.) 

— whole . . . todo el . . ., toda 
la . . . 

thee (to), te. 
their, su, sus. 
themselves, se. 
there, allí. 

— is, — are, hay. 

— was, — were, había. 
these, estos, estas. 

they, ellos (m.), ellas (f.). 

thief, el ladrón. 

thing, (una) cosa. 

think (to), pensar, page 148; 

thirst, la sed. 
thirsty [see to be—]. 
this, este, esta, esto. 
those, esos, esas; aquellos, 

three, tres. 

through, por; á través. 
thunderbolt, el trueno. 
thunderstorm, la tronada, la 

borrasca, la tempestad. 
tire (to), cansar. 
tired, cansado. 
to, ó, para; que. 
tobacco, el tabaco. 
tobacconist-shop, el estanco. 
to-day, hoy. 
together, junto, juntos. 
tomorrow, mañana. 
too, demasiado, además, también, 

— much, demasiado. 

tooth, el diente (pl. los dientes). 
touch (to), tocar, page 91, 1. 
town, la ciudad. 
Town hall (the), la Casa Ayun- 
traveller, el viajero. 
treat (to), tratar. 
tree, él árbol. 

trouble oneself (to), incomodarse. 
trough, el bebedero. 
turn round (to), girar. 
twelve, doce. 
two, dos. 

ugly, feo, fea. 
uncle, tío. 

understand (to), comprender. 
unfortunately, por desgracia. 
unhappy man (the), el desdichado. 


vain, vano, vatia. 

valley, el valle. 

valour, la valentía, el valor. 

vassal, el vasallo. 

very, muy. 

— early in the morning, mu¡/ 
de mañana. 


by Google 



very well, primorosamente. 

vice, el vicio. 

victuals, los víveres, 

village, la aldeas él lugar, 

virtue, la virtud, 

visit (to), visitar^ or ir (or venir) 

á ver. 
volume, el volumen^ el tomo. 


wager, la apuesta. 

wait for (to), esperar (á), 

walk, public — , él paseo, 

— (to), andar y page 172. 
want, el apuro, la necesidad, 

— (to), f altar, necesitar] I want, 
me falta, necesito, 

— (to), querer, pp. 148, 178. 
waste (to), gastar. 

watch, el reloj, 

— (to), velar. 
way, el camino. 

we, nosotros (m.), nosotras (f.). 
wealth, la riqueza. 
wear (to), llevar. 

weddinff / ^^ hoda. 

^' \ las nupcias, 
week, la semana. 
weight, la carga, el peso. 
what?, ¿qué? 
why?, ¿por qué? 
who, quien (sing.), quienes (pl.). 
who ?, ¿ quién ? (sing.), ¿ quiénes ? 

whole, todo, toda (see the — ). 
widow, -rer, viuda, viudo. 
wild, feroz, 

will (the), la voluntad, 
—, querer, pp. 148, 178. 
William, Guillermo. 
willingly, con mucho gusto. 

win (to), ganar, lograr, 
wind, él viento. 
window, la ventana, 
wine, el vino. 
winter, el invierno. 
wisdom, la sabiduría, 
wise, 8CLl)iOy 'hia. 
wish, el deseo^ la voluntad. 

— (to), desear, querer, pp. 148, 

with, con. 

— pleasure, con mucho gusto. 
wonderful, admirable, 

„^^A i ^(^ leña, 
^^^^> \ la madera. 
wool, la lana, 
word, la palabra, 
work, el trabajo, la obra, 

— (to), trabajar, obrar. 
workman, el obrero, el trabajador, 
world, él mundo, 

worthy, digno, digna. 
wounded, herido, page 167. 
write (to), escribir, page 187. 
written, escrito, page 187. 

yard (Spanish — ), la vara. 

year, el año, 

yes, si, 

yesterday, ayer. 

you (polite form), usted; (pl.) 

— (non-polite form.), tú; (pl.) 

vosotros, -as, 
young, joven. 
— man, el joven, 
your, su , , . de V. 
yourself, \ 
yourselves, / 
youth (young man), el joven. 

-*^:§— Ce^O— §3-0- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by VaOOQlC 


«^^ Educational Works and Glass-Books 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauek 


«With each newly-learnt language one wins a new soul.» Charles V. 

«At the end of the 19* century the world is ruled by the interest for 
trade and traffic; it breaks through the barriers which separate 
the peoples and ties up new relations between the nations.» 

William II. 

,yjuliu8 GfooBy Fuhlisher, has for the last fifty years been devoting his 
special attention to educational tvorlcs on modern languages, and has published 
a large number of class-booUs for the study of those modern languages most 
generally spoken. In this particular department he is in our opinion unsur- 
passed by any other German publisher. The series consists of_ 290 volumes 
of different sizes which are all arranged on the same system, as is easily 
seen by a glance at the grammars tvhich so closely resemble one another, 
that an acquaintance with one greatly facilitates the study of the others. 
This is no small advantage in these exacting times when the knowledge of 
one language alone is hardly deemed sufficient. 

The textbooks of the Gaspey - Otto "Sauer method have, within the 
last ten years, acquired an universal reputation, increasing in pro- 
portion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modern 
life. The chief advantages, by which they compare favorably with thousands 
of similar books, are Jmoness of price and good appearance, the happy union 
of theory and practice, the clear scientific basis of the grammar proper com- 
bined with practical conversational exercises, and the system, here 
conceived for the first time and consistently carried out, by which the pupil is 
really taught to speak and write the foreign language. 

The grammars are all divided into two parts, commencing with a 
systematic explanation of the rules for pronunciation, and are again sub- 
divided into a number of Lessons* Each Part treats of the Parts of Speech 
in succession, the first giving a rapid sketch of the fundamental rules, which 
are explained more fully in the second. 

The rules appear to us to be clearly given, they are explained by examples, 
and the exercises are quite sufficient. 

To this method is entirely due the enormous success unth which the 
Gaspey-OttO'-Sauer textbooks have met; most other grammars either 
content themselves toith giving the theoretical exposition of the grammatical 
forms and trouble the pupil with a confused mass of the most far-fetched 
irregularities and eacceptions withotit ever applying thetn, or go 
to the other extreme, and simply teoA^h him to repeat in a parrot- 
like manner a few colloquial phrases unthout letting him grasp the 
real genius of the foreign language. 

The system referred to is easily discoverable: 1. in the arrangement of 
the grammar: 2. in the endeavour to enable the pupu to understand a 
regular text as soon as possible, and above all to teach him to speak the 
foreign hinguage; this latter point toas considered by the authors so particu- 
larly characteristic of their toorks, that they have styled them — to distinguish 
them from other tvorlts of a similar kind — Conversational €h*ammars» 

digitized by VjOO^IC 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of Modern laogoages. 

The first series comprises manuals for the use of Englishmen and 
consists of 54 volumes. 

Our admiration for this rich collection of worUiSy for the method dis- 
played and the fertile genius of certain of the authors, is increorsed token we 
examine the other serieSf which are intended for the use of foreigners. 

In these works the chief difficulty under which several of the authors 
have laboured, has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign 
idiom; not to inention the peculiar difficulties which the German idiom offers 
in writing school-hooks for the study of that language. 

We must confess that for those persons ufho, from a pmcticaZ point 
of view, wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently well to enable them to 
twite and speak it with ease, the authors have set down the gram^natical 
rules in «wcA a way, that it is equally easy to understand and to learn them. 

Moreover, we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the type 
and binding of the bodies. It is doubtless on this account too that these 
volumes have been received mth so much favour and that several Imve rea^^ied 
such a large circulation. 

We willingly testify that the whole collection gives proof of much care 
and industry, both with regard to the aims it has in view and the ivay. in 
whdch these have been carried out, and, moreover, reflects great credit on the 
editor, this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its Mnd." 

. . . . Í. 
(Eoctract fronh the Literary Review.) 

All books bound. 

EpglishL Editions^ 

Elementary Modern Armenian Qrammar by Gnlian ... 

Arabic Grammar by Thatcher . . . . j . . 

Key to the Arabic Grammar by Thatcher 

Arabic Chrestomathy by Harder 

Danish CoDversation- Grammar by Thomas 

Key to the Danish Gonversatiou- Grammar by Thomas 

Dntelft Conversation-Grammar by Valette. 2. Ed 

Key to the Dutch Convers.-Grammar by Valette 

Dutch Reader by Valette. 2. Ed 

JB^renelft Conversation-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 13. Ed. . . net 

Key to the French Convers.-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 8. Ed 

Elementary French Grammar by Wright. 4. Ed 

French Reader by Onions 

Materials for French Prose Composition by Otto-Onions. 5. Ed. . . 

French Dialogues by Otto-Corkran 

Cl^erntan Conversation-Grammar by Otto. 29. Ed net 

Key to the Gkrman Convers.-Grammar by Otto. 21. Ed 

Elementary German Grammar by Otto. 9. Ed 

First German Book by Otto. 9. Ed 

German Reader. I. 8. Ed.; H. 5. Ed.; III. 2. Ed. by Otto . . each 
Materials for translating English into German by Otto- Wright. 7. Ed. 

Key to the Mater, f. tr. Engl. 1. Germ, by Otto. 8. Ed. 

German Dialogues by Otto. 5. Ed 

Accidence of the German language by Otto-Wright. 2. Ed. . . . 

Handbook of English and German Idioms by Lange 

German Verbs with their appropriate prepositions etc. by Tebbitt . 

Julius Oroos, London. Paris. Borne. St. Petersburgh. Heidelberg. 

1 05 
3 50 


3 50, 

2 \0\ 










Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the stady of modern laogaages. 

English Editions^ 

The Haussa language (Die Haussasprache ; la langue haoussa) by Seidel 

Hindustani Conversation -Grammar by Clair -Tisdall 

Key to the Hindustani Convers.- Grammar by Clair -Tisdall 

Italian Conversation-Grammar by Saner -de Arteaga. 9. Ed. net 

Key to the Italian €k)nvers.-6rammar by Saner -de Arteaga. 8. Ed 

Elementary Italian Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Italian Reader by Cattaneo. 2. Ed 

Italian Dialogues by Motti 

Japanese Conversation-Grammar by Plant 

Key to the Japanese Oony.-Grammar by Plant 

Modem Persian Conversation-Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall 
Key to the Mod. Persian Convers.-Grammar by St. Glair-TisdaU 

Portns^nese Conversation-Grammar bj Eordgien and Eunow 
Key to the Portuguese Clonvers.-Grainmar by Kordgien and Kanow . . . 

Unssian Conversation-Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Key to the Bnssian Conyers.-Grammar by Motti. 8. Bd 

Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 2. Ed 

Key to the Klementary Bnssian Grammar by Motti. 2. £d 

Russian Reader by Werkbaupt and Roller 

ISpanish Conversation-Grammar by Saner -de Arteaga. 7. Ed. net 
Key to the Spanish €k)nver8.-Grammar by Saner -de Arteaga. 6. £d. . . . 

Elementary Spanish Grammar by Favia. 2. Ed 

Spanish Reader by Arteaga 

Spanish Dialogues by Sauer-Corkran 

Elementary Swedish Grammar by Port. 2. Ed 

Turkish Conversation -Grammar by Hagopian 

Key to the Turkish Convers.-Grammar by Hagopian 

Ara.'bic Edition* 
Eleine deutsehe Sprachlehre for Araber von Hartmann .... 

Ai*meiiia>n Edition* 
Elementary ISnglish Grammar for Armenians by Gulian .... 

Bulgarian Editions, 

Eleine deutsehe Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky. 2. Aufl. 

Eleine en^^lisehe Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky . . 

Eleine firanzSsisehe Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky . 

Qeirman Editions, 

Arabisehe Eonversations-Grammatik v. Harder. 2. Aufl. . . . 

Schlüssel daza v. Harder. 8. Anfl 

Arabisehe Chrfestomathie v. Harder 

JBuIs^arische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Gawriysky .... 
Schlüssel dazu v. (Jawriysky 

Chinesisehe Eonversations-Grammatik v. Seidel 

Schlüssel daza v. Seidel ^ 

Eleine chinesische Sprachlehre v. Seidel 

Schlüssel daza v. Seidel 

Dftnische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Wied. 2. Aufl 

Schlüssel daza v. Wied. 2. Aufl 

Duala Sprachlehre und WSrterbuch v, Seidel . ojgtiz^dbyGop^lc. 

Jalias Oroos, London. Paris. Borne. 8t Peteribargh. Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey-OttoSauer 

for the stady of Modern langnages. 

Grei*ina.ii £2clitions« 


liiifflische Eonversationfi-Grammatik y. G^spey-Runge. 25. 

Schlossel daza v. Range 

Englisclies Eony^rsations-Lesebucli v. Gkwpey-Runge. 6. Aufl. . . 

Kleine englische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Runge. 7. Aufl 

Schlüssel dasa v. Bange 

Englische Gespr&olie v. Runge. 2. Aun 

Materialien z. Übersetzen ins Englische v. Otto-Runge. 4. Aufl. . . 

Englische Chrestomathie v. Süpfle- Wright. 9. Aufl 

Handbuch englischer und deutscher Idiome v. Lange 

E^e SpracUehre und WOrterbach v. Seidel 

Eleine finnisehe Sprachlehre y. Neuhaus 

Franzdsisehe Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Otto-Runge. 28. Aufl. 

8chlü886l dazu y. Range 

Franz. Eony.-Lesebuch I. 10. Aufl., II. 5. Aufl. y. Otto-Runge. h . . 
Franz. Eony.-Leseb. f. Madchsch. y. Otto-Runge I. 5. Aufl., IL 3. Aufl. k 

Eleine franzdsische Sprachlehre y. Otto-Runge. 9. Aufl 

Schlñssel daza v. Range 

Materialien z. Übersetzen ins FranzOsische y. Runge 

FranzOsische Ge8pr3,che y. Otto-Runge. 8. Aufl 

Franzdsisches Lesebuch y. Süpfle. 11. Aufl 

Italieniselie Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Sauer. 12. Aufl. . . 

Schlttssel daza v. Cattaneo 

Italienisches Eonyersations-Lesebuch y. Sauer. 5. Aufl 

Italienische Chrestomathie y. Cattaneo. 3. Aufl 

Eleine italienische Sprachlehre y. Sauer. 10. Aufl 

Sohlússel dazu v. Cattaneo. 2. Aufl 

Italienische Gespnlche y. Sauer-Motti. 5. Aufl 

Übungsstücke zum Übers. a. d. Déutschen i. Ital. y. Lardelli. 5. Aufl. 

Japanische Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Plant 

Schlüssel dazu v. Plant . , 

Marokkanische Sprachlehre y. Seidel 

JVeiigriechische Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Fetraris .... 

Schlüssel daza y. Fetraris ^ 

Lehrbuch der neugriechischen Volksspraohe v. Petraris 

BiiederlM.ndisc]ie Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Valette. 2. Aufl. 

Schlüssel daza y. Valette 

Niederlándisches Eony.-Lesebuch v. Valette. 2. Aufl 

Eleine niederlándische Sprachlehre v. Valette. 3. Aufl 

Polniscke Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Wicherkiewicz. 3. Aufl. . 
Schlüssel daza y. Wicherkiewicz. 3. Aufl 

Portuffiesisclie Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Ey 

Schlüssel aazu v. Ey 

Eleine portugiesische Sprachlehre y. Eordgien-Ey. 4. Aufl. . . . 

Bnssische Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Fuchs. 5. Aufl 

Schlüssel daza v. Fachs. 5. Aufl 

Russisches Eonyersations-Lesebuch y. Werkhaupt 

Eleine russische Sprachlehre y. Motti. 2. Aufl 

Schlüssel daza v. Motti. 2. Aufl 

ISckwedisdie Eonyersations-Grammatik v. Walter. 2. Aufl. . 

Schlüssel dazu v. Walter. 2. Aufl 

Eleine schwedische Spradilehre y. Fort. 2. Aufl. ....!! . 

ISpanisdie Eonyersations-Grammatik y. Sauer-Ruppert.r^^ Aufl. 
Schlüssel daza v. Ruppert. 3. Aufl nigi^^ V»00. 


JoliuB GroOB. London. Paris. Rome. St. Petersbargh. Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

for the stody of modern laAgaages. 

Spanisches Lesebuch v. Arteaga . . 

ETieine spanische Spracblehre v. Saner. 7. Aufl 

Schliissel dasu v. Buuge. 2. Aufl 

Spanisclie Ge8pr9.che v. Sauer. 3. Aufl 

Spanische Rektionsliste v. Sauer-Kordgien 

8aahili Eonversations-Qrammatik v. Seidel . . . . 

Schlüssel daza v. Seidel 

Suahili WOrterbuch v. Seidel 

Tsdiechische Eonyersations-Grammatik v. Maschner. 
Sohlñssel daza v. Maschner 

Tfirkisehe Eonversations-Grammatik v. Jehlitsclika . 

Schlüssel daza v. Jehlitschka 

Eleine mis^ariselie Sprachlehre v. Nagy. 2. Aufl. . 

Schlüssel daza v. Nagy 

Ungarische Chrestomathie v. Eont 

7. Éd. 


Frencli Edltioiis, 

Grammaire allemande par Otto-Nicolas. 18. Éd. . 
Corrige des themes de la Grammaire allemande par Otto-Nicplas. 
Petite grammaire allemande par Otto-Vcrrier. 10. Éd. . . . 
Lectures allemandes par Otto. I. 7. Éd., II. 5. Éd., III. 2. Éd. 

Erates deutsches Lesebuch von Verrier 

Conversations allemandes par Otto-Verrier. 5. Éd 

Grammaire an^^laise par Mauron- Verrier. 10. Éd 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire aoglaise par Maaron- Verrier. 6. Éd. . . 

Petite grammaire anglaise par Mauron. 7. Éd 

Lectures anglaises par Mauron. 3. Éd 

Conversations anglaises par Corkran. 2. Éd 

Grammaire árabe par Armez 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire árabe par Armez 

Chrestomathie árabe par Harder 

La langue cong^olaise par Seidel-Struyf 

Grammaire ^recqiie par Capos 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire grecqae par Capos 

Petite grammaire hongroine par Eont 

Corrige des themes de la petite grammaire hongroise par Kont 

Chrestomathie hongroise par Eont 

Grammaire italienne par Sauer. 11. Éd 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire itaUenne par Sauer. 7.Éd 

Petite grammaire italienne par Motti. 4. £d 

Chrestomathie italienne par Cattoneo. 2. Éd 

Conversations italiennes par Motti. 2. Éd 

Grammaire Japonaise par Plaut 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire japouaise par Plaut 

Grammaire néerlandaise par Valette. 2. Éd 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire néerlandaise par Valette 

Lectures néerlandaises par Valette. 2. Éd 

Grammaire portüs^aise par Armez 

Corrige de la Grammaire portugaise par Armez 

Grammaire russe par Puchs-Nicolas. 4. Éd 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire rasse par Fuchs-Kioolas. 4. Éd. . . . 

Petite grammaire russe par Motti. 2. Éd 

Corrige des themes de la petite grammaire ruase par Motti. 2. Édr^. . t . 
Lectures russea par Werkhaupt et Roller . , . ^qtzed by v^pO^lC , 














1 30 
— «o 

- 170 
I — 





1 40 

2 10 

- I 70 

- i 70 

- I 35 

1 130 
1 30 

- 60 

- 70 

- 70 

- i 65 

2! 10 

- ! 70 
1 70 

- 60 
1 ~ 

1 ,60 

_ ' tío 
1 75 

- 70 

- 70 

- 30 


Jalins Oróos, London. Paris. Rome. St. Fetersbnrsli Hoidolbersr. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of moAttn langiages. 

JFVench Kiditioii». — ^ 

Qrammaire espaJj^nole par 8auer-Serrano. 6. Éd ii I 

Ck>iTi^ ám thémM de la gimmm. eipa^ pt^ Saner-Serrano. 5. Éd. . . . , — 

Petite gprammaire espagnole par Tanty. 2. Ed — 

Leotores espagnoles par Arteaga |' 1 

Petite grammaire Sliédoise par Fort | — 

Qreelg Editions, 

Kleine deniselie Spraohlehre fOr Griechen yon Maltes . , . 

Deutsche Oesprftclie mr Grieohen von Maltes 

Kleine englisehe Sprachlelire für Griechen von Deffner . . . 

Ita.lia>ii ISditioiiLS, 

Grammatica firancese di Motti. 3. £d 

Chiave d«Ua grammatica firancese di Motti. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementare francese di Sauer-Motti. 4. Ed. . . . 

Letture francesi di Le Boucher 

Grammatica del Greco volgare di Palumbo 

Grammatica inglese di Pavia. 6. Ed. 

Cbiave della grammatica inglese di Pavia. 3. Ed 

Grammatica elementare inglese di Pavia. 3. Ed 

Letture inglesi di Le Boucher 

Grammatica elementare portog^hese di Palumbo 

Grammatica mssa di Motti 

Chiave della grammatica masa di Motti 

Grammatica Bpag:niiola di Pavia. 3. Ed 

Chiave della Grammatica spagnnola di Pavia. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementare spagnuola di Pavia. 3. Ed. 

Grammatica elementare «védese di Pereira 

Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 8. Ed 

Chiave della Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 4. Ed 

Grammatica elementare tedesca di Otto. 6. Ed 

Letture tedesche di Otto. 5. Ed 

Antología tedesca di Verdaro 

Conversazioni tedesche di Motti. 2. Ed 

Avviamento al trad, dal ted. in ital. di Lardelli. 5. Ed. . . . 

JOntcli Editions, 

Kleine fingelselie Spraakkunst door Coster 

Kleine Fransche Spraakkunst door Welbergen 

Kleine filoogdllitselie Grammatica door Schwippei-t. 2. Dr. . 
Kleine ISpaanselie Spraakkunst door van Haaff 

Sleutel bij de kleine Spaansche Spraakkunst door van Haaff 

FoUshi Edition, 
Kleine dentselie Sprachlehre für Polen von Paulus .... 
Foytng-nese Editions. 




I ,60 

— 60 

— 70 


— 1 60 




Grammatica alienta por Otto-Prév6t. 3. Ed 

Chave da Grammatica allemá por Otto-Prév6t. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementar allema por Prévót-Pereira. 3. Ed. 


















Julius Oróos. London. Paris. Rome. St. Petersburgli. Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Portuguese Editiong» 

Livro de leitura inglesa por Le Boucher 

Grammatioa francesa por Tanty-Yasconcellos. 2. Ed. ... 

Chave da OrammatiGa francesa por Tanty-Yasconoellos. 2. Ed 

Livro de leitura francesa por Le Boucher 

Grammatica elementar sueca por Pereira 

R>oixiiia.ii Ed-itions, 

Gramática irermana de Leist 

Cheea gramancií germane de Leist 

Elemente de gramaticS germana de Leist. 2. Ed 

Gonversatíun! germane de Leist. 2. Ed 

Gramática francesa de Leist 

Cheea gramaticil francese de Leist 

Elemente de gramática francesS. de Leist. 2. Ed 

Gonversa^iiml francese de Leist. 3. Ed Editions* 

£n^lish Grammar for Russians by Hauff 

Key to the English Grammar for Russians hy Hauff 

French Grammar for Russians by Malkiel 

Key to the French Grammar for Russians by Malkiel 

German Grammar for Russians by Hauff 

Key to the German Grammar for Russians by Hauff 

Italian Grammar for Russians by Mo2ejko 

Key to the Italian Grammar for Russians by Mozejko 

Japanese Grammar for Russians by Plaut-Issacovitch . . . 
Key to the Japanese Grammar for Russians by Plaut-Issacovitch .... EkJitions^ 

Elementary English Grammar for Servians by Petrovitch . . 
Petite grammaire firan^aise pour Serbes par Petrovitch . . . 

Svredislr Edition, 
Kleine dentsclie Sprachlehre fur Schweden von Walter . . . 

Spaiiodsh. Editions, 

Gramática alemana por Ruppert. 3. Ed 

Clave de la Gram&tica alemana por Ruppert. 3. Ed 

Gramática elemental alemana por Otto-Ruppert. 7. Ed 

Gramática in|^lesa por Pavia. 2. Ed 

Clave de la Gram&tica Inglesa por Pavia. 2. Ed 

Gramática sucinta de la lengua inglesa por Pavia. 5. Ed. . . . 

Libro de lectura inglesa por Le Boucher 

Gramática francesa por Tanty-Arteaga. 2. Ed 

Clave de la Gramática francesa por Tanty-Arteaga. 2. Ed 

Gramática sucinta de la lengua francesa por Otto. 5. Ed. . . . 

Libro de lectura francesa por Le Boucher 

Gramática sucinta de la lengua italiana por Pavia. 4. Ed. . 

Gramática sucinta de la lengua rusa por d'Arcais 

OlaYe de la Gramática sucinta rusa por d' Arcáis 

Tchecli Eclition, 
Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fílr Tschechen von*¿8étee9^^ . 

Jnlius 8rooa, London. París. Koiue. 8t. Potorshnrch. Holdellwn-. 

Method Oaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the stnij of nodera languages. 

Tixrfeish EkJitions, 

KleÍDe deutsehe Spraclilehre fur Türken yion Wely Bey-BoUand 
Deutflches Lesebnoh fllr Türken von Wely Bey-Bolland 

Conyersation-Books by Connor 
in two languages: 

English-German. 2. Ed. 
English-French. 2. Ed. 
English-Italian. 2. Ed. 
English-Rnssian . . . 
English-Spanish . . . 
English-Swedish . . . 
Deiitsch-D9,nÍ8ch . . . 
Deutsch-PranzSsisch. 2. Ed. . — 
Dentsch-Italienisch . . 
Deutsch-Portugiesisch . 

in three languages: 

English-German-French. 14. Ed 

in four languages: 

English-German-French-Italian. 2. Ed. . . 














¡~ 70 

— 70 



Dentsch-Rossisch . 
Dentsoh-Spanisch . 
Deutsch-Türkisch . 
Fran^ais-Italien . 
Fran9ais-Ra8se . 

Oerman Language by Becker • 

I§(paiii8h Commercial Correspondence by Arteaga y Pereira 

D&nisclier Sprachführer von Forchhammer 

Bichtige Aussprache d. Mosterdeutschen v. Dr. E. Dannheisser, br* 

£iigli8Che Handelskorrespondenz v. Arendt. 2. Anfl • 

Karze franzdsische Grammatik von H. Range 

Franz. SprachL f. Handelssch. v. Dannheisser, Küffher u. Offenmüller 
Italienische kaufm. Eorresp.-Gramm. v. Dannheisser u. Sauer. 2. Anfl. 

Schlttssel dazu v. DanDheisser 

II correttore italiano von Mayo-Gelati 

Anleitun^ z. deutselieii, franz., eiia:!. u. ital. GeschEffcs- 

bnefen von Oberholzer u. Osmond, br 

IS^paniselie Handelskorrespondenz von Arteaga y Pereira . . . 
Kleines spanisches Lesebuch f. Handelsschalen v. Ferrades-Langeheldt 

Langue allemande par Becker 

Le danois parlé par Forchhammer 

Correspondance commerciale espaa^nole par Arteaga y Pereira . 
Lengua alemana de Becker 

The Publisher is untiringly engaged in extending the range of educa- 
tional works issuing from his Press. A number of new books are now in 
course of preparation. 

The new editions are constantly improved and kept up to date. 

Digitized by VjOO^IC 

Julius ftrooi, London. Parlg. Borne. St. Peteraburgh. Heidellrarg.